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Nutrition Exam 3
Terms in this set (35)
________ is the study of food and how it affects the human body and influences health.
_________ are a reference for nutrient intake thought to meet the nutritional needs of most healthy population groups.
____ ______ are more practical than standards, and you can use them educate patients and families about nutrient intake because they specify servings.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
The National Academy of Sciences, in a collaborative effort by the US and Canada, has established standards, the _______ ________ _____ (DRIs), to promote the consumption of healthful nutrient levels.
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)
The DRIs are a revision of the older _________ _____ _______ (RDAs) for vitamins and minerals, protein, and total kcal that are thought to meet the needs of 98% of individuals in a group.
Macromineral. Function: bone and teeth formation, blood clotting, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular metabolism, heart action
Macromineral: Aids thyroid hormone secretion, maintains normal basal metabolic rate, activates enzymes for carbohydrate and protein metabolism, nerve and muscle function, cardiac function
Macromineral:Bone and tooth strength, overall metabolism, formation of enzymes, acid-base balance
Macromineral:Intracellular fluid control, acid-base balance, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, glycogen formation, protein synthesis, energy metabolism, blood pressure regulation
Macromineral: Water balance, acid-base balance, muscle action, nerve transmission, convulsions
Aids in iron metabolism, works with many enzymes in protein metabolism and hormone synthesis
Increase resistance to dental caries
Synthesis of the thyroid hormoen, thyroxine
Synthesis of hemoglobin, general metabolism (e.g., glucose), antibody production, drug detoxification in the liver
Cofactor for many enzymes involved in growth, insulin storage immunity, alcohol metabolism, sexual development and reproduction
night and color vision, cellular growth and maturity and maintaining healthy skin and mucous membranes
Regulates blood calcium levels. Regulates rate of deposit and resorption of calcium in bone
Antioxidant, Protects red blood cells and muscle tissue
Synthesis of clotting factors. Bone development
Cellular metabolism, Nervous system function, & Gastrointestinal system function
cellular metabolism, antioxidant, tissue health and growth
Cellular metabolism to produce energy
Protein, RBC production, NT synthesis
Metabolic reactions, maintain myelin sheath, hemoglobin synthesis
cell metabolism of fat and cholesterol, amino acid activation, and Heme formation
Which food provides the only animal source of carbohydrate?
leads to toxicity
During an admission assessment, the patient reports that he takes vitamin E supplements twice a day. The nurse should explain that taking vitamin E supplements twice a day _____ __ ______.
The head of the bed of a patient who is receiving enteral feedings is elevated to 45 degrees. Which complication associated with enteral feedings does this intervention help prevent?
A D E K
When fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins _,_,_, and _ , are supplemented in large doses, toxicity may occur.
Foods high in potassium
o Fruit & vegetables
o Dates figs
Pressure sensors in the vascular system stimulate or inhibit the release of ___, which causes the kidneys to retain fluid.
_____ is an enzyme responsible for teh chain of reactiosn that converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin II.
_________ __ acts on the nephrons to retain sodium and water and directs the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone.
stimulates kidneys to reabsorb sodium and excrete potassium.
_____ is the discharge of sodium through urine.
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