English-Arabic Legal Vocabulary

871 terms by qmyra

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ABANDONMENT A parent's or custodian's act of leaving a child without adequate care, supervision, support, or parental contact for an excessive period of time. Also, the desertion of one spouse by the other with the intent to terminate the marriage relationship.

الإهمال المتعمد/ هجر

ABATEMENT OF ACTION A suit which has been quashed and ended.

سقوط الدعوى

ABROGATE To repeal or cancel an old law using antoher law or constitutional power

يلغي / يبطل

ABSTRACT A summary of a larger work, wherein the principal ideas of the larger work are contained.


ABSTRACT OF RECORD A short, abbreviated form of the case as found in the record.

خلاصة الدعوى أو السجل

ABSTRACT OF TITLE A chronological summary of all official records and recorded documents affecting the title to a parcel of real property.

موجز تاريخ الملكية

ABUSE (1) immoderate or improper use; (2) to do physical, sexual, or psychological harm to someone


ACCESSORY A person who aids or contributes in the commission of a crime.


ACCOMPLICE One who knowingly, voluntarily, and intentionally unites with the principal offender in the commission of a crime. A partner in a crime.


ACCORD A satisfaction agreed upon between the parties in a lawsuit which bars subsequent actions on the claim.

/إتفاق/ تراض/ تسوية

ACCORD AND SATISFACTION A method of discharging a claim upon agreement by the parties to give and accept something in settlement of the claim.

الإتفاق و مصالحة

ACCUSATION A formal charge against a person, to the effect that he has engaged in a punishable offense.


ACCUSED The generic name for the defendant in a criminal case.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT 1. A statement of acceptance of responsibility. 2. The short declaration at the end of a legal paper showing that the paper was duly executed and acknowledged.

إعتراف/ تسليم

ACQUIT To legally certify the innocence of one charged with a crime. To set free, release or discharge from an obligation, burden or accusation. To find a defendant not guilty in a criminal trial.


ACQUITTAL In criminal law, a finding of not guilty. In contract law, a release, absolution, or discharge from an obligation, liability, or engagement.

إبراء/ براءة

ACTION Case, cause, suit, or controversy disputed or contested before a court of justice.


ACTION IN PERSONAM An action against the person, founded on a personal liability. In contrast to action in rem, an action for the recovery of a specific object, usually an item of personal property such as an automobile.

دعوى شخصية

ACTION IN REM Proceeding "against the thing" as compared to personal actions (in personam). Usually a proceeding where property is involved.

دعوى عينية

AD LITEM A Latin term meaning for the purposes of the lawsuit. For example, a guardian ad litem is a person appointed by the court to protect the interests of a minor or legally incompetent person in a lawsuit.

آد ليتم- أهداف الدعوى القضائية

ADDITUR An increase by a judge in the amount of damages awarded by a jury.

زيادة الحاكم في مبلغ التعويض على الأضرار

ADJUDICATE To determine finally.


ADJUDICATION Giving or pronouncing a judgment or decree. Also the judgment given.


ADMINISTRATOR 1. One who administers the estate of a person who dies without a will. 2. A court official.

مدير تركة/ موضف قضائي

ADMISSIBLE Pertinent and proper to be considered in reaching a decision.


ADMISSIBLE EVIDENCE Evidence that can be legally and properly introduced in a civil or criminal trial.

دليل مقبول

ADMISSION Voluntary acknowledgment of the existence of certain facts relevant to the adversary's case.

قبول / إعتراف

ADMONISH To advise or caution. For example the Court may caution or admonish counsel for wrong practices.


ADOPTION To take into one's family the child of another and give him or her the rights, privileges, and duties of a child and heir.


ADVERSARY SYSTEM The trial method used in the U.S. and some other countries. This system is based on the belief that truth can best be determined by giving opposing parties full opportunity to present and establish their evidence, and to test by cross-examination the evidence presented by their adversaries. All this is done under the established rules of procedure before an impartial judge and/or jury.

نظام التنازع

AFFIANT A person who makes and signs an affidavit.

