27 terms

US History - Chapter 12

American History: A Survey
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Terms in this set (...)

James Fenimore Cooper
The first great American novelist
Most famous as the author of the The Last of the Mohicans written in 1826
Leather Stocking Tales
Walt Whitman
His poetry is distinguished by a free verse style, as in Leaves of Grass (1855)
Herman Melville
Wrote Moby Dick (1851) Took place on a whaling ship the hero is Captain Ahab trying to get a whale called Moby Dick. Sailed on the Paquad
Edgar Allen Poe
Wrote many poems and short stories, many of them were quite morbid
Best-known for The Raven, The Tell-Tale Heart, and The Fall of the House of Usher
Transcendentalism
This philosophy, originating from Concord, Massachusetts, held that a person should be liberated from the intellectual and moral restrictions imposed by society
Ralph Waldo Emerson
The leader of the transcendentalism movement, and was also known for his essays and poetry
Concord Hymn
Henry David Thoreau
Follower of Emerson
Wrote Walden about his experience living alone in the woods
Essay Resistance to Civil Government, in which he advocated "civil disobedience"
Utopian Communities
Transcendentalists made several attempts to establish their own separate societies
These were Utopian in nature
New Harmony, Indiana
Brook Farm, Massachusetts
Shakers
Committed to celibacy and a strictly ordered society
Idealized sexual equality
"Shakers" came from their strange religious dances
Mormons
Joseph Smith was founder
Wrote Book of Mormon in 1830
Pearl of Great Price-they consider these books equal with the Bible
Joseph Smith was killed in 1844
Brigham Young was successor
Charles G. Finney
Greatest evangelist in the 1820's and 1830's
Wrote Revival Lectures
Strong proponent both for the temperance and abolition movement
Temperance
A band that made an effort to stamp out alcohol
Horace Mann
"Father of Public Education"
Lengthened school days, doubled teacher salaries, enlarged the curriculum, and introduced professional training. Believed in universal education
Perkins School
First school for the blind established in Boston
Asylum Movement
"Homes" for different types of people who could not function in society (i.e. mentally ill, criminals, orphans)
Dorothea Dix
Began a nationwide reform movement in the treatment of criminals and the mentally ill
Reservations
A place for dislocated Indians where they could become "civilized"
Seneca Falls Convention
Convention led by Mott and Stanton
Resented America's male-dominated society
Demanded the right for women to vote
Elizabeth Blackwell
First American female physician
American Colonization Society
Founded in Virginia in 1817
Goal was to buy slaves from their masters and send them back to Africa
It was a failure
Liberia
A nation made up of the few blacks that the ACS was able to set free
Founded in 1830
William Lloyd Garrison
Took leadership of the anti-slavery movement
Founded the weekly paper The Liberator
Fredrick Douglas
Outstanding black anti-slavery orator
Edited the anti-slavery paper The North Star
demanded freedom and full equality for all blacks
Elijah Lovejoy
Edited the abolitionist paper in Alton, Illinois
White mobs wrecked his presses and finally murdered him
Underground Railroad
A series of cooperative Northerners who provided hiding places and transportation for slaves to escape to Canada
Free Soil
The desire of the people to keep the territories free of slavery but not to interfere with it where it already existed
majority of northerners were free soilers rather than abolitionists
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
Published in 1852
"So this is the little lady who started the big war!"-Abraham Lincoln
depicted how it was for a badly treated slave
huge best seller
greatly impacted people

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