Food Science Exam: Study Guide #1

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What has been the impact of food processing on sustainability of the food system, and thus, the global population?
Food processing methods, such as preservation of food to delay spoilage or deterioration, refrigeration, as well as canning or other forms of packaging, have helped sustain the food system by allowing perishable food to be transported across long distances. Since most of the global population now lives in urban areas as opposed to rural areas (where most of the food production takes place) these methods have ensured that food can be safely transported from the rural areas of production to the urban areas. By increasing the shelf life of food and ensuring that food reaches these urban areas, the global population has been able to successfully thrive.
During the Green Revolution of the 1960's, which of the following was not a major component for the increase in food production: A) Irrigation
B) Using more Land
C) Pesticides D) Fertilizer
B) Using more land
The earliest signs of agriculture was thousands of years ago, but the population didn't seem to increase exponentially until much later on. Explain the link between agriculture and population growth and why the population boom didn't occur at the same time agriculture was introduced.
Before agriculture was introduced, humans were hunter gatherers, meaning they would have to eat whatever they could find, move around constantly and put all their resources into finding food. When agriculture was introduced, there was now a surplus or food in one area, reducing starvation and allowing for the formation of settlements. This could have caused a slight increase in population due to better nourishment and quality of life, which slowly increased along with the increased use of agriculture throughout the world. The large increase in the population over the last 200 years, however, is more likely due to the better technology and medicine contributing to a lower infant mortality rate and increased lifespan, rather than having a direct link with the introduction of agriculture itself.
What are examples of food processing, and why did food processing increase in demand beginning in the 1950's?
Examples of food processing that allow increased food preservation include refrigeration, freezing, smoking, canning, and freeze-drying, all of which were deemed necessary as the percentage of people living in urban areas increased, and the percentage of people living in rural areas decreased.
Two significant quotes were shared during the Lecture "Feeding 9 Billion People" that supported the question "why study food science?" Finish these quotes with the appropriate responses: (1) "how we ____ food has a bigger impact on Americans' _____ than any other human activity"

2) the ___ is the ___ sector of our economy: food touches everything from our _____ to the environment, _______, economic ____ and the ______."
1) produce and consume; well-being

2) food industry; largest; health; climate change; inequality; federal budget
How did homo sapiens transition from being nomadic to living in civilizations?
When the transition to agriculture began in 11000 BCE, humans began to grow grains in the Fertile Crescent. This ability to produce food instead of hunting and gathering helped humans form civilizations (instead of being nomadic) since the source of food would no longer have to vary in location with the time of year.
According to the research presented in the last chart we were shown in the first lecture, American diets are very skewed in that we do not eat enough of certain types of foods in our daily meals. According to the results of the survey, current eating patterns in the United States estimate that ____% of Americans do not consume enough dairy on a daily basis: A) 25% B) 45%
Study Questions I - FDSC 1101 Fall 2016
A. Multiple choice:
A. Multiple choice:
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C) 65%
D) 85%
D) 85%
What are the 6 different parts of the Food System?
Food Production, Food Processing, Food Transportation, Food Retailing, Food Service and Home Preparation, and Consumer Food Choices
Paul Ehrlich wrote The Population Bomb in 1968, in which he warned that mass starvation would occur in the 1970s and 1980s; however, this did not occur. What is one possible explanation for why Ehrlich was wrong in his prediction?
One possible explanation is the advancement of agricultural technologies. Plant breeding allowed for a higher yield of wheat and rice to be produced on the same amount of land, leading food production to greatly increase. In addition, the inventions of fertilizers, pesticides, and better irrigation allowed for a higher percentage of crops to be unharmed by the environment. Another reason is the implementation of food preservation techniques. Examples of this include freezing, canning, refrigerating, and vacuum packing foods, which greatly increases the shelf life of products.
How has our diet changed as humans moved from hunter-gatherers to current times?
As hunter-gatherers, humans had little choices for food and were limited to the food in their area. However, they were able to thrive on a diversity of diets and generally had a diet high in fiber and low in energy density. This is different from today, where we have a surplus of food choices that are imported from all over the world. However, today food is usually more processed and not as nutritious and is typically low in fiber and high in sugar.
What year will the population reach 9 billion?A) 2030 B) 2040 C) 2050 D) 2060
C) 2050
What is the largest consumer of freshwater in the world?
Agriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater, using approximately 80% of the world's supply in order to irrigate crops.
Describe the consequences of the majority population shifting from living in rural areas to living in cities. Include a challenge it presents to the food system and an example of a technology or method used to overcome it.
