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Physical Science Survey Midterm 1/72 all Final
Terms in this set (178)
What is a scientific law?
Laws that describe nature.
What is the scientific method?
A method use to investigate phenomena and find answers.
What are the standard metric units for length, mass, and time?
Length- meter (M), Mass-Kilogram (kg), Time-Second (s)
What is the metric prefix for 1000? For 1/100?
What is an example of a nonstandard metric unit?
Give an example of an equivalence statement.
1 in has an equivalent length of 2.54 cm
Give examples of possible units of mass density.
When you multiply or divide two numbers, say the two numbers are 1.88 and 4.5, how many significant figures should the answer have.
What is the significant figure rule for adding or subtracting two numbers?
Leave the same number of decimal places in the answer as there are in the quantity with the least number of significant places.
Mass / Volume
Prefix for 1/1000, Prefix for 1,000,000
Label the following vectors or scalars? Acceleration, Velocity, Displacement, Speed
A scalar quantity has only what?
magnitude ( a numerical value and unit of measurement).
A vector quantity has both
Magnitude and directions
What is the difference between average velocity and instantaneous velocity?
Average velocity is the displacement divided by the total travel time and instantaneous velocity is velocity at any instant of time.
What are the units of accelerations?
(m/s)/s or m/s^2
Describe the velocity for a freely falling object as it falls.
The velocity of a freely falling object increases 9.80 m/s each second.
If an object is moving at constant speed and is not changing directions, what can you say about its acceleration?
Its acceleration is constant
If an object is in free fall, its acceleration is 9.8m/s^2. How is the object velocity changing each second?
The velocity also increases 9.8 m/s each second
The time rate of change of velocity.
Why is it that an object in uniform circular motion is said to have centripetal (center-seeking) acceleration?
Because the object is velocity is changing (direction change) toward the center of the circular path.
If an object is moving at constant speed in a circle, why is it accelerating?
Because it is changing direction.
What is Newton's First Law?
An object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless acted on by an external, unbalanced force.
What is inertia?
The natural tendency of an object to remain in a state of rest or in uniform motion in a straight line. (Mass is a measure of inertia. The greater the mass of an object, the greater its inertia.)
What is Newton's Second Law?
If an external, unbalanced force is required to produce a change in velocity , then an external, unbalanced force causes an acceleration.
What is the difference between mass and weight?
Mass is the amount of matter an object contains (also the measure of inertia) and weight is related to the force of gravity.
What is Newton's Third Law?
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
How does Newton's Third Law explain rocket motion?
The exhaust gas from the rocket exert equal and opposite forces on each other and so are accelerated in the opposite direction.
Mass x acceleration (newton)
What is work?
The work done by a constant force acting on an object is the product of the magnitude of the force and the parallel distance through which the object moves while the force is applied. (scalar)
If you lift an object, what kind of work are you doing?
work against gravity
When work is done by a system, what happens to the energy of the system?
The energy in the system decreases.
Of what does mechanical energy consist?
Kinetic and potential energy
What is kinetic energy?
the energy an object possesses because of its motion, or simply stated, it is the energy of motion. (measured in joules)
What is potential energy?
the energy an object has because of its position or location, or more simply, it is the energy of position.
Force x parallel distance (newton-meter or joule)
What is measured in Watts? What are the units of a Watt?
What is measured in kilowatt hours?
Which of the following are vectors and which are scalars? power, energy, work
In what form is the largest reserve of energy in the United States?
A pendulum eventually stops oscillating. What happened to its kinetic energy and potential energy?
The energy end up as heat due to friction.
work / time
What are the three methods of heat transfer?
Conduction - the transfer of heat by molecular collisions.
Convection - the transfer of heat by the movement of a substance, or mass, form one place to another
Radiation - the process of transferring energy by means of electromagnetic waves.
What is an example of heat transfer by conduction?
A cooking pot on a stove.
What are the three common phases of matter?
Solid - definite shape and volume
Liquid - definite volume but no definite shape
Gas - no definite shape or volume
Describe what a gas is made up of?
A gas is made up of rapidly moving molecules and assumes the size and shape of its container.
What is the development of physics before 1911 called?
classical physics or Newtonian physics
What is the development of physics after 1911 called?
What was Thomson's model of the atom called and why?
