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Civil War & Reconstruction Vocab
Terms in this set (73)
Declared that states may not deny the vote to any citizen based on "race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Gave african americans the right to vote.
The movement to make slavery and the slave trade illegal. Begun by Quakers in England in the 1780s.
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south
The most infamous prison in the south. There was no shelter. There was a huge population, and there were food shortages, overcrowding, and disease that killed about 100 men a day during the summer months.
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
Appomattox Court House
the Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War
Battle Of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Battle of Monitor
first engagement between the ironclad chips; fought at hampton roads. virginia, on march 9, 1862
1st engagement between ironclad ships; fought at Hampton Roads, Virginia on march 9th, 1862. The Confederacy fashioned the Merrimack ship out of an old Union steam ship and renamed it the Virginia. The two ships (Monitor-north vs. Merrimack-south) fought to a draw in march of 1962. There was no clear victory. The two ships revolutionized naval warfare.
Battle of Vicksburg
1863, Union gains control of Mississippi, confederacy split in two, Grant takes lead of Union armies, total war begins
laws passed in the south just after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit african american workers
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
Blockade of Charleston
This is the term that describes the Union Navy controlling and cutting off South Carolina's major port from trade in 1863.
Booker T. Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."
1st real battle, Confederate victory, Washingtonian spectators gather to watch battle, Gen. Jackson stands as Stonewall and turns tide of battle in favor of Confederates, realization that war is not going to be quick and easy for either side
name given to Southerners allied with northern Republicans who came south to take part in the region's political and economic rebirth.
right or rights belonging to a person by reason of citizenship including especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments and subsequent acts of Congress including the right to legal and social and economic equ
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.
The period of warfare between the Confederate States of America (1861-1865) and the United States over the issues of states' rights and slavery.
Compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861
the use of legal means to block blacks from voting
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free
Guaranteed citizenship to former slaves and protected the rights of all citizens. Equal protection under the law.
one of the most prominent African American figures in the abolitionist movement. Escaped from slavery in Maryland. He was a great thinker and speaker. Published his own antislavery newspaper called the North Star and wrote an autobiography that was published in 1845.
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
Fugitive Slave Act
a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
a 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.
the civil right to obtain a writ of habeas corpus as protection against illegal imprisonment
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, a book about a slave who is treated badly, in 1852. The book persuaded more people, particularly Northerners, to become anti-slavery.
Confederate submarine that sank the U.S.S. Housatonic. First submarine to sink an enemy ship.
Ida Wells Barnett
an early leader in the civil rights movement. She documented the extent of lynching in the United States, and was also active in the women's rights movement and the women's suffrage movement.
The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may impeach the president by a majority vote for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
Kansas Nebraska Act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Ku Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
A test administered as a precondition for voting, often used to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote.
A way of making the people of a nation join the armed forces
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress
Plessy vs Ferguson
(1896) The Court ruled that segregation was not discriminatory (did not violate black civil rights under the Fourteenth Amendemnt) provide that blacks received accommodations equal to those of whites.
a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
white Southerner supporting Reconstruction policies after the Civil War usually for self-interest
the withdrawal of eleven Southern states from the Union in 1860 which precipitated the American Civil War
loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole
Seperate but Equal
the judicial precedent established by in the Plessy v Ferguson decision that enabled states to interpret the equal protection provision of the fourteenth amendment as a means of establishing segregation
A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.
Sherman's March to the Sea
After the burning of Atlanta Georgia on Nov 15 1864, he marched 300 miles to savannah and arrived there December 22nd 1864, his purpose was to destroy the South's supply chain and morale
According to the compact theory of the Union the states retained all powers not specifically delegated to the central government by the Constitution.
United States psychologist and psychophysicist who proposed Stevens' power law to replace Fechner's law (1906-1973)
general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War whose troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall (1824-1863)
1st black American to earn PhD (from Clark). Writes of segregation and appears to actually favor it (but he was prob just getting what he could considering the times).
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
It abolished slavery. Freed all slaves. Forbids involuntary servitude.
A war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields.
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
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