معطي الإفادة

AFFIDAVIT A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths. For example, in criminal cases, affidavits are often used by police officers seeking to convince courts to grant a warrant to make an arrest or a search. In civil cases, affidavits of witnesses are often used to support motions for summary judgment.

إقرار مشفوعة باليمين

AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSE Without denying the charge, the defendant raises circumstances such as insanity, self-defense, or entrapment to avoid civil or criminal responsibility.

دفاع تأييدي/ إجابي

AFFIRMED In the practice of appellate courts, the word means that the decision of the trial court is correct.


AGENT One who has authority to act for another.


AGGRAVATED ASSAULT An attempt to cause serious bodily injury to another or purposely, knowingly or recklessly causing such injury, or an attempt to cause or purposely or knowingly cause bodily injury to another with a deadly weapon.

تعدّ مشدد

AGGRAVATED BATTERY The unlawful use of force against another with unusual or serious consequences such as the use of a dangerous weapon.

ضرب مشدد

AGGRAVATING FACTORS Any factors associated with the commission of a crime which increase the seriousness of the offense or add to its injurious consequences.

عوامل مشددة

AGREED STATEMENT OF FACTS A statement of all important facts, which all the parties agree is true and correct, which is submitted to a court for ruling.

بيان الحقائق المتفق عليها

AGREEMENT A mutual understanding and intention between two or more parties. The writing or instrument which is evidence of an agreement. (Although often used as synonymous with contract, agreement is a broader term.)


AID AND ABET Help, assist, or facilitate the commission of a crime.

يعين و يمهد

ALFORD PLEA A special type of guilty plea by which a defendant does not admit guilt but concedes that the State has sufficient evidence to convict normally made to avoid the threat of greater punishment. Source: Black's Law Dictionary (1996) North Carolina v. Alford, 400 U.S. 25 (1970).

جواب ألفورد.

ALIBI A defense claim that the accused was somewhere else at the time a crime was committed.

إثبات التغيب عن المكان

ALIMONY A court-ordered allowance that one spouse pays the other spouse for maintenance and support while they are either separated, pending suit for divorce, or after they are divorced.

النفقة الزوجية

ALLEGATION The assertion of a party to an action, setting out what he expects to prove.


ALLEGE To state, recite, assert, claim, maintain, charge or set forth. To make an allegation.


ALLEGED Asserted to be true as depicted or a person who is accused but has not yet been tried in court.


ALLOCUTION A defendant's statement in mitigation of punishment.

تبرير/ تخفيف

ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR) Settling a dispute without a full, formal trial. Methods include mediation, conciliation, arbitration, and settlement, among others.

الوسيلة البديلة لحل النزاع

AMEND To change, correct, revise, improve, modify, or alter.

يعدل/ ينقح

AMENDMENT The correction of an error admitted in any process.

تعديل/ تنقيح

AMICUS CURIAE (A-MI'KUS KU'RIE) A friend of the court. One not a party to a case who volunteers to offer information on a point of law or some other aspect of the case to assist the court in deciding a matter before it.

صديق المحكمة

ANNOTATION A case summary or commentary on the law cases, statutes, and rules illustrating its interpretation.

شرح/ تعليق/ تفسير

ANNUAL REVIEW Yearly judicial review, usually in juvenile dependency cases, to determine whether the child requires continued court supervision or placement.

مراجعة سنوية

ANSWER The defendant's response to the plaintiff's allegations as stated in a complaint. An item-by-item, paragraph-by-paragraph response to points made in a complaint part of the pleadings.

رد الدفاع

APPEAL A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal."


APPEARANCE A coming into court as party or interested person or as a lawyer on behalf of party or interested person.

حضور/ مثول أمام المحكمة

APPELLANT The party appealing a final decision or judgment.


APPELLATE COURT A court having jurisdiction to hear appeals and review a trial court's procedure.

محكمة الإستإناف

APPELLATE JURISDICTION The appellate court has the right to review and revise the lower court decision.

إختصاص إستإنافي

APPELLEE The party against whom an appeal is taken. Sometimes called a respondent.


ARBITRATION The referral of a dispute to an impartial third person chosen by the parties to the dispute who agree in advance to abide by the arbitrator's award issued after a hearing at which both parties have an opportunity to be heard.


