management exam II

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Deciding in advance what to do, who is to do it, how it is to be done, and when it is to be done
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Terms in this set (153)
an active attempt to turn back the clock to the past. The past, no matter how bad, is preferable to the present. And definitely better than the future will be. The past is romanticized and there is a desire to return to the "good old days." These people seek to undo the change that has created the present, and they fear the future, which they attempt to prevent.
an attempt to preserve the present, which is preferable to both the past and the future. While the present may have problems it is better than the past. The expectation is that things are as good as they are likely to get and the future will only be worse. Any additional change is likely to be for the worse and should therefore be avoided.
an attempt to predict the future and then to plan for that predicted future. Technological change is seen as the driving force bringing about the future, which will be better than the present or the past. The planning process will seek to position the organization to take advantage of the change that is happening around them
involves designing a desired future and then inventing ways to create that future state. Not only is the future a preferred state, but the organization can actively control the outcome. Planners actively shape the future, rather than just trying to get ahead of events outside of their control. The predicted changes of the preactive planner are seen not as absolute constraints, but as obstacles that can be addressed and overcome.
External conditions that promote achievement of organizational objectivesopportunitiesExternal conditions that challenge or threaten the achievement of organizational objectivesthreatsaligns business activities to the vision and strategy of the organization, improve internal and external communications, and monitor organization performance against strategic goals.balanced scorecardwhat are the levels of the planning hierarchy from top to bottommission, philosophy, goals, objectives, policies, procedures, rulesa declaration of an organization's objectives,vision statementa formal summary of the aims and values of a company, organization, or individual.mission statementBeliefs that guide behaviorvaluesStatements of expectations that set boundaries for actions and decision makingpoliciespolicies that are expressed verbally and are written outexplicitpolicies that develop over time but are neither written nor verbally expressedimpliedStep by step way of accomplishing specific tasksproceduresSpecifically defined acceptable choices of actionrulesnegotiation of wages and other conditions of employment by an organized body of employeescollective bargainingestablished in 1962 and lifted restrictions preventing public employees from organizingexecutive order 10988Extended labor laws to private, non-profit hospitals , nursing homes, health clinics, Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO's) and other health care institutionsthe Wagner actformed to implement the wagner act and allowed for nurses to form their own separate unionsNational labor relations boardwhich states have disaffiliated with the ANAcali, mass, maine, NY, pennwhat percentage of approval must be achieved in order to be recognized by the NLRB as a union30%what is the process for getting represented by a unionall employees of the same classification vote and 50% plus 1 vote must be for unionizationwhat what point does decertification by the union occurif 30% sign a petition to be deunionizedset minimum wage and maximum hours that can be worked before overtimefair labor standards actequal employment practicescivil rights actProtects against forced retirementage discrimination actRegulations dealing with conditions of employee's work, physical conditions, financial aspects and amount of hours workedlabor standardsprohibited unfair labor practices of unions:taft-hartley amendmentwhich two legal acts prevent discrimination when it comes to employing peoplecivil rights act and equal employment opportunity lawsthis civil rights act defines sexual harassmentVIIProvides a place of employment that is free from recognized hazards that may cause physical harm.occupational safety and health actInvolves training or molding the mind or character to bring about desired behaviors Is often considered a form of punishment but is not quite the same thing as punishmentdisciplineAn undesirable event that follows unacceptable behavior, which may have negative consequences but can be a powerful motivator for changepunishmentIs carried out in a supportive, corrective manner Employee is reassured that punishment is given because of their actions and not because of who he or she is as a person Primary focus is to assist employees to be self-directed in meeting organizational goalsconstructive disciplineUse of threats and fear to control behavior Employee always alert to impending penalty or termination Arbitrarily administered and either unfair in the application of rules or in the resulting punishmentdestructive disciplineThe process by which rules are internalized and become part of the person's personality Highest and most effective form of discipline Self-discipline is possible only if subordinates know the rules and accept them as validself disciplineThe following four elements must be present to make discipline as fair and growth-producing as possible:forewarning, immediate consequences, consistency, impartialityA formal reprimand is which step in a system of progressive discipline?secondManager actively brings areas of unacceptable behavior or performance to the attention of the employee Works with him or her to establish a short-term plan to correct deficienciesperformance deficiency coachingessentially a statement of wrongdoinggrievanceTypically entails progressive lodging of complaints up the chain of commandformal grievance processThe grievance process: (Select all that apply) A.Generally follows lodging complaints according to a B.chain of command C.Is often outlined in union contracts D.Usually proceeds to arbitration E.All of the aboveA B, CThese employees disrupt unit functioning because the quantity or quality of