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Chapter 7:Control of Microbial Growth

STUDY
PLAY
A chemical that reduces spoilage in fruit by destroying fungi, but does not appear to affect other microbes, would be called a __________.

A. fungicidal agent
B. fungistatic agent
C. sterilant
D. bactericidal agent
fungicidal agent
What is the best definition of sterilization?

A. removal of unwanted microorganisms
B. removal of viruses
C. elimination of bacteria
D. elimination of all microorganisms
elimination of all microorganisms
Which of the following correctly describes antisepsis?

A. destruction of vegetative microorganisms on inanimate surfaces
B. removal of vegetative microorganisms from living tissue
C. reduction of microbial cells on eating or drinking utensils
D. destruction of all organisms on any surface
removal of vegetative microorganisms from living tissue
Which of the following treatments achieves sterilization?

A. pasteurization
B. freezing
C. bringing water to a boil
D. autoclaving
autoclaving

Autoclaving destroys all living organisms, spores, and endospores, thereby sterilizing heat-stable items
Which one of these halogen compounds would be considered an antiseptic?

A. hypochlorous acid
B. calcium hypochlorite
C. chlorine dioxide
D. chlorine gas
chlorine dioxide
Which one of these chemical treatments kills cells by causing cross-linking of nucleic acids and proteins and inhibits vital cellular functions?

A. alcohol
B. ethylene oxide
C. heavy metals
D. soaps and detergents
ethylene oxide
For control of microbial growth on a surface, which of these conditions is LEAST likely to interfere with the effectiveness of an antiseptic or disinfectant?

A. presence of organic matter
B. high numbers of microbes
C. presence of biofilms
D. warm environmental conditions
warm environmental conditions
Which of the following are NOT typically destroyed by antimicrobial agents?

A. nuclei
B. proteins
C. nucleic acids
D. plasma membranes
nuclei

Bacteria do not contain nuclei, and since most disinfectants target bacteria, nuclei are not a typical target
Which one of the following physical methods of microbial control is bactericidal?

A. refrigeration
B. deep-freezing
C. desiccation
D. incineration
incineration
Which one of the following substances is effective against bacterial endospores?

A. bisphenols
B. quaternary compounds
C. mercury
D. chlorine
chlorine
A nurse is degerming a patient's arm before giving a vaccination. Which of these concentrations of alcohol is most effective?

A. 100%
B. 75%
C. 50%
D. 25%
75%

Alcohols work by denaturing proteins, and this process requires water. Generally, the most effective alcohol concentration is 70%.
Which of these microbes is the most difficult to destroy using either chemical or physical methods?

A. prions
B. HIV
C. MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
D. bacterial endospores
prions

Prions are the most difficult infectious particles to destroy. Currently, a combination of very high temperature and sodium hydroxide is used
Which of these chemicals inhibits an enzyme required for synthesis of membrane lipids?

A. chlorine
B. hydrogen peroxide
C. ozone
D. triclosan
triclosan
Which one of these products is most useful for disinfecting medical instruments?

A. iodine
B. glutaraldehyde
C. alcohols
D. soap and detergents
glutaraldehyde
What is the typical mechanism of action for chemical food preservatives?

A. oxidation
B. surface-active agents for removal of microbes
C. metabolic inhibition
D. disruption of plasma membranes
metabolic inhibition
Recently, silver has been considered in new applications for microbial control, such as impregnating surgical dressings and infusing food containers with silver. These new applications are important because silver is__________.

A. useful as a surface-active agent
B. effective in dissolving lipids in the plasma membrane
C. oligodynamic and unaffected by antimicrobial resistance
D. effective as an oxidizing agent
oligodynamic and unaffected by antimicrobial resistance
Disinfection methods have NOT completely solved the problem of destroying which of the following?

A. prions
B. endospores
C. protozoan cysts
D. enveloped viruses
prions

Prions are especially difficult to destroy. Incineration has been used for infected organisms. but effective treatment for equipment is still being determined. Even autoclaving requires the addition of sodium hydroxide.
A nurse is working in southeast Asia, where the incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is very high. Why is it necessary to select a specific method of disinfection for this organism ?

