AP Comparative Government: UK
Terms in this set (41)
An important report produced by William Beveridge in 1942 that introduced a social insurance program that made all citizens eligible for health, unemployment, pension, and other benefits
Responsible for formulating policy to be placed before Parliament. Supreme controlling and directing body of the entire executive branch.
A political party in Great Britain which developed from the Tories in the 1830s, One of the two major parties in the UK, it is generally more right wing, and more towards free-markets and the upper classes, advocates a mixed economy and encourages property owning
British political party founded in 1900 with the help of trade unions to represent the interests of the urban working class
Constitutional Reform Movement
a movement in the United Kingdom that called for greater separation of powers, especially in the House of Lords. This ultimately culminated in the 2005 Constitutional Reform Act.
is the citizens' faith and trust in government and their belief that they can understand and influence political affairs. It is commonly measured by surveys and is used as an indicator for the broader health of civil society.
In politics, the concept of gradualism is used to describe the belief that change ought to be brought about in small, discrete increments rather than in abrupt strokes such as revolutions or uprisings. Gradualism is one of the defining features of political conservatism and reformism.
In the UK, General elections do not have fixed dates, but must be called within five years of the opening of parliament following the last election. Other elections are held on fixed dates though in the case of the devolved assemblies and parliaments, early elections can occur in certain situations
popular acceptance of the right and power of a government or other entity to exercise authority.
created in the late 1800s. The last prime minister was in the 1920s. Historically, this was the opposition party to the conservatives. The Conservatives were on the right center and the liberals were pure center. Politically, not much of a difference between the two, could live with each of them. The Liberals have declined throughout the 20th century, down to only holding 20 seats. They are around 50-55 seats today.
Question time in a parliament occurs when members of the parliament ask questions of government ministers (including the prime minister), which they are obliged to answer. It usually occurs daily while parliament is sitting, though it can be cancelled in exceptional circumstances. Question time originated in the Westminster system of the United Kingdom, and occurs in other countries, mostly Commonwealth countries, who use the system.
is a feature of the Westminster system of government. It comprises a senior group of opposition spokespeople who, under the leadership of the Leader of the Opposition, form an alternative cabinet to that of the government, and whose members shadow or mark each individual member of the Cabinet.
Two and a Half Party System
two large parties win most votes but have to join with a third party to gain a legislative majority. The Liberal Democrats in the UK cause this tendency.
The constitution of the United Kingdom is the sum of laws and principles that make up the body politic of the United Kingdom. It concerns both the relationship between the individual and the state, and the functioning of the legislature, the executive and judiciary. Unlike many other nations, the UK has no single constitutional document.
1939 - the British helped control the Jewish immigration to Palestine from the Holocaust in Germany. This action contradicted the Balfour Declaration
political solidarity as a unity of individuals who have made a conscious commitment to challenge a situation of injustice, oppression, tyranny, or social vulnerability. Political solidarity is fundamentally oppositional: it seeks to abolish an unjust practice or institution.
The term public school refers to a group of older, more expensive and exclusive fee-paying private independent secondary schools in England and Wales, which cater primarily for children aged between 13 and 18.
Oxbridge is a blend word of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom. The term is used to refer to them collectively in contrast to other British universities and more broadly to describe characteristics reminiscent of them, often with implications of superior social or intellectual status.
(Irish Republican Army) founded in 1921 to fight violently using terror methods for Irish independence from Britain. Small active base of only a few hundred.
tendency of a given social class to vote for a party that promotes its economic interest
Formal politeness and courtesy in behavior or speech
a system of jurisprudence based on judicial precedents rather than statutory laws, (civil law) a law established by following earlier judicial decisions
House of Commons
The lower of the two houses of the UK Parliament: Consists of one representative from each of the 650 districts of the UK that come together to create the government (majority party or coalition of majority parties) and Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (shadow government). The Prime Minister leads the government and is a member of the majority party government. This house is Responsible for Legislation and Executive Power (unlike the United States).
House of Lords
The higher of the two houses that make up the UK Parliament: The only hereditary parliamentary house in existence in the entire world. Consists of 698 life peers and 90 hereditary peers. While majority of work is done in the House of Commons, the House of Lords can delay or amend legislation, and initiate bills unless they are revenue bills. Any changes made by the House of Lords to a bill can be deleted by a majority vote in the House of Commons.
Located in Westminster Palace in London England, Parliament is The Government of the United Kingdom. It is based on the Westminster model of Parliament that consists of the House of Commons and House of Lords. Parliament does not have total control over the state, as the Head of State is still the Queen of England. Parliament holds Legislative and Executive Power, which differs, from The United States and its Legislative Branch.
the "great charter" of English liberties, forced from King John by the English barons and sealed at Runnymede, June 15, 1215.
a member of the uk parliament who does not have any official position in the government or in one of the opposing parties
A reference to the Monarchy; it is an integral part of the institution of Parliament, along with the House of Commons and the House of Lords by playing a constitutional role in opening and dissolving Parliament and approving Bills before they become law.
First Past the Post
A method of voting in which a candidate who first reaches 51% or majority of the projected voter turnout wins the election. This system favors polarizing candidates and two-party systems because any vote not placed for the second place candidate is in most aspects a vote for the first place candidate.
characterizes electoral systems by which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. If 30% of the electorate support a particular political party, then roughly 30% of seats will be won by that party. The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result: not just a plurality, or a bare majority, of them.
Vote of No Confidence
a vote on a motion put by the Opposition censuring an aspect of the Government's policy; if the motion is carried the Government is obliged to resign
is the meeting place of the House Of Commons and the House of Lords, the two Houses of Parliament of the United Kingdom
Whitehall is a road in the City of Westminster, in central London, which forms the first part of the A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea. It is the main thoroughfare running south from the site of the original Charing Cross at the southern end of Trafalgar Square towards Parliament Square. Recognized as the centre of Her Majesty's Government , the street is lined with government departments and ministries; the name "Whitehall" is thus also frequently used as a metonym for overall British governmental administration, as well as being a geographic name for the surrounding area. The southernmost portion between Parliament Square and Downing Street is named Parliament Street.
Is the practice of viewing the world from a European perspective and with an implied belief, either consciously or subconsciously, in the preeminence of European culture. (In the UK, this means individuals who believe that the UK should play a greater role in European affairs)
A person who is opposed to increasing the powers of the European Union. With regard to Britain, it refers to people who feel that the European Union threatens British sovereignty. The UK Independence Party is euroskeptic. Their primary policy initiative is to get the UK to leave the EU.
Free market, anti welfarist ideology of former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
the delegation of authority (especially from a central to a regional government)
Good Friday Agreement
An agreement reached in 1998 on Good Friday (the first day of the Christian Easter holiday) between the political parties of Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic to end 30 years of violence between Catholic and Protestant groups. The people of Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic were then asked to vote on the agreement, and accepted it by a large majority.
A contraction of the economy characterized by declines in the total output of the economy for six or more consecutive months. More technically, a decrease in total output over two consecutive quarters
In a unitary system, all local governments are subservient to the national government. Local governments can be altered or abolished by the national government and they have no final authority over any significant federal government activities. Examples of unitary governments include France, Britain, Italy, and Sweden.