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56 terms

speech key terms

key terms from chapters 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, and 17.
STUDY
PLAY
stage fright
anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience
adrenaline
a hormone released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress
positive nervousness
controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for his or her presentation
visualization
mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation
critical thinking
focused, organized thinking about such things as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and the differences between fact and opinion
speaker
the person who is presenting an oral message to a listener
message
whatever a speaker communicates to someone else
channel
the means by whcih a message is communicated
listener
the person who receives the speaker's message
frame of reference
the sum of a person's knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes; no two people can have exactly the same
feedback
the messages, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker
interference
anything that impedes the communication of a message; can be external or internal to listeners
situation
the time and place in which speech communication occurs
ethnocentrism
the belief that one's own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures
ethics
the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs
ethical decisions
involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines
name-calling
the use of language to defame, demean, or degrade individuals or groups
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution
plagiarism
presenting another person's language or ideas as one's own
global plagiarism
stealing a speech entirely from a single source and passing it off as one's own
patchwork plagiarism
stealing ideas or language from two or three sources and passing them off as one's own
paraphrase
to restate or summarize an author's ideas in one's own words
strategic organization
putting a speech together in a particular way to achieve a particular result with a particular audience
main points
the major developed in the body of a speech; usually 2-5
chronological order
a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern
spatial order
a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern
causal order
a method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship
problem-solution order
a method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem
topical order
a method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics
supporting materials
the materials used to support a speaker's ideas; examples, statistics, testimony
connective
a word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them
transition
a word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another
internal preview
a statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next
internal summary
a statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker's preceding point or points
rhetorical question
a question that the audience answers mentally rather than out loud
credibility
the audiences' perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic
goodwill
the audience's perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind
preview statement
a statement in the introduction of a speech that identifies the main points to be discussed in the body
crescendo ending
a conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power and intensity
dissolve ending
a conclusion that generates emotional appeal by fading step by step to a dramatic final statement
preparation outline
a detailed outline developed during the process of speech preparation that includes the title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and bibliography of a speech
visual framework
the pattern of symbolization and indentation in a speech outline that shows the relationships among the speaker's ideas
bibliography
a list of all the sources used in preparing a speech
speaking outline
a brief outline used to jog a speaker's memory during the presentation of a speech
delivery cues
directions in a speaking outline to help a speaker remember how he or she wants to deliver key parts of the speech
speech of introduction
a speech that introduces the main speaker to the audience
speech of presentation
a speech that presents someone a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition
acceptance speech
a speech that gives thanks for a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition
commemorative speech
a speech that pays tribute to a person, a group of people, an institution, or an idea
hearing
vibration of sound waves on the eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain
listening
paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we hear
appreciative listening
listening for pleasure or enjoyment
emphatic listening
listening to provide emotional support for a speaker
comprehensive listening
listening to understand the message of a speaker
critical listening
listening to evaluate a message for purpose of accepting or rejecting it
spare "brain time"
the difference between the rate at which most people talk (120-150 wpm) and the rate of words that the brain can process (400-800 wpm)