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lactose intolerance

caused by deficiency of lactase


secretion is stimulated by the presence of proteins and fats in the small intestine

defecation reflex

the diaphragm lowers during this event

large intestine

one of it's major functions is to reabsorb water from chyme

Acute pancreatitis

often caused by the conversion of trypsinogen to trypsin

hiatal hernia

due to a weakness of the diaphragm

ileocecal valve

sphincter muscle located between the small intestine and the large intestine


secreted in an inactive form, digest proteins


result of poor nutrition from lack of nutrients or failure to use them


usually composed of cholesterol

medulla oblongata

location of the vomiting center


secreted by stomach cells, increases the secretion by the gastric glands

greater omentum

composed of peritoneal membrane

liver damage

would most likely affect digestion of lipids


double-layered fold of peritoneum that suspends portions of the small intestine


process by which bile breaks down fat globules


percentage of calories in a person's diet derived from fats


characterized by a yellowish tinge to the tissues, due to an increased blood concentration of bile pigments

Intrinsic factor

necessary for the normal absorption of Vitamin B12 from the small intestine


protein-splitting enzyme found in pancreatic juice

bile salts

constituent of bile with digestive functions

pyloric sphincter

valve that controls the movement of food between the stomach and small intestine

Kupffer cells

large, fixed phagocytes in the lining of the hepatic sinusoids

plasma proteins

contain less than adequate amounts of essential amino acids

parietal cells (gastric glands)

secrete hydrochloric acid


stimulates the release of pancreatic fluid

alimentary canal

extends from the mouth to the anus


aids mixing movements in the alimentary canal by alternately contracting and relaxing nonadjacent segments


teeth that are best adapted for biting off relatively large pieces of food

palantine tonsils

due to their location, swelling may interfere with breathing and swallowing

digestive system

mechanically and chemically breaks down food for nutrient absorption

salivary amylase

digests carbohydrates

dental cavities

microorganisms promote this by metabolizing carbohydrates and releasing by-products that are acidic


where fat molecules with longer chains of carbon atoms are transported from the small intestine


projection of the soft palate


occurs in the digestive tract from the pharynx to the anus

Functions of the liver

forms urea
stores Vit D
destroys damaged red blood cells
forms glucose from non-carbs

List the correct sequence for the layers within the wall of the alimentary canal from inside to outside

muscular layer

Events in the swallowing reflex

soft palate, larynx, hyoid bone are raised
epiglottis close off top of trachea
tongue presses against soft palate & uvula
muscles pull pharynx upward toward the food


cholecystokinin, hormone released from intestinal mucosa by the presence of fats, stimulates the gallbladder to contract and release bile into the duodenum


peristalsis mixes food with digestive enzymes in small segments of the alimentary canal


the cecum is located at the inferior end of the descending colon


vitamin E, a fat-soluble vitamin, is destroyed by cooking


bile is composed of HCL, pepsin, mucus, and intrinsic factor


the movement of chyme through the small intestine is increased by parasympathetic impulses and is inhibited by sympathetic impulses


the main part of the stomach is called the fundus


the gallbladder is connected to the common bile duct by the hepatic duct


food passing from the stomach through the small intestine first passes into the duodenum, then the jejunum and lastly the ileum


lymph transports fat molecules with longer chains of carbon atoms away from the intestine


the epithelial cells that form the inner lining of the small intestine are replaced every few days


bile salts function as digestive enzymes to break down fatty acids

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