20 terms

(alfred) Middle ages & Renaissance 600-1500

680-754: Considered the Apostle to the Germans

Missionary bishop and martyr. He was the first to bring Christinity to germania.

- His felling of the pagan Oak of Thor at Geismar to make a chapel of its timber comments profoundly on his ministry;

- He renewed their authority beyond the Alps and extended the boundaries of Latin Christendom which had already begun to shrink in Spain owing to Muslim conquest.

-With Boniface, unity in the Western Church and the empire took form.
742-814: (Charles the Great)

- King of the Franks and first medieval Roman emperor.

-He became sole ruler of the Frankish kingdom in 771 and spent the next three decades in warfare. His greatest military achievement was the conquest of the Saxons

-These campaigns brought the heathen Slavic tribes under Charles's influence and opened the way for German colonization of eastern Europe.

-On 25 December 800, in Rome, Leo III crowned him emperor.

-He possessed power over both church and state, and practiced a kind of religious paternalism in his church reforms.

- He Convinced a better-educated clergy was needed and brought about intellectual elite of Latin Christendom in his school (palace). He brought about the CAROLINGIAN RENAISSANCE. The revival of learning in Charlemagne's reign

-Charlemagne's empire was the first attempt at unified government since the Roman Empire's collapse and was represented as its re-creation.
Anselm of Canterbury
1033- 1109 Ad. `

Born in Italy, entered a monastery in France when he was 26 and then later became Archbishop of Canterbury.

- He devised the ontological argument for the existence of God.

- His believed faith must come before knowledge.

- He held that the Atonement was necessary to satisfy the majesty of God. Rather than the older view held since Origin's time, that Christ died to pay a ransom to the devil.

He written works:
1. Monologium
2. Proslogium- discorse on the existance of God.
3. Cur Deus Homo - "Why God became man"
Peter Abelard
1079-1142 Ad.

Was a brilliant debater and lecturer, he was a scholastic philosopher and theologian. He was caught in affair with his niece (Heloise) and having a son with her. He was castrated by Heloise's uncle.

He was condemned as heretic (trinitiran errors in his writings) by Council of sens, propagated by Bernard of Clairvaux

*** his contribution was reconciling faith and reason, his saying, "Nothing is to be believed until it is understood."

his written works:
- Story of Misfortunes
1225-1274 Ad.

He was considered the greatest Philosopher and theologian of the Medieval church.

He leaned heavily on Aristotle and Augustine.

***Natrual reason leads one to the "vestibule of faith."

His written works:
- Suma Theologica

He came up with the 5 ways to prove God's existence:

1. Unmoved mover - There must have been something who always existed who created all things.

2. 1st cause - Something must be dependent on something. Plants depend on light.

3. The Argument from Contingency - meaning we see all things perishing, so then we should not exist, but we do, which means there must be something that does not perish (GOD).

4. The Argument from Degree - we see things in degrees of good and bad, which means there must have always been a pure source of goodness.

5. The Teleological Argument - It's an intelligent design.
Bernard of Clairvaux
1090-1153 Ad.

Started a monastery in Clairvaux. In his preaaching he encouraged the Second Crusade. was a very conservative, pious, mystic that was prone to stir up controversy.
Was a noted hymn-writher

Influence cult worship to Mary.

His written works:
1. Degrees of humility and Pride.
2. Loving God.
Francis of Assisi

He created the Franciscan Order. He lived a life of poverty and collected money to build churches.

His order grew alot.
Thomas Bradwardine
1290- 1349

Was an english theologian and Mathematician. Was named archbishop of Canterbury, but died of the black plague 40 days later.

He was against Pelagiansim, in which he stressed God's grace and irresistible will, His doctrine paved the way to of the development of the doctrine of Predestination.
Peter Waldo / Waldensians
1140 - 1205 Ad.

He was a clothes merchant that sold all that he had and created a following of a life of poverty. He denounced many major catholic dogmas. while accusing them of being the harlot from the book of Revelation.

1. Papal excesses and Catholic dogmas
2. purgatory
3. transubstantiation.

He created a movement of lay preacher and was short of a precurser (mini-reformation) to the reformation.