"plum pudding model" because Thomson concluded that an atom was much like a sphere of plum pudding; electrons were the raisins stuck randomly in an otherwise homogeneous mass of positively charged pudding.
In general, what process in the atom produces a spectral line?
What specific process in the atom produces a spectral emission line?
What is the principle quantum number and what does it describe?
It labels the orbits around the neuclues. n=1 is the ground state. the orbits move outward and get farther apart with increasing values of n.
What does laser stand for?
Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.
How does a microwave oven heat food?
Because all foods contain moisture, their water molecules absorb microwave radiation, thereby gaining energy and heating the food.
What is Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle?
The idea that it is impossible to know a particle's exact position and velocity simultaneously.
To what king of objects does Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle apply?
to particles of atomic or subatomic size
What are deBroglie waves?
Waves associated with moving particles.
What kind of device allows us to image atoms and molecules?
How do you find the mass number of a nuclide?
It's the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus: th total number of nucleons.
What are isotopes?
Isotopes are like member of a family. They have eh same atomic number and the same element name, but hey are distinguishable by the number of neutrons in the nuclei.
What percentage of the mass of the atom is the nucleus?
Who discovered the nucleus of the atom?
When the nucleus emits an alpha particle, what happens to the mass number and the atomic number?
The mass number decrease by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2
If a radioactive sample decreases its activity form 2000 cpm to 1000 cpm in 10 minutes, what is its activity after another 20 minutes?
After 2 half-lives have gone by, what fraction of the original radionuclide remains?
What does a Geiger counter measure?
ions formed as a result of high-energy particles from a radioactive source entering the window and ionizing argon atoms along its path
What is nuclear fission?
The process in which a large nucleus "splits" (fissions) into two intermediate-size nuclei, with the emission of neutrons and the conversion of mass into energy.
What is a chain reaction?
one initial reaction triggers a growing number of subsequent reactions
What is critical mass?
The minimum amount of fissionable material necessary to sustain a chain reaction.
What kind of fuel will be used for nuclear fusion reactors in the future?
What is nuclear fusion?
The process in which smaller nuclei combine to form larger ones with the release of energy.
What does it mean to say that a reaction is endoergic?
it means there has been an increase in mass (energy was absorbed)
"Father of Chemistry"?
Most common element in the Earth's crust?
In a solution, the substance present in the largest amount is called the
The allotrope of oxygen called ozone has the chemical formula
Who developed the periodic table
Dmitri Mendeleev (Russian chemist 1869)
Atoms of elements of Group 4A contains how many valence electrons.
4(correlates to group number)
What characteristic distringuishes an element from a compound?
A compound is comprised of two or more elements chemically combined.
What is a solute?
something dissolved in a solvent.
How many elements are known at present?
118 and 88 occure naturally
The elements in the periodic table are place in order by the?
The atomic number. Formally the atomic mass was used.
Which type of electons are used in forming chemical bonds?
Elements in a given group have similar chemical properties because
they have the same number of valence electrons.
Classify the following materials as an element, compound, heterogeneous mixture, or homogeneous mixture:Air, water, diamond, soil
Name the elements "N", "K", "Zn".
N-Nitrogen K-Potassium Zn-Zinc
What froce is responsible for chemical bonding?
How many tatal atoms is in the formula (NH4)3PO4?
An atom that has gained an electon is called a
When bonding, a hydrogen atom tends to get how many electons in its valence shell?
The atomic mass standard is?
The octet rule.
Atoms tend to get eight electons in the outer shell when forming compunds with the exceptions of hyrdrogen.
Covalent compounds are formed when
electons are shared and molecules are produced.
A covalent bond in which the electon pair is unequally shared is called by what name?
Polar Covalent bond
When iron rust in the presence of oxygen and water, what is occurring?
What does a catalyst do to the activation energy of a chemical reaction?
lowers the activation energy to start the reaction.
A base solution has a pH more than what?
A acid solution has a pH less than what
Water is a neutral solution with a pH of what?
What is the difference between pH levels I.E pH4 to pH3?
One mole of hyrdrogen peroxide, H2O2, whould consist of how mandy molecules?
A balance chemical reaction has what?
The same number of atoms of each element on each side of the equation.
A combination reaction has the format
In living systems, biological catalyst are called
Wha can increase the rate of a recation by providing a surface for the reaction.
What type of reaction is used to neutralize acid spills
Classify the changes as physical or chemical: Dissolving surgar in warter, crushing rock salt, burning sulfer, digesting a chili dog.
