Islam and African Empires

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body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Quran and applies Islamic principles to everyday life


the second holiest city; where Muhammad lived after fleeing Mecca


Founder of Islam, considered the greatest prophet in Islam


the tower attached to a mosque from which calls to prayer are made five times a day


military and political leader with absolute authority over a Muslim country


a pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims


A Muslim house of worship


a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine


a follower of the majority branch of Islam, which feels that successors to Muhammad are to be chosen by the Muslim community


Arabic word for god


the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution a.d. 622: regarded as the beginning of the Muslim Era.


successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims


a spot of fertile land in a desert, fed by water from wells or underground springs


Muslims that have taken a vow of poverty, and work to support the communities in which they live.


a member of one of the two major Muslim sects; believe that the descendents of Muhammad's daughter and son-in-law, Ali, are the true Muslim leaders


City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.

Abu Bakr

The first caliph after death of Muhammad


The sacred book of Islam, containing the religious and moral code


A peninsula between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf where Islam origniated and the Muslim empires had their beginnings.

Five Pillars of Islam

the basic duties of Islam, including belief in Allah and Muhammad the prophet, prayer, charity or almsgiving, fasting, and pilgrimage to Mecca


Muslim people of north Africa


A holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal


religious ruling by a muslim cleric, binding as a legal decision


An area in a city that merchants bring goods to sell.


a headscarf worn by Muslim women


a group of traders traveling together


Mystics within Islam; responsible for expansion of Islam to southeastern Asia


Nomads of the Arabian Peninsula with a culture based on herding camels and goats.

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