As the majority population shifted from living in rural areas to living in cities, people moved away from the mass farms which are the center of food production. This created challenges in food spoilage, storage, and transport. To combat food spoilage and storage, methods for drying, freezing, freeze-drying, refrigerating, canning, and vacuum- sealing perishable foods are used.
What is the Green Revolution, its effect on mass starvation, and a country that benefited from it?
Founded by Borlaug in the 1960s, it was the change in using shorter stem varieties of wheat, rice, and maize, which caused higher yields. There were also improved farming practices. This helped prevent mass starvation by increasing food per capita, saving many lives. India was no longer in a food deficit after this time.
As the human population has become more urbanized, the need for food has remained the same. What parts of the food systems helps deal with these needs?
The processing of food allows for the lifetime of food to be increased to a level where there can be transported around the United States and the globe. With this increase in lifetime, food transportation is also needed to ensure that the food can be delivered to the areas that need this processed food. These two processes allow for increased urbanization to occur, while most of the food is grown in rural communities.
What are the two types of ice cream mixes that serve as the base for nearly all varieties of ice cream?
Chocolate mix and white mix
On which day of the week is more ice cream sold than on any other day of the week?
Sunday
There is a common notion that Cornell Dairy cannot commercially sell their ice cream because it has too high of a milk fat content. Is this true?
This is false. The minimum amount of milkfat must be 10 percent, but there is no regulation on the maximum amount of milkfat. In fact other brands found in the grocery store have a higher percentage of milkfat than Cornell Dairy which is only around 12%.
Why are fruits, nuts, and bulky flavorings added to the ice cream mixture after it is already frozen and why is this beneficial to the overall consistency of the ice cream?
The fruits, nuts, and bulky flavorings are added to the ice cream after freezing because it prevents the pieces from breaking. This is beneficial to the consistency because the mixture is still soft and therefore the pieces are able to be evenly dispersed throughout the product.
What is the rumor for why Cornell Dairy could not be sold off campus, why is it false, and what is the truth?
The rumor is that the ice cream fat content is too high, it's false because there is only a lower limit of 10% but no upper limit, and the truth is that it wasn't allowed to be sold off campus of the competition with the local private industry prevented Cornell from selling it off campus.
What are the top 5 ice cream flavors in the US?
Chocolate, vanilla, butter pecan, strawberry, and chocolate chip mint.
What is "Overrun"? And how does it affect the texture and the quality of ice cream?
The addition of air in ice cream mixture is called "overrun". Overrun contributes to lightness or density of ice cream texture. Premium ice creams usually have less overrun because they are denser than regular ice cream, which means less air is added.
Particulate addition should always be done: a) Before hardening and after batch whipping
b) Before batch whipping and before hardening
c) Before distribution and before air incorporation d) After distribution and after packaging
A) Before hardening and after batch whipping
A group of ambitious Cornell students are looking to make a fortune by creating a revolutionary new type of ice cream to compete in the $23 billion dollar industry. They plan to make an ice cream that will make those who eat it lose, rather than gain weight. While they are in the planning phase and are considering their ingredients, which are essential for them to include: A. The ice cream must contain at least 10% milkfat
B. The ice cream must contain at least 1.3 pounds of total solids to the gallon
C. The ice cream must contain bacteria that eats fat cells D. The ice cream must contain vanilla extract
E. The ice cream must contain a type of food coloring
F. The ice cream must have ingredients that are kosher
A: The ice cream must contain at least 10% milkfat

Explanation: According to the NYS Code of Rules and Regulations, in Part 17 Requirements for the Labeling of, and Definitions and Standards of Identity for Milk, Milk Products and Frozen Desserts: Ice cream must contain no less than 1.6 pounds of total solids to the gallon (which would eliminate option B), and must weigh no less than 4.5 pounds to the gallon. Ice cream must also contain no less than 10 percent milkfat (option A), nor less than 10 percent nonfat milk solids. The only listed ingredient that must be included in the legal production of ice cream is option A. All other options could be included in the students' recipe but are not essential for the production of their ice cream.
Why is the "hardening" step crucial to the production of ice cream?
Hardening comes right after Packaging. At that point of the process, ice cream still has a gel-like consistency. It is frozen, but is not stable yet. Quickly freezing the ice cream in a temperature of less than -13°F(-25°C) enables the most of the remaining water in the ice cream to form tiny crystals, which helps stabilize the product as well as maintain its quality. Hardening also prevents the loss of air (or overrun) incorporated in the ice cream in previous steps of the process.
