50 terms

Literary, Poetic Terms

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

End-Stopped
a pause at the end of a line
Caesura
a pause that occurs within a line
Enjambment
a line that "runs over" to the next line without a pause
Rhythm
a recurring pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables, and pauses. This is based on pattern (please overlook the specifics of this in the packet)
Meter
the beat of poetry feet
Metric Pattern
the syllables in the words of a poem, fall at regular intervals (similar to the beat of music)
Euphony
good sound that contributes to the melody of a poem (the musical quality)
cacophony
bad sound that contributes to the melody of a poem (the musical quality)
Single (Masculine) Rhyme
dame, same; love, dove
Double Feminine Rhyme
napping, tapping; weather, heather
melody
music quality
Triple Rhyme
mournfully, scornfully; victorious, glorious
Sight (eye) rhyme
two words look alike but do not sound alike
ex) love, jove; laughter, daughter
Slant (imperfect) rhyme
two words nearly rhyme but have a slight variation in vowel sound
ex) Lake and fate
Identical Rhyme (Rime Rhyme)
in which 2 words are spelt differently but have the same pronunciation
ex) two, too; right, rite
Internal Rhyme
in which the rhyming words occur inside a line
ex) "Let's beat the heat"
End Rhyme
the rhyming words occur at the ends of lines of poetry
Consonantal Alliteration
The repetition of similar speech sounds in closely related words or syllables.
ex) Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers (the repetition of p words)
Vowel Alliteration
The repetition of similar speech sounds in closely related words or syllables.
ex) Apt alliteration's artful aid is often an occasional ornament in prose (the repetition of the vowel a)
Internal Alliteration
The repetition of similar speech sounds in closely related words or syllables
ex) the moan of doves in immemorial elms, and murmuring of innumerable bees
ex) the repetition of the m sound
Assonance
The repetition of identical vowel sounds, in syllables that have different consonant sounds
ex) "In Xanadu did the Kubla Khan" (which repeats the vowel u sound)
Consonance
the repetition of identical consonant sounds in syllables that have different vowel sounds
ex) bill, ball; born, burn
Onomatopoeia
The use of words that sound like their meanings, such as "hiss," "murmur," and "buzz,"
analogy
a comparison of 2 things that are alike in certain aspects: a simile is an expressed one, while a metaphor is an implied one
Metaphor
two things compared directly WITHOUT the use of like or as.
ex) My heart was shattered glass
Similie
two things compared with "like or as" implying a similar quality
ex) the man paced like a hungry lion
Personification
giving human qualities to inanimate objects
apostrophe
addressing some abstract object as if it were animate
ex) "World...why do you hate me?"
Allusion
Referring metaphorically to persons, places, or things from history or previous literature
ex) "she looks more grim than the Mona Lisa"
Allegory
An extended metaphor, in which the narrative equates with meanings outside itself. Special examples are fables or parables.
Conceit
"An extended or elaborate metaphor which forms the framework of an entire poem with all comparisons being interrelated in some way" - more simply stated, a metaphor that is sophisticated and not well known.
Conceit
"Thou counterfeit'st a bark, a sea, a wind;
For still thy eyes, which I may call the sea,
Do ebb and flow with tears; the bark thy body is,
Sailing in this salt flood; the winds, thy sighs;
Who, raging with thy tears, and they with them,
Without a sudden calm, will overset
Thy tempest-tossed body."

Shakespeare compares Juliet to a boat in a storm. The comparison is an extended metaphor where he compares her eyes to a sea, her tears to a storm, her sighs to the stormy winds and her body to a boat in a storm.
Metonomy
substitution of one word for another closely related word
ex) The pen is mightier than the sword (the pen refers to words, and the sword refers to war)
Synechdoche
Substitution of part for the whole
ex) bread, bodies, and bullets (bread refers to food in this context) #WW1connections
Synaesthesia
Substitution of one sensory response for another. When Dickinson gives the sound "buzz" a color
ex) "With blue, uncertain, stumbling buzz,
Between the light and me;
And then the windows failed, and then
could not see to see." - Emily Dickinson
Hyperbole
Saying more than is true, an over-exaggeration
ex) "he wore his fingers to the bone" - meaning he worked himself to exhaustion
Meiosis
Saying less than is true, an under exaggeration
ex) "the reports of my death have been exaggerated"
Meiosis
The use of the word "suffice" meaning "adequate" to describe the end of the world due to ice

Some say the world will end in fire,
Some say in ice.
From what I've tasted of desire
I hold with those who favor fire.
But if it had to perish twice,
I think I know enough of hate
To say that for destruction ice
Is also great
And would suffice.

(Fire and Ice by Robert Frost)
Antithesis
Using contrast for accumulative effect
ex) "Man proposes; God disposes"
Antithesis
Love is an ideal thing, marriage is a real thing.
Oxymoron
This brings together two contradictory items, in an effort to explain something
ex) bittersweet; eloquent silence
Litotes
A form of an understatement in which a thing is affirmed by stating the negative of its opposite
ex) he was not unmindful - meaning he was mindful
(think mathematically: a negative times a negative = a positive)
Paradox
A statement that though contradictory or absurd, may actually be true
ex) your enemy's friend is your enemy
Paradox
"he is nobody"
Pun
a play on words based on the similarity of sound between two words with different meanings
ex) "she offered her honor; he honored her offer; and all night long he was on her and off her
Neologism
a word concocted for deliberate effect, that occasionally becomes part of the language
ex) smog, brunch or motel
narrative poetry
a nondramatic poem which tells a story or presents a narrative, whether its simple or complex, or long or short.
ex) ballad, epic
dramatic poetry
poetry which employs dramatic form or dramatic techniques as a means of achieving poetic ends
ex) monologue, dialogue
Lyric Poetry
A brief subjective poem marked by imagination, melody, and emotion; however, strict definition is possible
ex) hymn, sonnet, song, light verse
Poetic License
The poet is allowed to break rules in order to improvie his poem in some way (please look over the specifics of this section of the packet)