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Arts and Humanities
Dimensions of nursing chapter 6
Terms in this set (27)
Code of Ethics
Written statement or list of the ethical principles that govern a particular profession. Presented as general statements thus, do not give specific answers to every possible ethical dilemma.
Declarations of what is right or wrong, and what ought to be. A system of beliefs and behaviors, goes beyond the law which has its primary underlying principle the preservation of society. More focused on the quality of the society and its long term survival.
Development of Code of Ethics.
2001, ANA Code of Ethics was developed from previous statements of ethical principles. ANA identified it as framework for ethical decision making.
2011- ANA revision, call for revision panel.
2014- Revision of 2011 code was accepted and it became current code of ethics.
How code of ethics helps nurses
Offer guidance to the individual practitioner in making decisions.
Standards of right and wrong that a person learns and internalizes. Often manifested as behavior in accordance with a groups norms, customs, or traditions. A moral person is someone who helps another person by providing care and maintains a level of responsibility in all relationships. Often based on religious beliefs.
Concepts, ideas, behaviors, and significant theme that give meaning to our personal lives.
-Derived most commonly from societal norms, religion, and family orientation.
-Provide a framework for daily decisions and actions.
-Nurses should make lists of their values.
The right of self-determination, independence, and freedom of decision. Refers to the clients right to make health care decisions for himself/herself. (Ex- Can refuse all treatments) Not absolute- contagious diseases, can be forced to take meds to protect society.
Obligation to be fair to all people. Distributive Justice- individuals have the right to be treated equally regardless of race, gender, martial status, medical diagnosis, social standing, economic level, religious beliefs ( in ANA code of ethics; underlies the first statement of ANA code of ethics.
The obligation of an individual to be faithful to commitments made to self and others. Includes the professionals faithfulness or loyalty to agreements and responsibilities acted as part of the practice of the profession. Main support for the concept of accountability.
-One of the oldest of the ethical requirements in health care. Primary goal of health care as doing good for clients under their care. ( Ex- take a holistic approach to the client)
The requirement that the health-care provider do no harm to patients either intentionally or by accident. Often violated in the short term to produce a greater good in the long term treatment of the client. Also includes- Health care workers protect from harm those who cannot protect themselves ( children, mentally incompetent, unconscious)
The requirement that health-care providers tell the truth and do not intentionally deceive or mislead clients. Exception- when telling the patient the truth would seriously harm the pos ability to recover or would produce greater illness
Standard of Best Interest
-First used by courts for making end of life decisions regarding incompetent clients.
A good faith decision is made about what treatments or actions would lead to the best result for the client after considering all relevant information. Generally considered a quality of life issue. A type of decision made about a clients health care when the client is unable to make the informed decision themselves.
Obligations (duties) Demands made on an individual, profession, society, or government to fulfill and honor the rights of others.( divided into legal and moral obligations)
Ethical Decision making process
Models the Nursing Process
Collect, analyze, and interpret data
Obtain as much info about the dilemma as possible. Important issues are clients wishes, clients families wishes, extent of physical/ emotional problems causing the dilemma including physicians beliefs and nurses own orientation issues concerning life and death.
State the Dilemma- As clearly as possible
Identify whether the problem is one that directly involves the nurse or is one that can be resolved only by the client, clients family, physician, or DPOAHC. Recognizing key aspects of the dilemma helps to focus attention on the important ethical issues. Most of the time the dilemma can be reduced to a few sentences that encompass the key ethical issues.
Principle that competent clients wishes must be followed is unequivocal
Consider the Choices of action
List without consideration of their consequences, all possible courses of action that could be taken to resolve the dilemma. May require outside sources such as colleagues, supervisors.
Analyze advantages and disadvantages of each course of action
Courses of action developed during the previous steps are more realistic than others. Advantages and disadvantages of each action must be throughly evaluated. The nurse should be able to narrow the realistic choices of action.
Make the decision and act on it
Most difficult part is actually making the decision, following through with action, and then living with the consequences.
A situation that requires an individual to make a choice between two equally unfavorable alternatives. Usually involve conflict of one individuals rights with those of another.
Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care ( DPOAHC)
Individuals legally designate a specific person to make heath care decisions for them in care they become unable to make decisions for themselves.
Based on moral or ethical principles that are not enforced under the law.
Something owed to an individual according to just claims, legal guarantees, or moral/ethical principles.
Ethical decisions made in daily practice that deal with conflicts of rights and obligtions between patients and health-care providers, families, or physicians.
Utilitarianism AKA Teleology
An ethical system of utility
-Greatest good for the greatest numbers
-The end justifies the means
-All decisions depend on the situation
-Needs distributive justice attached was a guiding point.
-Not a good system for health care workers
Based on the discovery and confirmation of a set of morals or rules that govern the ethical dilemma to be resolved.
-Principles are absolute and unchanging.
-Focused on the principles of right and wrong.
-Echo the Bill of Rights
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