their work consistently meets only minimal standardsmarginal employeesWhich are changes that can be indicative of substance abuse? Irritability Forgetfulness Social isolation Change in physical appearance All of the aboveall of the aboveProcess of actively seeking out, attracting applicants for positionsrecruitmentwork environments that attract and retain well-qualified nurses who promote quality patient, resident and client care.magnet hospitalsoccurs only when the organization is able to create a work environment that makes staff want to stayretentionMost time-consuming and most costly selection toolsinterviewingmost decisions are made in the first ___ to ___ seconds of the interview30-60in unstructured interviews, the interviewer often does what percentage of the talking80-90in structured interviews what percentage of the talking is from the interviewer50-60the planned, guided adjustment of an employee to the organization and the work environmentonboardingwhat are the phases of onboardinginduction, orientation, socializationAllows employees to select the time schedules that best meet their personal needs while still meeting work responsibilitiesflex timeAllows employees the opportunity and responsibility to make their own work schedulesself schedulingGroupings of patients according to specific characteristicspatient classification systemuses broad indicators such as bathing, diet, intravenous fluids and medications, and positioning to categorize patient care activities.critical indicator PCSrequires the nurse to note the frequency of occurrence of specific activities, treatments, and procedures/patient.summative task pcsis a condition for participation in Medicare and is required by the Joint Commission for certification.national level pcsbaby boomers1943-early 1960sgeneration xearly 1960s to early 1980sgeneration yearly 1980s to 2000sOccurs when the staff members on a unit make a commitment to cover all absences and needed extra staffing (i.e. to cover increased patient census) in return for not being pulled from the unit in times of low census.closed unit staffingForced to work additional shifts, often under threat of patient abandonmentmandatory overtimeRefers to the way in which a group is formed, its lines of communication, and its means for channeling authority and making decisionsorganizational structureProvides a framework for defining managerial authority, responsibility, and accountability Roles and functions are defined Different people have different roles Rank and hierarchy are evidentformal structureGenerally social with blurred or shifting lines of authority authority and lines of communication exist even if not formally acknowledgedinformal structureFormal paths of communication and authoritychain of commandThe number of people directly reporting to any one managerspan of controlCEO, COO, CNO Look at organization as a wholetop level managersDepartment directors Integrate unit day to day needs with the organizational needsmiddle level managerscharge nurse, team leader Focus on unit day to day needsfirst level managers-duty or assignment; implementation of a jobresponsibilityindividuals agree to be morally responsible for consequences of their actions.accountabilityhas only direct, vertical relationships between different levels in the firm. authority follows the chain of command.line structurewhere a position falls on on the organizational chartcentralitystructures use a project team or task approach and are usually disbanded after a project is hocstructure is designed to focus on both product and function. Function is described as all the tasks required to produce the product, and the product is the end result of the function. For example, good patient outcomes are the product, and staff education and adequate staffing may be the functions necessary to produce the outcome.matrixsometimes called care-centered organizations, are smaller in scale than a large bureaucratic system. For example, in this organizational design, the overall goals would be determined by the larger organization, but the service line would decide on the processes to be used to achieve the goals.service lineRemove hierarchical layers Decentralizes the organization Decisions made where work is being carried outflat designfew top managers make the decisionscentralizedproblems solved at the level in which they occurdecentralizedwhich form of decision making works better in larger organizationsdecentralizedEntities in the organization's environment that play a role in the organization's health and performance or are affected by the organizationstakeholderHow employees perceive an organizationorganizational climateThe aim of this is the empowerment of employees within the decision making system.shared governanceoutput of goods & services produced by labor & property located in the US.real GDPhealth care spending is predicted to reach what amount in 20184.35 trillionwhat percentage of the US GDP is spend on healthcare?17.9%inappropriate or ineffective medical procedures, practice variabilityunnecessary carewhat is the consumer attitude that is causing the increase in health care pricesfix rather than preventCost containment is primarily the responsibility of the HC organizational leadersfalseWhat is the goal of the budget? A. To predict an organization's activities B. To maximize the use of resources C. To help with planning and control D. All of the aboveall of the abovethe largest type of budget in HCpersonnelbudget that plans for major equipment, and buildings, or things lasting greater than 5 yearscapital budgetWhat is generally the area of most expenditures: A. Operating budget B. Supplies C. Personnel budget D. Capital budgetpersonnel budgetbudgeting process involving rejustify their program or needs every budgeting cycle. This method does not automatically assume that because a program has been funded in the past, it should continue to be basedBymultiplying current-year expenses by a certain figure, usually the inflation rate or consumer price index, the budget for the coming year may be projected.incremental budgetingare budgets that flex up and down over the year depending on volume, automatically calculates what the expenses should be, given the volume that is occurring.flexible budgetemphasizes outcomes and results instead of activities or outputs. Thus, the