ARGUMENT Remarks addressed by attorney to judge or jury on the merits of case or on points of law.


ARRAIGN The procedure where the accused is brought before the court to hear the criminal charge(s) against him or her and to enter a plea of either guilty, not guilty or no contest.

يُستدعى إلى المحكمة للإجابة عن التهمة/ التهم

ARRAIGNMENT A proceeding in which the accused is brought before the court to plead to the criminal charge in the indictment or information. The charge is read to him or her and he or she is asked to plead guilty or not guilty or, where permitted, nolo contendere (no contest). Another term for preliminary hearing.

تلاوة نص الإتهام

ARREST To deprive a person of his liberty by legal authority.

القبض على/ الإيقاف

ARSON The malicious burning of someone else's or one's own dwelling or of anyone's commercial or industrial property.

حريق عمد

ASSAULT Any willful attempt or threat to inflict injury upon the person of another, when coupled with the present ability to do so, and any intentional display of force such as would give victim reason to fear or expect immediate bodily harm.

إعتداء / تهجم

ASSAULT WITH A DEADLY WEAPON An aggravated unlawful assault in which there is threat to do bodily harm without justification or excuse by use of any instrument calculated to do serious bodily harm or cause death.

إعتداء مع إستعمال سلاح قاتل

ASSAULT, AGGRAVATED An assault committed with the intention of committing some additional crime.

إعتداء متشدد

ASSIGNEE The person to whom property rights or power are transferred by another, a grantee.

محال إليه/ البديل

ASSUMPTION OF RISK In tort law, a defense to a personal injury suit. The essence of an affirmative defense is that the plaintiff assumed the known risk of whatever dangerous condition caused the injury.

إفتراض المسؤولية أو توقعها

AT ISSUE The time in a lawsuit when the complaining party has stated his or her claim and the other side has responded with a denial and the matter is ready to be tried.

قيد البحث

ATTACHMENT 1. document attached to court papers to give more infromation, 2. Taking a person's property to satisfy a court-ordered debt.

ملحق/ حجز/ مصادرة

ATTEMPT An endeavor or effort to do an act or accomplish a crime, carries beyond preparation, but lacking execution.


ATTEST To bear witness to, to affirm to be true or genuine, to certify.


ATTORNEY Attorney at law, lawyer, counselor at law.


ATTORNEY OF RECORD The lawyer who represents a client and is entitled to receive all formal documents from the court or from other parties. Also known as counsel of record.

وكيل الدعوى

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW An advocate, counsel, or official agent employed in preparing, managing, and trying cases in the courts.

محامي / وكيل قانوني

ATTORNEY-IN-FACT A private person (who is not necessarily a lawyer) authorized by another to act in his or her place, either for some particular purpose, as to do a specific act, or for the transaction of business in general, not of legal character. This authority is conferred by an instrument in writing, called a letter of attorney, or more commonly, a power of attorney.

وكيل عادي

AUTHENTICATE To give authority or legal authenticity to a statute, record, or other written instrument.


AUTO TAMPERING The manipulation of an automobile and its parts for a specific purpose.

تلاعب أو عبث بالسيارة

BAIL Money or other security (such as a bail bond) provided to the court to temporarily allow a person's release from jail and assure his or her appearance in court. Bail and Bond are often used interchangeably.

كفالة/ ضمان

BAIL BOND An obligation signed by the accused to secure his or her presence at the trial. This obligation means that the accused may lose money by not properly appearing for the trial. Often referred to simply as bond.

سند كفالة

BAIL BONDSMAN A person who is the liable party in paying the bond for the defendant's release from jail.

كفيل الضمان

BAIL FORFEITURE Bail that is kept by the court as a result of not following a court order.

مصادرة الكفالة

BAIL REVIEW A hearing established to re-evaluate the bail amount that was originally set for the accused.

مراجعة الكفالة

BAILIFF A court officer who has charge of a court session in the matter of keeping order and has custody of the jury.

حاجب المحكمة

BANKRUPT The state or condition of a person who is unable to pay his or her debts as they are or become due.


