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physics ch. 8
Terms in this set (76)
Bernoulli's principle says
whenever the fluid, the speed of a fluid increases, its internal pressure decreases
An ideal gas is confined to a container with an adjustable volume. If the pressure and mole number are both maintained constant, by what factor will the volume change when the absolute temperature is doubled?
The temperature of an ideal gas increase from 3C to 6C while remaining at constant pressure. What happens to the volume of the gas?
It increases slightly
If the pressure acting on an ideal gas at constant temperature is doubled, its volume is
Reduced to one-half
If the pressure acting on an ideal gas at constant temperature is tripled, its volume is
Reduced to one-third
Which one of the following statements best explains why gases are not commercially sold by volume?
Gas volume depends on temperature and pressure
A sample of neon gas at 30 degrees Celsius is confined to a cylinder with a movable piston. It is then heated until its pressure is doubled. What is the final temperature of the gas?
This cannot be found since the final and initial volumes are unknown.
A sample of a monatomic ideal gas is originally at 27 degrees Celsius. What is the final temperature of the gas if both the pressure and volume are doubled?
An ideal gas at 0 °C is contained within a rigid vessel. The temperature of the gas is increased by 2 C°. What is Pf/Pi, the ratio of the final to initial pressure?
Which one of the following properties of a gas is not consistent with the ideal gas?
The average speed of the molecules is smaller at high temperatures
Which one of the following factors is directly responsible for the pressure exerted by a confined gas?
Collision of gas molecules with the sides of the containing vessel
A copper rod has one of its ends placed in a Bunsen flame and the other end embedded in an ice cube. By what factor is the rate of heat flow changed when the rod length is tripled?
If holding hands to one side of a flame, the predominant form of heat transfer is what process?
The primary reason why a sandy beach gets so hot on a sunny day is because
sand has a small specific heat
The space between the inner walls of a thermos bottle is evacuated to minimize heat transfer by
conduction and convection
If your hands are being warmed by holding them above a flame, then the primary form of heat transfer is which?
Sea breezes on a beach are attributed to a difference between land and water with respect to what property?
If you triple the absolute temperature of an object, it will radiate energy
81 times faster
Convection can occur
only in liquids and gases
By what primary heat transfer mechanism does the sun warm the earth
By what primary heat transfer mechanism does one end of a metal spoon become hot when the other end is placed in a boiling water?
When a vapor condenses
heat energy leaves the substance
Saturation occurs in air when the
air contains as many water molecules as it can contain at a given temperature
When water freezes, the entropy of the water
Is it possible to transfer heat from a cold reservoir to a hot reservoir?
yes, but work will have to be done
The second law of thermodynamics leads us to conclude that
disorder in the universe is increasing with the passage of time
What is the theoretical efficiency of a Carnot engine that operates between 600 and 300 kelvin?
A substance can absorb heat energy by the process of
all of the above
Metals are both good heat conductors and also good electrical conductors because of the
looseness of outer electrons in metal atoms
A good heat conductor is a
Your feet feel warmer on a rug than on a tile floor because the rug
is a better insulator than tile
Energy transfer by convection is primarily restricted to
Warm air rises because faster moving molecules tend to move to regions of less
density and pressure (both of these)
Objects that radiate relatively well
absorb radiation relatively well
Hot water will cool to room temperature faster in a
Cold water will warm to room temperature faster in a
If air were a better conductor that it is, at nighttime the earth would be
A water-filled paper cup held in a flame will not catch fire. This is because
the paper cup cannot become appreciably hotter than the water it contains
An object will normally be a net radiator of energy when its thermal energy is
can't say, because thermal energy is not a temperature
The silver coating on the glass surfaces of Thermos bottle reduces energy that is transferred
If a volume of air is warmed, it expands. If a volume of air expands, it
When a volume of air is compressed, its temperature
If a poor absorber of radiation were a good emitter, its temperature would be
less than its surroundings
A good absorber of radiation is
a good emitter of radiation
A good reflector of radiation is
a poor absorber of radiation
If you were caught in freezing weather with only a candle for heat, you would be warmer in
If molecules in a sample gas moved so they completely missed each other the gas's temperature
would stay the same
Hydrogen and oxygen molecule in a sample gas have the same temperature. This means the hydrogen molecules, on average, have the same
kinetic energy, but more speed
Suppose you served coffee at a restaurant before you are ready to drink it. In order for it to be the hottest when you are ready for it, you should add cream
The planet Earth loses heat mainly by
Double the absolute temperature of helium gas, and the molecules of helium, on average speed up,
less than twice
Evaporation is a cooling process because
the more energetic molecules are able to escape the liquid
Steam bums are more damaging than burns caused by boiling water because steam
both of these, gives up additional energy and has more energy per kilogram
We are warmed by condensation because water molecules in the air that strike our bodies
transfer some of their kinetic energies to us
When heat is added to boiling water, the water temperature
stays the same
Increased air pressure on the surface of hot water tends to
In the mountains, water boils at
a lower temperature than at sea level
Compared to a glass oc ice water with ice in it, a glass of plain ice-cold water without ice on a warm day will warm up
When bringing water to a boil in the mountains, the time needed to reach the boiling point is
less than at sea level
Food in a pressure cooker is cooked faster because of the
Food cooked in boiling water in the mountains cooks slower than when cooked at sea level. If the temperature under the pot is increase, the food will cook
If you want to cook eggs by boiling them while in the mountains, then compared to sea level cooking, you should
boil the eggs for a longer time
An inventor discovers a harmless and tasteless salt, which, when added to water changes its boiling point. The market value for this salt will be best if the salt
raises the boiling point of water
Consider a steaming aluminum soda-pop can that contains a small amount of boiling water. When it is quickly inserted into a bath of cooler water, the can is dramatically crushed by atmospheric pressure. This occurs because the pressure inside the can is rapidly reduced by
condensation of steam inside
When a gas is changed to a liquid phase, the gas
When a solid is changed to a liquid phase, the solid
When liquids change to a solid phase, they
Which would bum the must
100g of steam at 100 degrees Celsius
Suppose you walk on red coals with bare feet. Providing bits of coal do no stick to your feet, it would be best if your feet are
Te melt 50 g of 0 degree Celsius ice requires
To turn 50 g of boiling water to steam requires
removes thermal energy from inside the refrigerator
The cooling effect inside a refrigerator is produced by
vaporizing the refrigeration liquid
Ice is put in a cooler in order to cool the contents. To speed up the cooling process, the ice can be
which involves the larger number of calories?
the condensation of 1 g of steam at 100 degrees Celsius to 100 degree Celsius water
The number of grams of ice that can be melted by 1 gram of 100 degree Celsius steam is
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