manager would budget as needed to achieve specific outcomes and would evaluate budgetary success accordingly.performance budgetingThis refers to the average number of inpatients receiving care each day during a reporting periodaverage daily censusvalue is used in determining the allocation of resources to care for and/or treat the patients in the mixhours worked by one employee on a full-time basisfull time equivalentis a statistical system of classifying any inpatient stay into groups for the purposes of payment. The classification system divides possible diagnoses into more than 20 major body systems and subdivides them into almost 500 groups for the purpose of Medicare reimbursement.diagnostic related groupsis a tool of budgetary control by evaluation of performance by means of differences between budgeted amount, planned amountvariance analysisa department or other unit within an organization to which costs may be charged for accounting purposes.cost centeris a company's income after all expenses have been deducted from revenuesbottom linea system of health care in which patients agree to visit only certain doctors and hospitals, and in which the cost of treatment is monitored by a managing company.managed carethe amount to be paid to the provider is determined after the service is rendered.cost-based reimbursementin which Medicare payment is made based on a predetermined, fixed amount. The payment amount for a particular service is derived based on the classification system of that service (for example, diagnosis-related groups for inpatient hospital services).prospective reimbursementThe difference between what an insurance company approves according to its contract and what the health care provider charges for the procedure.contractual allowancehealth care jargon for the percentage of revenue coming from private insurance versus government insurance versus self-paying individuals.payer mixTypically, these are written, then go to a coder to be aligned with the corresponding CPT and ICD-9 codes. Those codes are then passed to a biller, who will assign the proper billing amounts for the work performed and treatments given. This whole process is calledcharge capturemodel that offers financial incentives to physicians, hospitals, medical groups, and other healthcare providers for meeting certain performance for performancethe amount of material or items passing through a system or processthroughputis the federal health insurance program for people who are 65 or older, certain younger people with disabilities, and people with End-Stage Renal Diseasemedicares a health care program that assists low-income families or individuals in paying for long-term medical and custodial care costs.medicaidthe payment of a fee or grant to a doctor, school, or other person or body providing services to a number of people, such that the amount paid is determined by the number of patients, students, or customers.capitationOrganized method of ensuring that people have the knowledge and skills for a specific purpose and that they have acquired the necessary knowledge to preform the duties of the jobtrainingthe method and practice of teaching, especially as an academic subject or theoretical concept.pedagogywhat 5 things did knowles believe were different about adult learnersself concept, experience, readiness, orientation,motivationlearning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct instruction, even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct learning theoryPresenting 2 or more items of information and grouping them into one unitchunkingHaving the ability to meet the requirements of a particular rolecompetenceExperienced competent employees Relationship is passive or non existent See behaviors you want to emulate Can have many role models There is a cumulative effectrole modelActive and purposeful Experienced nurse, provides emotional support Strong clinical skills Close supervision NonjudgmentalpreceptorIn-depth supportive and nurturing relationship between an expert and a novice Formal relationship. Lasts 2-5 years, mentor is typically one generation older Many nurses do not experience the mentoring relationship in their careersmentorwhat are the stages of the mentoring processfinding/connecting, learning/listening, changing/shifting, mentoring otherHelping others to achieve optimal level of performance Tool for empowerment, behavior changes, and team building Assist employee to recognize options, clarify statements and to growcoachingA two day skills fair is an example of: Training EducationtrainingWhich form of learning encourages competition? Pedagogy AndragogypedagogyHow many chunks of data can the average person retain? 1 or 2 3 to 5 5 to 9 10 to 125-9ability to influence the behavior of others in the organization based solely on past experience and expertise in a specific areaexpert or knowledge powerrefers to the ability of a leader to influence a follower because of the follower's loyalty, respect, friendship, admiration, affection, or a desire to gain approval.referent powerpower Gained by the title or position Creates a feeling of obligation and responsibilitylegitimate powerpower based in fear and punishmentcoercive powerGap between position of authority and subordinate responseauthority-power gapMeans to develop, enable and allow A process of sharing power Develops leadership, collegial relationships and self-respect Example: Self scheduling and the schedule makerempowermentTypically exemplified in female dominated professions Once successful, does not assist others in achieving successqueen bee syndromepower involving Strength and confidencepersonal powerActivities that evaluate, monitor, or regulate services rendered to the consumerquality controlDegree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional qualityProcess of measuring products, practices and services against best-performing organizationsbenchmarkinga predetermined level of excellence that serves as a guide for practice.standardBasic assumption is quality can always be improved Do the right things, the right way, the first time Problem prevention planning leads to quality outcomestotal quality managementPromotes improvements in the safety of health care by giving consumers data to make more informed hospital choices. Includes hospital survey results,leapfrog group