Each American consumes a yearly average of ______ of ice cream, ice milk, sherbet, ices and other commercially produced frozen dairy products:
A: 27.5 pints
B: 23.2 quarts
C: 1 gallon D: 55 cups
B: 23.2 quarts
What are the nine steps involved in making ice cream?
1. Blend the mixture
2. Pasteurize the mix
3. Homogenize
4. Age the mix
5. Add flavors and colors
6. Freeze
7. Add inclusions and variegates
8. Package
9. Harden
What best describes the policy of milkfat content in ice cream and how much does Cornell's ice cream have?
Ice cream needs to have at least 10% milkfat. Cornell's ice cream has about 12-13% milkfat.
Certain brands of ice cream such as Häagen-Dazs are considered to be "superpremium." This kind of ice cream has _____ overrun and ______ fat content: a. low; low
b. low; high
c. high; high d. high; low
B: low; high
What is the purpose of homogenization in the process of making ice cream?
The purpose of homogenization is to decrease milk fat globule size, which forms a better emulsion and contributes to a smoother, creamier ice cream.
Name at least two other reasons why people would choose to eat Kosher food, besides for religious reasons.
Possible answers:
1) They are vegetarians
2) They have a certain food allergy
3) They are very conscious of food quality 4) As consumers they don't trust the FDA
In the Kosher and Halal lecture, we discussed the kosher laws and regulations. In reference to this lecture, which of the following animals is not allowed to be consumed under kosher laws: Multiple choice:
A. Cow B. Deer C. Pig
D. Giraffe E. Goat
C. Pig
Which of the following is NOT a prohibition under Halal?
A. Prohibition of specific animals
B. Prohibition of drugs and intoxicants
C. Prohibition of blood
D. Prohibition of traditional birds (not ostrich)
E. Both D and C
D. Prohibition of traditional birds (not ostrich)

Explanation: The answer is D. Under Halal, there is a prohibition of specific animals, most specifically PORK, but goes beyond food. Also, there is a prohibition of drugs and intoxicants, most specifically drinking alcohol. Lastly, there is a prohibition of blood.
What is the name of the term that is a third kosher category separate from milk and meat and also means "neutral" in Yiddish? Give two kosher food examples that fall under that category.
The term is called Pareve. Two examples would be eggs and fruits.
Why are companies primarily interested in producing Kosher/Halal foods? Explain.
Companies are primarily interested in producing Kosher/Halal foods because it is a good business decision. The benefits of incremental sales from selling to these groups of people outweigh the production costs to make their foods Kosher/Halal. Companies are typically not interested in upgrading their equipment for religious reasons.
Why did it take so long (3.5 years) for Oreos to be considered a Kosher food?
It took a while for Oreos to be considered a Kosher food because the conveyor belts in Oreo factories had to be slowly phased out as new, expensive belts were purchased for factories.
Which ingredient in the following ice cream flavor would be the biggest concern in satisfying Kosher regulations? Why?
Tower Road (chocolate ice cream with mini marshmallows, bananas, and hazelnuts)
Ingredient: Marshmallows
Why? They typically contain gelatin.
What is an example of a company that has used the 4 P's to market their product? Please provide their business model of those 4 P's in a short paragraph.
Answers may vary, but here is an example:
Dip N' Dots thrives by selling their ice cream at a high price, but only at select places where their product is the only option if you are craving cold ice cream. They don't do much promotion other than their special giant freezers at those places, such as amusement parks. Lastly, their product is so unique, and tastes good, which is what drives their sales because when someone wants Dip N' Dots, nothing is like it.
Harriet Wilson, an ice cream entrepreneur based in England, revisited her ice cream brand "Jolly Nice Ice Cream" (formerly "Westonbirt Ice Cream") in order to compete with more established luxury ice cream brands. One of the key marketing strategies adopted by Wilson was the redesign of the packaging. Describe two ways Wilson updated the packaging of her product.
A paragraph with the story of her ice cream's origins was printed on the container. The whimsical text with phrases like "uncompromisingly delicious" marketed the ice cream as fun. (2) The packaging also included illustrations of lemurs, which created a connection to the origin of the vanilla from Madagascar. Wilson was able to sell the story and create emotional connection with the consumers.
Why was Starbucks using twitter as a medium for advertisement of "Starbucks Ice Cream" a smart idea?
Some possible answers:
• Twitter is a relatively inexpensive advertisement medium.
• Since they were giving away free products, it made the contest trending, increasing visits to the twitter page. • Even those who didn't win the free pint still got a coupon for the ice cream, giving the viewer an incentive to
still visit the Store and test the product.