BANKRUPTCY Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may be released from or _discharged_ from their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings. The person with the debts is called the debtor and the people or companies to whom the debtor owes money to are called creditors.


BAR 1. Historically, the partition separating the general public from the space occupied by the judges, lawyers, and other participants in a trial. 2. More commonly, the term means the whole body of lawyers.

نقابة المحامين

BAR EXAMINATION A state examination taken by prospective lawyers in order to be admitted and licensed to practice law.

إمتحان نقابة المحامين

BATTERED CHILD SYNDROME (B.C.S.) Physical condition of a child indicating that external or internal injuries result from acts committed by a parent or custodian.

أعراض الطفل المعتدى عليه بالضرب

BATTERY An offensive touching or use of force on a person without the person's consent.

التعدي بالضرب

BATTERY, SPOUSAL An offensive touching or use of force on one's spouse without the spouse's consent. See BATTERY.

التعدي الزوجي بالضرب

BENCH The seat occupied by judges in courts.


BENCH CONFERENCE A meeting either on or off the record at the judge's bench between the judge, counsel, and sometimes the defendant, out of the hearing of the jury.

تشاور عند منصة القاضي

BENCH TRIAL Trial without a jury in which a judge decides the facts.

محاكمة قضائية

BENCH WARRANT An order issued by a judge for the arrest of a person.

أمر قضائي بالحجز

BENEFICIARY Someone named to receive property or benefits in a will. In a trust, a person who is to receive benefits from the trust.


BEQUEATH To give a gift to someone through a will.

يورث بوصية

BEQUESTS Gifts made in a will.

توريث بوصية

BEST EVIDENCE Primary evidence the best evidence available. Evidence short of this is _secondary._ That is, an original letter is _best evidence,_ and a photocopy is _secondary evidence._

بينة أوّلية

BEYOND A REASONABLE DOUBT The standard in a criminal case requiring that the jury be satisfied to a moral certainty that every element of a crime has been proven by the prosecution. This standard of proof does not require that the state establish absolute certainty by eliminating all doubt, but it does require that the evidence be so conclusive that all reasonable doubts are removed from the mind of the ordinary person.

لا محل فيه لشك معقول

BIAS Inclination, bent, a pre-conceived opinion or a predisposition to decide a cause or an issue a certain way.


BIFURCATE To try issues separately, such as guilt and criminal responsibility in a criminal proceeding or liability and damages in a civil action.


BILL OF PARTICULARS A statement of the details of the charge made against the defendant.

بيان جزائيات

BIND OVER To hold a person for trial on bond (bail) or in jail. If the judicial official conducting a hearing finds probable cause to believe the accused committed a crime, the official will bind over the accused, normally by setting bail for the accused's appearance at trial.


BODY ATTACHMENT A written order issued by a court directing a sheriff or peace officer to take custody of and bring before the court: 1) A witness who fails to comply with a subpoena, 2) a party who fails to comply with a court order in a civil action, or 3) a material witness in a criminal case.

حجز شخصي

BONA FIDE Sincere, real without fraud or decit. Comes from the Latin "in good faith."

حسن نية

BOND A certificate or evidence of a debt. Often used interchangeably with bail.

سند دين

BOOKING The process of photographing, fingerprinting, and recording identifying data of a suspect. This process follows the arrest.

إجراءات الحجز

BOOKING NUMBER The number assigned to the criminal record that corresponds to the person's arrest.

رقم سجل الحجز

BOOKMAKING The act of collecting the bets of others or making odds on future gambling events.

جمع المراهنات

BRANDISHING A WEAPON The act of showing a weapon to another person, typically the police or the victim.

تلويح مُهدد بالسلاح

BREACH The breaking or violating of a law, right, obligation, or duty either by doing an act or failing to do an act.


BREAKING AND ENTERING Breaking and entering a dwelling of another in nighttime with intent to commit a felony therein.

كسر و دخول

BREATHALYZER TEST Test to determine content of alcohol in one arrested for operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of liquor by analyzing a breath sample.

فحص النَفَس

BRIBE A gift, not necessarily of monetary value, given to influence the conduct of the receiver.


