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APUSH Chapter 9-10 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (51)
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a
The last four of the Presidents from Virginia. (Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe) The people wondered if all of the presidents were going to be from Virginia. This
1803 - The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
Jefferson's idea of nation of yeomen farmers, each secure in possessions and not dependent on anyone
Marbury vs Madison
Case in which the supreme court first asserted the power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional. (Established Judicial Review.)
American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of judicial review.
Lewis and Clark
1804-1806 - Lewis and Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
1807 act which ended all of America's importation and exportation. Jefferson hoped the act would pressure the French and British to recognize U.S. neutrality rights in exchange for U.S. goods. Really, however, just hurt Americans and our economy and got repealed in 1809.
1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.
a famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement (1768-1813)
A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. Favored strict interpretation of the Constitution. 4TH PRESIDENT
Southerners and Westerners (Congressmen) who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
War of 1812
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Was an event in 1814-1815 in the United States during the War of 1812 in which New England's opposition to the war reached the point where secession from the United States was discussed. Was not taken seriously since war was nearly over.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S. Increases nationalism in America.
(1817-1821) and (1821-1825) The Missouri Compromise in 1821., the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825).His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida (1819); the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which Missouri was declared a slave state; and the profession of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), declaring U.S. opposition to European interference in the Americas
Era of good feelings
-No political division
-Government was diverse in the Cabinet
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence. Mostly just a show of nationalism.
1819 treaty between the United States and Spain in which Spain ceded Florida to the United States for $5 million.
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states. Caused Sectionalism (civil war)
Henry Clay's American System
Plan for economic growth: establish a protective tariff to promote american manufacturing, establish a national bank to stabilize the national economy, and improve the country's transporation system/ internal improvements in order to grow economically
Corrupt Bargain of 1824
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Universal manhood suffrage
giving all adult white men the right to vote. Even the common man.
(1829-1833) and (1833-1837), Indian removal act, nullification crisis, Old Hickory," first southern/ western president," President for the common man," pet banks, spoils system, specie circular, trail of tears, Henry Clay Flectural Process.
Andrew Jackson's practice of rewarding his political supporters with government jobs. Friends get job based on who they know instead of qualifications
Loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole. Led to the civil war based on issue of slavery
America's country very first common-carrier railroad (meaning a railroad chartered specifically for public use) being officially incorporated and organized in 1827.
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. It passed because New England favored high tariffs.
1832-33 was over the tariff policy of the Fed. Gov't, during Jackson's presidency which prompted South Carolina to threaten the use of NULLIFICATION, possible secession and Andrew Jackson's determination to end with military force.
Worcester v. Georgia
Does the state of Georgia have the authority to regulate the intercourse between citizens of its state and members of the Cherokee Nation?
No. the Court held that the Georgia act, under which Worcester was prosecuted, violated the Constitution, treaties, and laws of the United States. Federal Government has control of the natives and not the states
Indian Removal Act
(1830) a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River
Trail of tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank. Results in bank wars which leads to the panic of 1837.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president he put all of the money from the national bank into state banks. A job of the national bank is to give out loans, instead that job was given to the state banks and they gave out to many loans and many people couldnt pay them back so they lost out on money and the economy went down.
..., conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster
Martin Van Buren
(1837-1841) Advocated lower tariffs and free trade, and by doing so maintained support of the south for the Democratic party. He succeeded in setting up a system of bonds for the national debt. 8th President
William Henry Harrison
was an American military leader, politician, the 9th President and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief Constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
Elected Vice President in 1840 and became the 10th President of the United States when William Henry Harrison died.
He developed an electric telegraph which allowed information to be transferred from one place to another by means of a strung wire using a dot-slash code. This was an early form of quick communication that helped connect people regardless of distance.
the act of making or enacting laws
having the function of carrying out plans or orders etc.
marked by the exercise of good judgment or common sense in practical matters
1794- british and us agreed- british trade w/ americans and the british leave northwest territory. Caused conflict with france... why trade with britain and not us.
Washingtons farewell adress
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
(1797-1801) The 11th Amendment is added to the Constitution in 1798. Washington D.C. becomes America's official capitol in 1800., He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters. The letter representation showed that they were insignificant to the US
Alien and Sedition Acts
1798 Act that criminalized speech that was derisive to the government. Later ruled unconstitutional... Passed by Adams the second president
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Statements of principle adopted by two state legislatures in the 1790s; they affirmed states' rights in response to the federal Alien and Sedition Acts. James Madison wrote the Virginia Resolutions, and Thomas Jefferson wrote the Kentucky Resolutions. Jefferson's draft of the Kentucky Resolutions included the statement that nullification was an appropriate course of action for a state in the face of a dangerous increase in the strength of the federal government. Although the Kentucky legislature approved most of his draft, it did not adopt this statement. Used as an excuse for seceding in the civil war.
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