In last national ice cream day, ice cream company such as Haagen-dazs and Turkey Hill collaborated with uber to hold a "Ice Cream Election Day" in Washington DC. They sold three kinds of ice cream: red, white and blue. Red ice cream is stand for Republican Party, blue ice cream for Democratic Party, and white for neutrality. In the end, the ice cream company determined which "ice cream" sold most would win the game.
If you were the marketing manager of the Haagen-dazs, how will advertise your product in the "Ice Cream
Election Day"?
a paragraph that describe how the student use social media, television, radio, word of mouth, Email, Mail or contests to advertise the ice cream related to the presidential election. In specific how the student use the theme of presidential election to promote more people to buy the product.
What is the influence of pricing on the ice cream market (i.e. what do manufacturers need to do in order for people to pay more for their ice cream)? What are the three main price-related categories ice cream brands fall into?
The main way manufacturers are able to have high prices and still sell their ice cream is by using ingredients/methods people are willing to pay more for. This could include a higher butterfat content, smoother texture, less overrun, more chunks/bits in the ice cream, etc. The three main price-related categories ice cream can fall into are premium (higher price), middle of the road, and economical (lower price).
In Tim Andon's lecture on "Ice Cream Marketing 101," he talked about the strategy of positioning one's company in the market. Tim gave the example of ice cream brand Ben & Jerry's, stating that "they know who they are as a company." Explain what Tim meant by this statement in regards to the idea of positioning and provide 2 strategies a company might use to implement this idea.
Answers may vary: Discussion of how factors besides the ice cream itself can influence a consumer's choices. In the Ben & Jerry's example, we discussed the company's social conscientiousness, political involvement, fun and clever packaging, and the "emotional benefit" of "feeling gloriously righteous about one's indulgence."
Which one of 4Ps of marketing does Packaging design belong to? a. product
b. place c. price d. promotion
A) Product
Marketing Lecturer Tim Andon referenced the saying, "You eat with your eyes first." What are three questions you should ask yourself when selling your product to ensure what the consumers see is "delicious?"
Possible answers)
1. What is the product name?
2. What does the container look like?
3. What product claims do you want to make?
4. What is unique about your product?
5. What is the story behind my product and how can I communicate it?
Under the Pricing category of the 4 P's of Marketing, what are the three pricing categories? Please give an example of a brand of ice cream for ONE of these categories.
Premium, Middle of the Road, Economical. Possible examples respectively for each: Haagen Dazs, Turkey
Hill, Walmart's Great Value.
What are the four components of the so-called Marketing Mix? List one important point about each component.
1) Price: determined by the type and quality of the ingredients. Pricing challenges include standard of identity, market regulations, non-dairy ingredient costs.
2) Place: where product is sold influences its price. Places could include specialty grocery chain retailers, food trucks, private labels, co brand at a local ice cream store.
3) Promotion: involves getting people to buy the product by advertising it on social media, TV, email, radio, word of mouth, mail, or contests.
4) Product: has to be closely aligned to positioning statement. Have to determine name of product, packaging design, what is unique about it, and what product claims have to be made.
(Some possible answers shown above).
Today in class we discussed marketing, and explaining the market to create for ice cream. According to the lecture how would you define Product Position?
Where you want to stand in the mind of the consumer
What are the four P's of marketing and why are they important when considering making ice
cream? Explain one of the four P's (1-2 sentences).
A. Price, Place, Promotion, and Product. They are important to consider because better marketed and promoted items typically win against other products. And oneof the following:
Price - Determines who your product will appeal to/who your consumer market will be and the types of ingredients that can be used to make your ice cream (higher quality ingredients will require higher selling prices).
Place - Where you will be selling your product. If you have a high quality product that is more expensive to produce than other products, you want to sell it in a place where you can get away with high prices (such as an expensive chain like Whole Foods or public events like fairs and sports games, where other food items are just as expensive).
Promotion - Determining how you will get people to buy products, such as using social media like twitter or giving out coupons.
Product - If the product name, packaging, and claims of the product are attractive, the product is likely to sell better.
In the Icecream Marketing 101 lecture, given by Tim Andon, we discussed product positioning in the context of packaging and product design. Give a brief description of one marketing tactic used by ice cream makers in product packaging designed to lure consumers either emotionally or visually.
A. Possible answers
-Color (bright/eye catching)
-"Limited Edition" claims
-Pictures of food, chunks inside product (emotional connection to food that is recognizable)
-Long textual blurbs (stories are emotional selling points)
-Pictures of animals, exotic places, etc (Madagascar vanilla example)
Which is not one of the 4 Ps of Marketing?
