Once the researcher has tested his/her hypothesis, the fourth step in the scientific process is to
In operational conditioning, reinforcements have what effect on an individual's behavior?
make the behavior more likely to reoccur.
The purpose of a survey is to allow a researcher to make generalizations about the larger population.
According to Piaget, there are four age-related periods of cognitive development, each involving a different type of thinking and behaving.
According to Freud, preventing sucking or early weaning during infancy may have lasting effects on personality development later.
The emotions of shame, pride, and embarrassment require that a person first:
gain awareness of other people
According to cognitive theory, infants use their early relationships to develop a set of assumptions that become a frame of reference they may use later in life. Such a set of assumptions is called a:
In developed nations, which of the following is most likely to be lacking in a child's diet?
calcium, iron, and zinc
Writing your name is a _____________, whereas kicking a ball is a(n)_______________.
fine motor skill; gross motor skill
The ability to control one's impulsiveness appears to be directly related to the development of the:
Whereas Piaget saw cognitive development as a result of individual discovery, Vygotsky attributed it to:
social activities guided by others.
According to Erikson, which of the following aids a young child in demonstrating initiative?
a longer attention span resulting from neurological maturity
According to Freud, little boys cope with the guilt of wanting to kill their fathers by:
identifying with their father.
The ability to understand the connection between one fact and another, even though it is not stated, called:
John has the ability to talk informally with his friends and more formally to his teachers when called on in class. This is because John understands the:
pragmatics of his language.
The period of latency is a time of suppressed emotional drives and submerged unconscious conflicts.
Having an emotionally dysfunctional parent may not affect a resilient child if the other parent protects and nurtures the child.
The particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society define:
the culture of children.
List in order, and explain each of the five basic steps of the scientific method.
1. State the problem
2. Gather info
3. Form a hypothesis
Define postpartum depression, and describe some of its causes. What might be done to successfully cope with it?
The sadness and inadequacy felt by some new mothers in the days and weeks after giving birth. Some causes of depression predate the pregnancy, others occur during the pregnancy, and still others arise from coping with a newborn who has health, feeding, or sleeping difficulties. Birth itself, with its accompanying anesthesia, changing hormones, and pain can precipitate depression. No matter what the cause, someone must help new parents adjust.
Compare and contrast the behaviorist and psychoanalytic perspectives on early childhood development of personality.
Psychoanalytic theory-Stresses that early childhood, including infancy, is critical; even if a person does not remember what happened, the early legacy lingers throughout life.
Behaviorism- Holds current conditioning is crucial; early habits and patterns can be unlearned, even reversed, if appropriate reinforcements and punishments are used.
Examine the physical growth patterns of children as they mature from age 2 to age 6. What changes occur? How do these changes support physical skill development?
Ages 2 through 6 are the early childhood years, or preschool years. Like infants and toddlers, preschoolers grow quickly—both physically and cognitively. A short chubby toddler who can barely talk suddenly becomes a taller, leaner child who talks incessantly. Especially evident during early childhood is the fact that development is truly integrated: The biological, psychological, and social changes occurring at this time (as well as throughout the rest of the life span) are interrelated.
List and describe in detail the three parenting styles described by Baumrind.
Authorian Parenting- An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards strict punishment of misconduct and little communication
Permissive parenting- An approach to rearing that characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control
Authorian parenting- An approach to child rearing in which the parents sets limits and enforce rules but are flexible and listen to their children
Neglectful-unaware of anything thats going on with the child
List and describe the symptoms of autism
never talk, rarely smile, and play for hours with one object(such as a pen instead of a toy).
Analyze the roots of bullying behavior in children. What are possible causes? How does the behavior start? What circumstances could contribute to bullying?
Being mistreated at home
Getting bullies by a sibling
Abuse at home
with antisocial behavior verbal abuse
Advances in children's brain functioning during the school years influence school performance. Define and discuss the roles of selective attention and automatization in acquiring academic skills.
Selective attention is made possible at the age of 7 by increases in mylenation of axons and in the production of neurotransmitters. in classroom, selective attention allows children to listen take notes and ignore distractions.
Automatization- a process in which a sequence of thoughts and actions is repeated until it becomes automatic and routine. Like reading a book and studying.