ap gov unit 6

civil liberities
personal freedoms (speech, assembly..)
civil rights
protections against discrimination
clear and present danger doctrine
judicial interpretation of first amendment that gov may not ban speech unless such speech poses an imminent threat to society
de facto segregation
segreation "by fact", segregation that results from factors like housing patterns rather than the law
de jure segregation
segregation by law, segregation that is required by gov
double jeopardy
being prosecuted twice for the same offense. banned by fifth amendment
due process clause
prohibits national gov (5th amendment) and states (14th) from denying life, liberty, or property
equal protection clause
14th amendment clause that prohibits states from denying equal protection under law, been used to combat discrimination
eminent domain
right of gov to take priate property for the public good. fair compensation must be paid to the owner of such property
establishment clause
provision of first amendment that prohibits congress from establishing an official state religion. basis for seperation of church and state
exclusionary rule
supreme court guideline that excludes the use of illegally obtained evidence in a criminal trial
free exercise clause
provision of first amendment stating that Congress may not prohibit the free exercise of religion
grandfather clause
southern laws that excluded blacks from exercising suffrage by restricting the right to vote only to those whose grandfathers had voted before 1865
grand jury
determines whether or not to bring criminal charges against a suspect
applying the bill of rights to the states
total incorporation
the view that the states must obey all parts of the BOR
selective incorporation
view that BOR must be gradually applied to the states, through 14th amendment
grand jury order that a suspect must stand trial for a criminal offense
jim crow laws
southern laws that required racial segregation in places of public accomodation
written untruths that damage a reputation
literacy test
southern method of excluding blacks from exercising suffrage by requiring that voters prove their ability to read and write
miranda warnings
warnings that much be read to suspects prior to questioning. suspects must be advised tha tthey have the rights of silence and counsel
plea bargain
arrangement in which a suspect pleads guilty to a lesser offense in order to avoid a tirla. most cases end with a plea bargain
police powers
powers that allow states to pass laws protecting the health, welfare, safety, and morals of thier residents
poll tax
southern method of excluding blacks from voting by requiring payment of a tax prior to voting
prior restraint
when a court stops speech or a printed story before it is made. unconstitutional
racial gerrymandering
drawing of legislative boundaries to give electoral advantages to a particular racial group. "majority-minority" districts include large numbers of racial minorities in order to ensure minority representation in legislatures
advocacy of the overthrow of gov
seperate but equal
supreme court doctrine established in plessy v ferguson. allowed state required racial segregation in pubklic places as long as facilities were equal
shield laws
state laws that protect journalists from having to reveal their sources
spoken untruths that damage a reputation
strict scrutiny
supreme court guideline for determing if gov can make racial distrinctions. allowed only if they are narrowly tailored to serve a compelling gov interest
white primary
primary election in which southern states allowed only whites to vote