BRIEF A written statement prepared by the counsel arguing a case in court. It contains a summary of the facts of a case, the pertinent laws, and an argument of how the law applies to the facts supporting counsel's position.


BURDEN OF PROOF The obligation of a party to establish by evidence a requisite degree of belief concerning a fact in the mind of the trier of fact or the court.

عبئ الإثبات

BURGLARY The act of entering or remaining illegally in a movable or immovable structure, vehicle or dwelling with intent to commit a felony.

السطو بهدف السرقة

CALENDAR List of cases scheduled for hearing in court.


CALLING THE DOCKET The public calling of the docket or list of causes at commencement of term of court, for setting a time for trial or entering orders.

المناداة بجدول القضايا

CAPITAL CASE A criminal case in which the allowable punishment includes death.

القضية القصوى

CAPITAL CRIME A crime punishable by death.

الجريمة القصوى

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT Punishment by death for capital crimes. Death penalty.

العقوبة القصوى

CAPTION The heading on a legal document listing the parties, the court, the case number, and related information.


CASE A general term for an action, cause, suit, or controversy brought before the court for resolution.


CASE LAW Law established by previous decisions of appellate courts, particularly the Supreme Court.

قانون الدعوى/ قانون السوابق


رقم القضية

CAUSATION The act which produces an effect.

سبيبة مسبب

CAUSE A lawsuit, litigation, or action. Any question, civil or criminal, litigated or contested before a court of justice.


CAUSE OF ACTION The facts that give rise to a lawsuit or a legal claim.

سبب الدعوى

CAVEAT A warning a note of caution.


CAVEAT EMPTOR "Let the buyer beware." Encourages a purchaser to examine, judge, and test for himself.

فليحترس الشاري

CEASE AND DESIST ORDER An order of an administrative agency or court prohibiting a person or business from continuing a particular course of conduct.

الكف و الإمتناع

CERTIFICATION 1. Written attestation. 2. Authorized declaration verifying that an instrument is a true and correct copy of the original.

إشهاد/ تصديق

CERTIFIED Attested as being true or an exact reproduction.

صورة مُصدعة

CERTIORI A means of getting an appellate court to review a lower court's decision. The loser of a case will often ask the appellate court to issue a writ of certiorari, which orders the lower court to convey the record of the case to the appellate court and to certify it as accurate and complete. If an appellate court grants a writ of certiorari, it agrees to take the appeal. This is often referred to as granting cert.

تحويل الدعوى

CHAIN OF CUSTODY An accounting for the whereabouts of the tangible evidence from the moment it is received in custody until it is offered in evidence in court.

تسلسل حجز الأدلة

CHALLENGE An objection, such as when an attorney objects at a hearing to the seating of a particular person on a civil or criminal jury.


CHALLENGE FOR CAUSE Objection to the seating of a particular juror for a stated reason (usually bias or prejudice for or against one of the parties in the lawsuit). The judge has the discretion to deny the challenge. This differs from peremptory challenge.

طعن لسبب

CHALLENGE TO THE ARRAY Questioning the qualifications of an entire jury panel, usually on the ground of partiality or some fault in the process of summoning the panel.

الطعن في لجنة المحلفين

CHAMBERS A judge's private office. A hearing in chambers takes place in the judge's office outside of the presence of the jury and the public.

مكتب القاضي الخاص

CHANGE OF VENUE Moving a lawsuit or criminal trial to another place for trial.

تغيير مكان المحاكمة

CHARACTER EVIDENCE The testimony of witnesses who know the general character and reputation of a person in the community in which he or she lives. It may be considered by the jury in a dual respect: 1) as substantive evidence upon the theory that a person of good character and reputation is less likely to commit a crime than one who does not have a good character and reputation, and 2) as corroborative evidence in support of a witness's testimony as bearing upon credibility.

بينة سِيرية

CHARGE A formal allegation, as a preliminary step in prosecution, that a person has committed a specific offense, which is recorded in a complaint, information or indictment. To charge To accuse. See INSTRUCTIONS.


CHARGE TO THE JURY The judge's instructions to the jury concerning the law that applies to the facts of the case on trial.

تعليمات لهيئة المحلفين

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