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102 terms

Bio112 A&P chapter 5 study guide

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Each of the following is a function of the integumentary system, except
Answer- synthesis of vitamin c
-functions include
*maintenance of body temperature
*protection of underlying issues
*excretion of salts and wastes
*provision of sensation
The two components of the integumentary system are the
cutaneous membrane and accessory structures
The type of cells that form the strata in the epidermis are
keratinocytes
The tough "horny" superficial layer of the epidermis is known as the
stratum corneum
Large quantities of keratin are found in the epidermal layer called
stratum corneum
Water loss due to evaporation of fluid that has penetrated through the skin is termed
insensible
The layer of the epidermis that contains abundant desmosomes is the
stratum spinosum
The layer of the skin the provides a barrier against bacteria as well as chemical and mechanical injuries is the
epidermis
Characteristics of the epidermis include
Answer- all the above
*flexible
*contains desmosomes
*serves as UV radiation protection
*multilayered
All of the following are true of epidermal ridges except that they
Answer-contain increased numbers of free nerve endings
What is true-
*interconnect with the dermal papillae
*cause ridge patterns on the surface skin
*produce patterns that are genetically determined
*extend to the dermis
________are cells in the epidermis that are part of the immune system
Dendritic cells
Water loss from insensible perspiration
is neglible
the epidermis of the skin is composed of which type of tissue
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
The layer of stem cells that constantly divide to renew the epidermis is the
stratum germinativum
The protein that reduces water loss in the skin is
keratin
Thin-skin contains______layer(s) of keratinocytes, and thick skin contains______layers.
4;5
While walking barefoot on the beach, Joe stepped on a thorn that penetrated through the sole of his foot to the dermis. How many layers of the epidermis did the thorn penetrate
5
The primary pigments contained in the epidermis are
carotene and melanin
An albino individual lacks the ability to produce
melanin
All of the following are true of the pigment melanin, except that it
Answer-decreases in concentration within cells during exposure to the sun
What is true-
*protects DNA front the damaging effects of UV radiation
*is produced by cells called melanocytes
*is usually some shade of brown or black
*is produced from the amino acid tryosine
Cyanosis signifies that a patient
has oxygen-starved skin
Jaundice is indicated by
a yellowish skin coloration
Exposure to ultraviolet light(sunlight) causes the skin to darken by increasing the production of
melanin
The _____in keratinocytes protects the epidermis and the dermis from harmful effects of sunlight
melanin
Which of the following is not an effect of ultraviolet radiation
vitiligo
An important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight is
vitamin d
Types of skin cancers include
squamous cell carcinoma
malignant melanoma
basal cell carcinoma
Which of the following statements about rickets is not true
Answer-is usually genetic
What is true-
*prevented by sunlight
*leads to skeletal deformity
*prevented by vitamin D
*leads to weak bones
Children in northern regions experience months of inadequate sunlight exposure to the skin. To prevent possible abnormal bone development, what essential organic nutrient is necessary in the diet
cholecaciferol
Epidermal growth factor exerts which of theses effects not he epidermis
accelerates tissue repair
stimulates keratin synthesis
speeds up glandular function
promotes cell division
The layer of skin that contains the blood vessels and nerves that are closest to the surface of the skin is the _______layer
papillary
The layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength of the skin is the _______layer.
reticular
The protein that permits stretching and recoiling of the skin is
elastin
Skin inflammation that primarily involves the papillary layer is termed
papillitis
A surgical incision parallel to the lines of cleavage
requires no sutures
While assessing a patient, you discover that after pinching the skin on the back of the hand, it remains peaked. This is a sign of
dehydration
Stretch marks occur when
the skin is so extensively stretched that its elastic limits are exceeded
From what structure does sensible perspiration occur
10- which is sweat gland
Which layer is the primary barrier against environmental hazards
1-epidermis
Which layer contains most of the accessory structures
3-Dermis
An intradermal injection is administered into which layer
dermis
Which tissue is located in the region labeled "2"
areolar connective tissue
All of the following are true of the subcutaneous layer, except
Answer-*is attached to the dermis by a basement membrane
What is true-
*permits independent movement of deeper structures
*is well supplied with nerves that pass into the skin
*contains many blood vessels
*contains large amounts of adipose tissue
Accessory structures of the skin include all of the following, except
epidermis
The layer of hard keratin that coats the hair is termed the
cuticle
Variations in hair color reflect differences in the pigment produced by
melanocytes
Lanugo is found
on a fetus
If the papilla of a hair follicle is destroyed
the hair matrix will lose its blood supply
Which statement about hairs is false
Answer- club hairs are ingrown hairs
what is true
*Terminal hairs are in the axilla
*A terminal hair can detach but remain in the hair follicle as a club hair
*Eyebrows are terminal hairs
*Vellus hairs are on the limbs of children until puberty
When the arrector pili muscles contract
hairs are erect
Each of the following statements concerning hair is true, except one
Answer-scalp hairs grow consistently throughout life.