They were persecuted and sizzled out until the reformation.
John Wycliffe
He has been called "the Morning Star of the Reformation."

He was a lecturer / English Reformer. A Yorkshireman who attended Oxford University. He also preached as a rector.

**Later on in his life / what he really known for.**
- He was the first Proto-Prostestant, and forerunner to the reformation. Influenced John Hus (bohemian reformer).

- He translated the first bible in English.

- he believed that the Bible was the only authoritative guide for faith and practice.

-He attacked the doctrine of transubstantiation and taught a doctrine of the Real Presence

- He attacked the institution of the papacy,

- Herepudiated indulgences, and wished to have religious orders abolished
John (Jan) Hus

He was a theologian and boheimian reformer, who attacked clerical abuses and papal authority, and emphasized the priesthood of all believers and the importance of preaching the Word of God. He was burned at the stake for his views.

• Highly influenced by Wycliffe.
Girolamo Savonarola

Italian reformer. Born in Ferrara and destined at first for a career in medicine, he joined the Dominicans.

He denounced Alexander VI and the corrupt papal court.
and became very troublesome to the pope. He was later tried as a heretic and killed.
Medieval theological movement that used Aristotelian logic to create a theological system, and embraced reason as a path to knowledge.

• Famous scholastics include Anselm, Peter Abelard, Peter Lumbard, and Thomas Aquinas.

• 3 important aspects of scholasticism:
1. Embraced reason as a path to knowledge

2. Explored the relationship between Scripture and
non-Christian theology, especially Aristotle

3. Used a dialectical method of writing, teaching and
organizing thought
The Rise of Islam
The Rise of Islam unified the Arab groups and it created a powerful new force that swept through the Eastern Roman Empire.

Its spread was from arabian peninsula to Africa.

How it spread was through trade and warfare. the warefare had a huge impact on the Byzantine empire after one of their crucial cities fell in 639 (cairo) and 640 Alexandria fell under Muslim control.

THis wafare created a stir in the church and started the crusades.
What was Unam Sanctam
-On 18 November 1302, Pope Boniface 8th (1230-1303) issued the Papal bull Unam sanctam

-The Bull lays down dogmatic propositions on the unity of the Catholic Church, the necessity of belonging to it for eternal salvation, the position of the pope as supreme head of the Church, and the duty thence arising of submission to the pope in order to belong to the Church and thus to attain salvation.
Pope Innocent III and height of Papal power?
Pope Innocent (1160-1198) was one of the most powerful and influential popes. He exerted a wide influence over the Christian states of Europe, claiming supremacy over all of Europe's kings.

-He brought the papal power to its Height.

- He called for a crusade against the muslims in spain and the 4th crusade.
Babylonian Captivity and Avignon Papacy?
A period during the 14th century in which 6 consecutive popes, all French, resided in Avignon, France rather than Rome. This caused problems with the french king having power of the church.
Council of Constance?

There were a series of problems in the church during 1300's. Some would be the removal of the pope from rome to Avignon and the Great Schism.

One of the Popes John the 23rd was in military trouble and agreed to call the coucil of constance to secure the help of the Holy Rompan Emperor, Sigismund.

The emperor wished to call a council to enhance his prestige, reform the church, and suppress heresy.

John Hus was one of the people who were condemed/ exicuted by this council. Which led to the hussite wars.
The Great Schism
• The Great Schism: Division between the Eastern and Western Church in 1054.
o Reasons:
- Intellectual Alienation: the Greek-speaking East and Latin-speaking West
came at theology from such different perspectives that they were no longer
able to understand each other.

- Papal Authority: the West asserted that the Pope was Peter's successor and
therefore should rule over the entire church. The East rejected this.

- The Filioque Controversy: the West added the word "filioque" (and the Son) to the Nicene Creed, stating that the Holy Spirit "proceeds from the Father and the Son." The East rejected this.
The Crusades?
series of military offensives from Europe into Muslim lands between 1095-1204.
o Goals of the Crusades:

1. Retake the Holy Land

2. Save Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire from Muslim threat

3. Reunite the Eastern and Western Churches

4. Earn salvation: Popes promised the forgiveness of sins for those who
participated in the Crusades

o The first three goals were all accomplished temporarily, but none permanently.