A. The presence of a capsule makes this organism more resistant to disinfectants.
B. Bacterial endospores made by this organism are resistant to disinfectants.
C. The presence of an envelope makes this organism relatively resistant to disinfectants.
D. The waxy, lipid-rich components of the cell wall make this organism relatively resistant to disinfectants.
The waxy, lipid-rich components of the cell wall make this organism relatively resistant to disinfectants
While waiting for your meal at a restaurant, you read the information on the creamer containers at your table and notice that they do not need to be refrigerated. You are surprised, because dairy products typically must be kept cold to prevent spoilage. How were these products treated to eliminate microbial growth and prevent spoilage?

A. UHT treatment
B. chemical preservatives
C. gamma irradiation
D. pasteurization
UHT treatment

Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) is a treatment that essentially sterilizes the product
True/False

Most viruses are highly resistant to disinfectants and antiseptics
False
True/False

The presence of organic matter, such as blood or saliva, may impair the action of antimicrobial chemicals
True
True/False

All bacteria die at once when they are exposed to heat or chemical treatment
False
True/False

Times required for sterilization in an autoclave are shorter than those required in a dry oven because moist heat penetrates biological specimens more effectively than does dry heat.
True
True/False

Ethylene oxide gas is used to sterilize medical equipment that might be damaged by exposure to the heat of autoclaving
True
True/False

UV radiation and x-ray radiation are similar in that they damage DNA and have a high penetrating power
False
True/False

Iodine is one of the least effective antimicrobial chemicals, effective only against certain very sensitive strains of bacteria.
False
True/False

Soap is ineffective in killing bacteria. Therefore, hand washing is a rather ineffective measure in preventing disease transmission.
False
True/False

Ionizing radiation can be used to sterilize some foods such as spices, meat, and fruits and vegetables.
True
Sterilization is the ________.

A. destruction of all life-forms
B. destruction of all forms of microbial life except endospores
C. effective removal of all microbes on a surface
D. control of all microbial growth
E. same as sanitization
destruction of all life-forms
An antiseptic is used to remove microbes from ________.

A. restaurant glassware
B. food preparation areas
C. toilet surfaces
D. skin, before an injection
E. foods, before canning them
skin, before an injection
Which of the following infectious agents challenges current sterilization strategies that have been accepted and in use for decades?

A. endospores
B. mycobacteria
C. HIV
D. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
E. prions
prions
Some antimicrobial treatments kill microbes; some inhibit growth. Which term refers to an agent that inhibits bacterial growth?

A. germicidal
B. bacteriostatic
C. homeostatic
D. fungicidal
E. bacteriocidal
bacteriostatic
Which of the following is not a major target for action of antimicrobials?

A. proteins
B. nucleic acids
C. enzymes
D. cell membranes
E. flagella
flagella
Which of these is not a characteristic of the autoclave?

A. the use of moist heat
B. the requirement for long (hours) exposure times
C. the ability to sterilize solutions with endospores
D. the use of high temperatures
E. the use of high pressures
the requirement for long (hours) exposure times
Pasteurized milk in an unopened container spoils in the refrigerator. A sample reveals the presence of microorganisms. The most likely explanation is ________.

A. the microbes that survived pasteurization were able to grow at 4°C.
B. the microbes are pathogens
C. the pasteurization process was ineffective
D. a leak in the milk carton allowed microbes to enter
E. pasteurization-resistant mutants developed after pasteurization
the microbes that survived pasteurization were able to grow at 4°C.
Pasteurization was first used by Pasteur to control spoilage of ________.

A. milk
B. yogurt
C. wine
D. cheese
E. canned foods
wine
You are preparing a medium for growing fastidious bacteria and must add several heat-labile solutions of growth factors. Which of the following is an appropriate strategy for preparing and sterilizing this medium?

A. Prepare and autoclave the medium before adding the growth factors. After the medium has cooled, filter sterilize and aseptically add the growth factors.
B. Use UV radiation to sterilize this medium.
C. Use dry heat to sterilize the medium.
D. Prepare the medium, add the growth factors, and autoclave.
E. Pasteurize the medium.
Prepare and autoclave the medium before adding the growth factors. After the medium has cooled, filter sterilize and aseptically add the growth factors.
Which of the following is least likely to be damaged by exposure to gamma radiation?

A. protozoa
B. prions
C. bacteria
D. fungi
E. viruses
prions
Packages of milk and coffee creamers may be stored without refrigeration if they have been sterilized by ________.

A. boiling
B. ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatment
C. autoclaving
D. treatment with phenol
E. high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization
ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatment
All of the following methods are used for food preservation except ________.

A. dessication
B. osmotic pressure
C. direct flaming
D. deep freezing
E. commercial canning
direct flaming
Some microbes are very resistant to antimicrobial chemicals. Which of the following would be the easiest to kill?

A. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
B. E. coli.
C. cysts of protozoa
D. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
E. Clostridium endospores
E. coli
Which type of radiation is least effective in killing microbes?

A. gamma rays
B. microwaves
C. x-rays
D. high-energy electron beams
E. ultraviolet rays
microwaves
Alcohol is most effective when used as a ________ solution.

A. 95%
B. 100%
C. 60%
D. 70%
E. 25%
70%
All of the following are examples of microbial control using heavy metals except ________.

A. mouthwash solution containing zinc chloride.
B. burn treatment using silver-sulfadiazine ointment
C. algae control in swimming pools using copper sulfate
D. benzoyl peroxide used for acne treatment
E. antiseptic solution containing mercurochrome
benzoyl peroxide used for acne treatment
________ is a compound found in antimicrobial soaps that targets gram-positive bacteria.

A. Sodium nitrate
B. Mercuric chloride
C. Formaldehyde
D. Triclosan
E. Hydrogen peroxide
Triclosan
The following may be listed on the ingredients of your favorite snack food. Which of these products is not antimicrobial?

A. sodium benzoate
B. sorbic acid
C. xanthan
D. potassium sorbate
E. calcium propionate
xanthan
The decimal reduction time is the time required to kill __________ percent of a bacterial population
90%
Moist heat kills microbes by __________ of cellular components
denaturation
__________ is a common household disinfectant that has been used to disinfectant everything from dairies to drinking water.
bleach
Oxidizing agents, such as hydrogen peroxide, are useful for irrigating deep wounds where released oxygen will inhibit the growth of __________.
anaerobic bacteria
__________ bacteria may survive pasteurization
Heat resistant
__________ ammonium compounds are less effective against gram-negative bacteria and more effective against gram-positive bacteria.
Quaternary
What is removal of microbes from skin by mechanical cleansing or by an antiseptic called?

A) sanitization
B) degerming
degerming

Degerming removes microbes from the skin, such as when an alcohol swab is used prior to an injection.
Destroying all forms of microbial life is known as

A) disinfection
B) sterilization
sterilization

Sterilization is the destruction of all forms of microbial life
The chemical disinfection of living tissue is known as

A) antisepsis
B) degerming
antisepsis

Antisepsis is the chemical disinfection of living tissues
When iodine is combined with an organic molecule, it is called

A) an iodophor
B) tincture
iodophor

When iodine is combined with an organic molecule, it is called an iodophor.
What group of chemicals does triclosan fall into?

A) a halogen
B) a bisphenol
bisphenol

Triclosan is a bisphenol found in many antimicrobial products, including antibacterial soaps
Which method achieves sterilization?

A) pasteurization
B) the autoclave
autoclave

The autoclave uses heat under pressure to allow temperatures above the boiling point of water to be reached.
Which type of treatment is it when a restaurant washes its eating utensils?

A) sanitization
B) degerming
sanitization

Sanitization lowers the microbial count to safe public health levels
Which of the following does not kill endospores?

A) autoclaving
B) pasteurization
pasteurization

Pasteurization does not kill endospores
What does UV radiation damage in a cell?

A) proteins
B) the DNA
the DNA
What would be an appropriate use of ultra-high-temperature treatment?

A) sterilizing rubber tubing
B) sterilizing coffee creamers.
sterilizing coffee creamers
For which of the following would it be appropriate to use high-energy electron beams as a means to control microbial growth?

A) to sterilize disposable dental supplies
B) to disinfect the air going into a nursery
to sterilize disposable dental supplies
How does alcohol kill bacteria?

A) by denaturing proteins
B) by inhibiting DNA synthesis
by denaturing proteins
True/False

Household bleach contains chlorhexidine as the active ingredient
false
What is the main effect of refrigeration on microbes?

A) kills microbes
B) slows microbial growth
slows microbial growth
When would it be appropriate to use glutaraldehyde?

A) when embalming corpses
B) when disinfecting water for swimming pools
when embalming corpses
True/False

The most commonly used iodophor is Betadine
true
Which method of control is it when we use concentrated salt solutions to cure meats?

A) osmotic pressure
B) high pressure
osmotic pressure
To which category do iodine and chlorine belong?

A) biguanide
B) halogen
halogen
By definition, a tincture contains alcohol. Why would a tincture of an antiseptic be more effective than an aqueous solution?