Dissolving surgar in water-physical change
crushing rock salt- physical change
burning sulfer-chemical change
digesting a chili dog-chemical change
It conduct electicity
It chages the colar of litmus dye from blue to red
It tastes sour
It reacts with a base to neutralize its properties
It reacts with active metals to liberate hyrdogen gas.
It conducts electricity.
It changes the coloar of litmus from red to blue
It reacts with an acid to neutralize its properties.
What must a coordinate system have?
an indicated origin and a scale with units
When is the sun overhead on a person's meridian at local time?
How does a solar day compare with a sidereal day?
A solar day is 4 minutes longer than a sidereal day.
A sextant is used to measure what?
the longest day occures in the sourther hemisphere during the
A cartesian coordinate system is als called what?
a rectangular coordinate system
Positions north and south of the equator are designated by what?
East and west of the prime meridian are designated by what?
the angle of the sun above the horizon is called whtat
The vernal equinox indicates the beginning of what?
Min and Max of latitude and longitude
latitude 0-90 longitude 1-180
What is the latitude and longitude of the North Pole
What is the standard unit of time, and how is the length of a day defined?
(UTC) Coordinated Universal Time, The sun crossing the Prime Meridian
The scientific study fo the universe.
The scientist of discovered the true phases of Venus.
Characteristics of terrestiral plantes.
composed of rocks and metals and high density
Jovian planets are mostly what?
Hydrogen and helium
The planets evolved most directly from.
The modal the considers the Earth as the center of the universe.
The long axis of an ellipse is the
Whe the Earth and Mars are in line on the same side of the Sun, they are siad to be in.
The Earth has a albedo of
Why can't we see the surface of Venus?
Because of its dense carbon dioxide clouds.
The outer plantes are known as
The solar system was createdfrom what?
The condesation theory suggest that
gravity of the nebula acted on itself and flattened the system into a spiral disk
List the terrestrial planets in order of increasing distance from the sun
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
List the Jovian planets in order of increasing distance from the Sun.
Jupiter, Saturan, Uranus, Neptune
Most craters on the Moon are believed to be cause by what?
What is the oldest type of surface on the Moon?
What is the approximate time between new and full moons?
During a total eclipse of the Sun, the center of totality goes across the surface of the Earth in which directions?
west to east
The two daily high tides are due mainly to which of the following?
the differential gravitational attraction of the Moon because of the inverse-square relationship
When do spring tides on the Earth take place?
near the times of full and new moons
How many Galilean moons are there?
Which of the following is the largest moon in the solar system?
Which are the four Galilean moons of Jupiter?
Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto
The Cassini- Huygens probe successfully landed on what Moon.
Smooth, dark regions of the moon?
To see a total eclipse, an observer must be what part of the Moon's shadow.
How many moons do Venus have?
How many moons do Mars have?
The Galilean moon with volcanic activity is what?
A meteoroid that strikes the Earth is called
What is the Moon's orbital period? What is its rotation period?
The orbital period of the Moon is 29.5 days.
What is the penumbra area.
The area the experiences a partial solar eclipse
Spring tides occur when?
During a full and new moon
Neap tides occur when?
During the first-quarter moon and the last-quarter moon.
Short period comets come from
the Kuiper Belt
Long-period comets come from
the Oort cloud
The moons gravity is what fraction of Earths.
How many days are there in 12 lunar months.
The part of the Sun's structure that we see in visible light is
At the end of the Sun's life, what kind of object will remain?
White dwarf star
The Milky Way is classified as what kind of galaxy
What key observation led Hubble to conclude that the universe is expanding?
The redshift of light from distant galaxies.
The Sun's energy comes from the fusion of hydrogen into
Type M stars are what color.
The diagonal group of stars on an H-R diagram is called the
The most catastrophic of stellar explosions is called a
One parsec equals how many light-years
What is the approximate temperature of the Sun at its surface?
Apparent magnitude of a star is the
magnitude observed from Earth
Absolute magnitude is defined as the
brightness a star would have if it were placed 10 pc from the Earth.
A type I supernova results from
the destruction of a white dwarf with a carbon-oxygen core
A type II supernova results from
the collapse of a iron core of a massive red super giant.
The greater the recessional velocity of a galaxy, the farther away the galaxy.
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