A. Place
B. Positioning
C. Promotion D. Product
B) Positioning
Why did Starbucks give away pints of ice cream for free on Twitter? A. No one was buying it.
B. They liked making their customers happy.
C. It gained them followers, which matched up with their brand positioning. D. So people would retweet it and they would get cheap advertisements.
D) So people would retweet it and they would get cheap advertisements
During this lecture, we talked about the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Which of the following is not considered in the Bill of Rights? a. right of religion, right of speech, right of press
b. right to bear arms
c. no quartering of soldiers, in peace or wartime without consent of house owner d. right to have a free education
D) Right to have a free education
Describe the difference between positions in the Senate and the House of Representatives.
The Senate consists of 2 representatives from each state that serve 6 year terms. Senators have a right to speak for as long as they would like.
The House of Representatives has 435 representatives that serve 2 year terms. Representatives have no right to speak.
Should one suspect there be an issue with the food they consumed, they can report these concerns to agencies like the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) or the FDA. In which branch of the Federal Government are these agencies located?
Executive Branch
Using an example, explain the practice of gerrymandering. In your answer, be sure to include which of the United States Congress's chambers can practice it?
Gerrymandering is the manipulation of voting district boundaries as to provide a political advantage for a specific group. In the United States, only members of the House of Representatives can practice it. For example, the House of Representatives in Alabama could rearrange the boundaries of districts in their state so that there is only one district that has a majority of Democratic voters and the rest of the districts have a majority of Republican voters. This would increase the number of Republicans elected to the House of Representatives in Alabama, which would make it easier for the House to pass legislature drafted by Republican leaders.
Consider this hypothetical situation offered in class: California bars the sale of Florida oranges because Florida oranges typically are more diseased than California oranges. This is a proper example of what constitutional
component? A. Intrastate regulations B. Universal regulations C. Interstate regulations D. National Regulations
C. Interstate regulations
Suppose a consumer bought a food product at a local supermarket in Georgia. After consuming this product, the individual contracted a very serious disease and sued the producer (a large company) in a civil court case. Which of the following choices has the correct order in which this court cases progress through the U.S. judicial branch? a. Court of appeals, Federal district courts, Supreme Court b. Federal district courts, Supreme Court, Court of appeals c. Supreme Court, Court of appeals, Federal district courts d. Federal district courts, Court of appeals, Supreme Court
D) Federal district courts, court of appeals, Supreme court
In Lecture we learned of many issues with the American governing system. One area of the Government which has problems is the House of Representatives. Which of the following is not one of the problems with the House? A. Representatives only have 2 year terms, and therefore are always running for election which adds a distraction in their work and can influence their decision making.
B. There is no "right" to speak with representatives, during daily procedures and function through limited debate.
C. Gerrymandering can occur, allowing the party in power to influence boundaries of an electoral constituency in favor of their party.
D. The number of representatives changes each year, creating issues in consistency.
D) The number of representatives changes each year, creating issues in consistency
In the event that there is a valid cause, who has the legal power to stop trade of a food product between two
states? a) Only the federal government b) Only a state government
c) both can legally do this
d) it is illegal to stop inter-state trade according to the constitution and nobody has this power
A) Only the federal government
Suppose that a senator from Vermont wanted to convince the senate that organic foods are the healthiest and best alternative to processed foods and attempted to propose a law highlighting the restrictions on production of processed foods in attempt to encourage the production of organic foods. In order to prevent this, a senator from Georgia speaks for hours on end about another law which is irrelevant to the food law in order to delay the Vermont senator's law proposal. What is this term called, and how can it be ended? A.) filibuster; cloture
C.) compromise; termination B.) cloture; filibuster
D.) filibuster; termination
E.) compromise; termination
A) filibuster; cloture
We know from Lecture 5 that there is a balance of power set in place between the three branches of the federal government; the legislative, the executive, and the judicial branches. Each branch is different with its own respective responsibilities, however, they all work to ensure that the unalienable rights of the American people are never denied or taken away.
What are some other examples we have of balances of power that ensure these rights? a) Balances between state and federal governments
b) Balances between the federal government and the treasury c) Balances between the citizens and the federal government
d) Balances between the citizens and the state government
e) A, C, and D are all examples of balances of power we have in the United States
E) A, C, and D are all examples of balances of power we have in the United States
A food company must follow the regulations enforced by which branch of government?
Judicial branch
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