A. Alcohol contributes to the effectiveness of an antiseptic because it denatures proteins.
B. Alcohol contributes to the effectiveness of an antiseptic because it dissolves lipids.
C. Answers A and B are both correct.
D. Neither answer A nor B is correct
Answers A and B are both correct
Why would filter sterilization be used rather than heat, such as autoclaving?

A. Filter sterilization is less expensive than autoclaving.
B. Filter sterilization is used when the contents of the liquid could be harmed by heat.
C. Filter sterilization is more effective than autoclaving
Filter sterilization is used when the contents of the liquid could be harmed by heat
Which of the following shows the moist heat methods in order of the temperature used (highest to lowest)?

A. Ultrahigh>Boiling>Autoclave>Batch Pasteurization
B. Ultrahigh>Autoclave>Boiling>Batch Pasteurization
C. Autoclave>Ultrahigh>Batch Pasteurization>Boiling
D. Ultrahigh> Boiling>Batch Pasteurization >Autoclave
Ultrahigh>Autoclave>Boiling>Batch Pasteurization
_______________ is a process used to destroy pathogens in food and drinks. It must be done at a lower temperature than other methods so that _______________.

A. autoclaving; beneficial microorganisms are not killed
B. Pasteurization; beneficial microorganisms are not killed
C. autoclaving; the taste of the food or drink will not be altered
D. Pasteurization; the taste of the food or drink will not be altered
Pasteurization; the taste of the food or drink will not be altered
During a flood, a community's well water system is contaminated with a pathogenic fungus. If the residents boil their water for 15 minutes prior to consumption, will they be protected?

A. yes, most likely
B. probably not
C. definitely not
yes, most likely
Which of the following chemical agents is used for sterilization?

A. phenolics
B. ethylene oxide
C. alcohol
D. soap
E. chlorine
ethylene oxide
Which of the following is the best method to sterilize heat-labile solutions?

A. dry heat
B. autoclave
C. pasteurization
D. freezing
E. membrane filtration
membrane filtration
Which of the following pairs of terms is mismatched?

A. virucide - inactivates viruses
B. fungicide kills yeasts and molds
C. sterilant destroys all living microorganisms
D. bacteriostatic kills vegetative bacterial cells
E. germicide - kills microbes
bacteriostatic kills vegetative bacterial cells
Which of the following is a limitation of the autoclave?

A. It requires an excessively long time to achieve sterilization.
B. It cannot be used with glassware.
C. It cannot inactivate viruses.
D. It cannot be used with heat-labile materials.
E. It cannot kill endospores
It cannot be used with heat-labile materials
Application of heat to living cells can result in all of the following EXCEPT

A. alteration of membrane permeability.
B. denaturation of enzymes.
C. decreased thermal death time.
D. damage to nucleic acids.
E. breaking of hydrogen bonds
decreased thermal death time
Which of the following disinfectants acts by disrupting the plasma membrane?

A. heavy metals
B. halogens
C. bisphenols
D. soaps
E. aldehydes
bisphenols
Which concentration of ethanol is the most effective bactericide?

A. 100%
B. 70%
C. 50%
D. 40%
E. 30%
70%
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

A. organic acids food preservation
B. H2O2 open wounds
C. alcohols open wounds
D. Ag wound dressings
E. CuSO4 algicide
alcohols open wounds
Which of the following results in lethal damage to nucleic acids?

A. heat
B. radiation
C. certain chemicals
D. heat and radiation
E. heat, radiation, and some chemicals
heat, radiation, and some chemicals
60 minutes
In the figure, what is the thermal death time?

A. 150°C
B. 120 minutes
C. 100°C
D. 60 minutes
E. The answer cannot be determined.
The preservation of beef jerky from microbial growth relies on which method of microbial control?

A. filtration
B. lyophilization
C. desiccation
D. supercritical CO2
E. ionizing radiation
desiccation
True/ False

Microorganisms placed in high concentrations of salts and sugars undergo lysis.
False
True/ False

The pH of the medium has no effect on the activity of the disinfectant being applied.
False
True/ False

Pseudomonas has been found growing in quaternary ammonium compounds (quats).
True
The destruction or removal of all forms of life

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization
sterilization
The destruction of vegetative pathogens that do not form endospores

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization
Disinfection
Treatment is directed at living tissue

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization
Antisepsis
The mechanical removal of most microbes in an area

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization
Degerming
Treatment intended to lower microbial counts on eatting and drinking utensils to safe public health levels

