56 terms

Biology Chapter 8: Photosynthesis

BHS Mitzel 2013
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Terms in this set (...)

(8.1) Energy comes in many forms including:
light, heat, and electricity. can be stored in chemical compounds
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
compound that consists of adenine, a 5-carbon sugar called ribose, and 3 phosphate groups.
The 3 phosphate groups in ATP are...
the key to the ATP's ability to store and release energy
Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)
like ATP, but with only 2 phosphate groups. Becomes ATP when another phosphate group is added durin Light Reaction Cycle (LRC)
ATP can...
easily release and store energy by breaking and re-forming the bonds between its phosphate groups. This characteristic makes ATP exceptionally useful as a basic energy source for all cells.
One way that cells use ATP:
to carry out active transport
Energy from ATP also powers...
important events such as synthesizing proteins, synthesizing responses to chemical signals in cell surface, and even to produce light (in a firefly)
Most cells have a _________ amount of ATP.
small
T/F ATP is good at storing a lot of energy.
False.
Heterotrophs
organisms that obtain food by consuming other living things. (ex. everything but plants)
All energy in food originates...
from the sun.
Autotrophs
organism that use light energy from the sun to produce food. (ex. plants, algae, some bacteria)
T/F ALL life on Earth depends on autotrophs.
True.
Photosynthesis
process by which autotrophs use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
In the process of photosynthesis...
plants convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates.
Pigments
light-absorbing molecules
Photosynthetic organisms capture energy from sunlight with...
pigments.
Chlorophyll
the plants principal pigments
2 Types of chlorophyll found in plants:
chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b
Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b absorb which color spectrums very well?
blue-violet and red regions.
Chlorophyll ___________ green light, which is why plants look green.
reflects
Carotenes
pigments that absorb colors in other parts of the spectrum such as red, orange, and yellow.
The carotenes' colors are shown during...
the fall season.
Chloroplasts
organelles in which photosynthesis takes place
Thylakoids
sacklike photosynthetic membranes where the LRC takes place
Granum (pl. grana)
a stack of thylakoids
Stroma
The fluid inside the chloroplast
Chloroplasts have __ membrane(s).
2
An electron carrier is a...
compound that can accept a pair of high-energy electrons and transfer them, along with most of their energy, to another molecule.
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADP+)
a carrier molecule whose job is to accept and hold 2 high energy electrons and one hydrogen ion (H+)
NADPH+
NADP+ with a hydrogen ion added on. Carries these electrons to chemical reactions somewhere else in the sell (Calvin Cycle). Used to form glucose and other carbohydrates.
Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert...
Water and carbon dioxide to sugars and oxygen.
Plants use the sugars to...
produce complex carbs. such as starches, and to provide energy for the synthesis of other compounds including proteins and lipids.
Reaction formulas for Photosynthesis:
6CO2+6H2O---->C6H1206+6O2 (symbols)
Carbon Dioxide+Water---->Sugars and Oxygen (words)
(Other) reaction formula for Photosynthesis
Light-Dependent Reactions (Light Cycle)
happens during the day for most plants. Produces ATP and NADPH+ for later and Oxygen is a byproduct. Takes place on the thylakoid membrane. Water is required.
Light-Dependent Reactions (Dark Cycle/Calvin Cycle)
uses ATP, NADPH+, and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to make sugars for the plant. Takes place in the stroma.
(8.3) The LDRS (light-dependent reactions) use energy from the sunlight to produce...
oxygen and convert ADP and NADP+ into ATP and NADPH+
Photosystems
clusters of chlorophyll and proteins located on the thylakoid membrane.
Role of photosystems (in general)
to absorb sunlight (both contain chlorophyll)
Role of Photosystem II
absorb sunlight and break down Water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen (releases oxygen into air). Sends electrons from sunlight through an electron transport chain (ETC)
Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
a series of electron carrier proteins.
Role of ETC
TO shuttle high-energy electrons during ATP generating reactions and pump H+ ions from the stroma into the thylakoid space. Send electrons from Photosystem II to Photosystem I.
Role of Photosystem I
takes electrons from ETC and releases them into the stroma. There, the H+ ions turn NADP+ into NADPH+.
Some H+ Ions are...
pumped from the stroma into thylakoid space through electron carriers
ATP Synthase
protein that spans the thylakoid membrane and and allows H+ ions to pass through and forces ATP synthase to rotate.
Role of ATP Synthase
through the spinning due to the traveling H+ ions, it binds ATP and a phosphate group to make ATP
The Calvin Cycle
a.k.a. the Light-independent reactions (LIRS)/dark cycle
During the LIRS, ATP and NADPH+ from the LDRS are used to produce...
high-energy sugars.
Calvin Cycle in a nutshell in plain English:
6 carbon dioxide molecules enter through the atmosphere, ATP and NADPH+ uses its charged molecules to split them into two groups: half will go out to become sugars, lipids, etc. half will continue on for the next cycle. (ATP and NADPH+ return to being ADP and NADP+) The whole point of the cycle is to make sugars for the plant.
3 factors that affect Photosynthesis
temperature, light intensity, and availability of water.
Stomata
the pores in the leaves of the plant
Thylakoid
Grana
Stroma
photosynthesis (know all the words on this picture!)