What is true
*Terminal hairs are heavy and darkly pigmented
*The cortex of the hair is composed of hard keratin
*club hair is hair that has ceased growing
*medulla is the soft part of the hair
A common cause of dandruff is
inflammation around sebaceous glands
Glands that discharge an oily secretion into hair follicles are____glands
sebaceous
The____ glands in the axilla become active at the time of puberty
apocrine sweat
sensible perspiration is produced by____glands
merocrine
Earwax is produced by ____glands
ceruminous
Merocrine sweat contains _____to protect against bacteria
dermicidin
The highest concentration of merocrine sweat glands is found
on the palms of the hands
Each of the following statements concerning sebaceous glands and sebum's true, except one
Answer- most sebaceous glands are coiled tubular glands.
What is true
-Most sebaceous glands open into hair follicles
-sebum functions to lubricate the hair and skin
-sebum can function as an antibiotic
____sweat glands are widely distributed across the body surface,____glands are located wherever hair follicles exist, and ____sweat glands are found only in a few areas
Merocrine;sebaceous;apocrine
Which of the following happens if he body temperature rises above normal
Blood flow to the skin increases
Merocrine sweat glands
secrete a watery fluid directly onto the surface of the skin
All of the following ae true of perspiration produced by merocrine sweat glands, except one
Answer-produces the body odor characteristic of "sweating"
What is true
*helps to prevent bacteria from colonizing the skin
*contains electrolytes and date products
*is more than 99% percent water
*helps cool the body when it evaporates
The nail body covers
nail bed
Nail production occurs at the nail
root
The cuticle around the nail is
eponychium
The stratum corneum just under the free edge of a nail is the
hyponychium
A child who skins his knee in a fall has
abrasion
In a penetrating wound, _____divide to produce mobile cells that repair the dermis
fibroblasts
The type of burn that may require a skin graft is a
third-degree burn
If a fair-skinned person is sunburned , why does his or her skin turn red
The blood flow to the skin increases?
Skin can regenerate effectively even after considerable damage has occurred because
Stem cells persist in both epithelial and connective tissue components of eh skin after injury
The following are stages in the regeneration of skin following an injury
blood clot/scab
cellular migration
epidermis covers granulation tissue
epidermis covers scar tissue
Scar tissue is the result of
large numbers of collagen fibers and relatively few blood vessels in the injured area
During repair of the integument, fibroblasts follow areas of new capillary growth and produce____tissue.
granulation
Treatment of full thickness burns includes which of the following
assisting tissue repair
increasing caloric intake
replacing fluids
preventing infection
Charlie is burned badly in and accident. His hair follicle can be removed front he skin with forceps easily. what type of burn does he have
third degree
A full thickness burn injury can life threatening. A physician treating a burn victim would likely order all of the following except
Answer-ice packs applied to burn area
What is true
*A high calorie diet
*skin grafts
*antibiotics
*IV fluids
The effects of aging on the skin include
a decline in the activity of sebaceous glands
Wrinkles in the elderly individuals are the result of
decreased thickness in the dermis
Why would an elderly person be more prone to skin infections than a younger person
The epidermis is thinner
Basal cell activity is reduced in the elderly
Skin repairs take longer in the elderly
There are fewer dendritic cells in the skin of the eldely
Accumulation of fluid within the epidermis or between the epidermis and the dermis are called
insensible
Rapid water loss from burned skin is an extreme form of _____perspiration
insensible
The pigment found in vegetables the can make the skin appear orange or yellow
carotene
Melanin is produced by melanocytes within the stratum
babsale
The skin appearance that results from dark hemoglobin is called
...
Four signs useful for determining if a suspicious mark on the skin is melanoma follow follow the ABCD mnemonic.
A-asymmetry
B-border
C-color
D-diameter
A deficiency disease that illustrates the effect of integumentary system function on the structure of the skeletal system____
rickets
The most dangerous type of skin cancer is termed
malignant melanomas
Vitamin D3 is important for proper____development
bone
Skin cancer that starts in the stratum germinative is called
basal cell carcinoma
A bruise turns black and blue because of the _____in the dermis
blood
The drug_____increases dermal blood flow and makes the skin red
...
Fine hairs"like velvet" that lack pigment and cover much of the body surface are called
vellus hairs
Coarse pigmented hairs are called
terminal hairs
The substance called sebum is commonly known as
oil
In the condition erythema the skin takes on a _____color
red
A thickened area of scar tissue that is covered by a shiny, smooth epidermal surface is called
keloid
A fibrin clot that is formed over a skin wound is called
scab
The combination of fibrin clot, fibroblasts, and extensive capillary network that is formed in injured skin is called
granulation tissue
If epithelial cell migration cannot cover a wound,______may be required
Skin grafts
A bacterial infection that is often fatal in burn patients is called
sepsis