State that emerged around the city of Kiev in the 9th century; a culturally diverse region that included vikings as well as Finnic and Baltic peoples.
System of Competing States
The distinctive organization of Western European political life that developed after the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century.
Grand Prince of Kiev whose conversion to Christianity led to the incorporation of Russia into the sphere of Eastern Orthodoxy
Scandinavian raiders who had an impact on much of Western Europe in the late 8th to 11th century
The scientific study of nature, which developed in the Middle Ages
Holy Roman Empire
The Germany-based empire founded by Otto in 962ce
The distinctive path of Western Europe in the centuries following the fall of the western Roman Empire, leading to a society that included elements of ancient Rome, the practices of Germanic invaders, Christianity, and elements of pre-Roman culture
The destruction of holy images; a term used most often to describe the Byzantine state policy of image destruction from 726-843
Byzantine emperor noted for his short lived reconquest of much of the former Western Roman Empire and for his codification of Roman law
A remission of the penalty for confessed sin that could be granted only by the pope.
Cyril and Methodius
9th century Byzantine missionaries to the Slavs whose development of Cyrillic script made it possible to write Slavic languages
Alphabet based on Greek letters that was developed by two Byzantine missionaries, Cyril and Methodius, to write Slavic languages
Western Europe saw a major process of urbanization beginning in the 11th century, with towns that created major trade networks and that were notable for the high degree of independence they often enjoyed
Form of liquid fire that could be sprayed at the enemy. Invented by the Byzantines and important in their efforts to halt Arab advance in Byzantine territory.
An association formed by people pursuing the same line of work that regulates their professions and also provides a social and religious network for members
Ruler of the Carolingian empire who staged an imperial revival in Western Europe
A term used to describe the holy wars waged by Western Christendom from 1095 until the end of the Middle Ages and beyond
Roman Catholic Christianity
Western European branch of Christianity that gradually defined itself as separate from Eastern Orthodoxy, with a major break in 1054ce that still has not been healed.
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Branch of Christianity that developed in the Eastern part of the Roman Empire and gradually separated from the branch of Christianity dominant in Western Europe
New capital city for the Eastern half of the Roman Empire, established in 330ce
The surviving eastern Roman Empire during the medieval centuries
A political religious system in which the secular ruler is also head of the religious establishment
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