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization
Sanitization
Usually done by steam under pressure or ethylene oxide

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization
sterilization
True/ False

Heating is the most common use for killing microbes
True
When skin is cleaned with alcohol prior to an injection

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization
Degerming
When a restaurant washes its dishes in a high-temp dishwasher

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization
Sanitization
Food is subjected to enough heat to destroy the endospores

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization
sterilization
Kills microorganisms

A. Biocides
B. fungicides
C. virucide
D. bacteriostasis
E. spesis
Biocides
Kills fungus

A. Biocides
B. fungicides
C. virucide
D. bacteriostasis
E. spesis
fungicides
Inactivates viruses

A. Biocides
B. fungicides
C. virucide
D. bacteriostasis
E. spesis
virucide
Treatments that inhibit the growth and multiplication of bacteria

A. sterilization
B. bacteriostasis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization
bacteriostasis
The decay or putrid, indicates bacterial contamination

A. Biocides
B. aspetic
C. virucide
D. bacteriostasis
E. spesis
spesis
Object or area is free of pathogens, absence of significant contamination

A. Biocides
B. aspetic
C. virucide
D. bacteriostasis
E. spesis
aspetic
True/False

Aspetic technique is important in surgery to minimize contamination
True
True/ False

The more microbes there are to begin with, the longer it takes to eliminate the entire population
True
True/False

The presence of organic matter does not inhibit the action of chemical antimicrobials
False
True/False

Disinfectants work better under colder temps
False

They work better under warm temps
True/ False

Biocides work on microbes in biofilms
False

Biocides do NOT reach microbes in biofilms because their activity is due to temp-dependent chemical reactions
What affects the choice of chemical and physical control methods

A. Time of exposure
B. Environment
C. Number of microbes
D. Microbial characteristics
Microbial characteristics
What is required to affect more resistant microbes or endospores

A. Time of exposure
B. Environment
C. bacteriostasis
D. filtration
Time of exposure
What is more effective under acidic conditions

A. heat
B. UV radiation
C. chemicals
D. gases
heat
What regulates the passage of nutrients into the cell and eliminates waste

A. cell wall
B. plasma membrane
C. Enzymes
D. Nucleic acid
plasma membrane
Is the target of many microbial control agents

A. cell wall
B. plasma membrane
C. Enzymes
D. Nucleic acid
plasma membrane
What are vital to cellular activity

A. cell wall
B. plasma membrane
C. Enzymes
D. Nucleic acid
Enzymes
Cells can no longer replicate, nor can it carry out normal metabolic functions if there is damage to what

A. cell wall
B. plasma membrane
C. Enzymes
D. Nucleic acid
Nucleic acid
Can kill vegetative forms of bacterial pathogens, but does not kill virueses and endospores

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization
boiling
Not a reliable sterilization procedure

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization
boiling
Useful to sanitize glass

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization
boiling
Best way to sterilize

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization
Autoclaving
Used in hospital environments to sterilize equipment

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization
Autoclaving
True/ False

Steam under pressure fails to sterilize when the air is not completely exhausted
True
The lowest temp at which all microorganisms in a particular liquid suspension will be killed in 10 minutes

A. Decimal reduction time
B. Thermal death time
C. Thermal death point
Thermal death point
MInimal length of time for all bacteria in a particular liquid culture to be killed at a given temp will be killed

A. Decimal reduction time
B. Thermal death time
C. Thermal death point
Thermal death time
The time in minutes, in which 90% of the population of bacteria at a given temp will be killed

A. Decimal reduction time
B. Thermal death time
C. Thermal death point
Decimal reduction time
Temp must be above 100 degree celsius in order to kill all forms of life.

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization
Autoclaving
The purpose of this method to control microbial growth is to eliminate pathogenic microbes and reduce microbial numbers

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization
pasteurization
This process gives the product a longer shelf life

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization
pasteurization
True/False

When milk is pasteurized it is made sterile
False
A method of treating food with high temps for very short times to make the food sterile so that it can be stored at room temp.

A. Hot-air sterilization
B. High-temp short-time (HTST) pasteurization
C. flaming
D. ultra-high temp treatment (UHT)
ultra-high temp treatment (UHT)
Pasteurizing at 72C for 15minutes to kill pathogens as well lowers total bacterial counts

A. Hot-air sterilization
B. High-temp short-time (HTST) pasteurization
C. flaming
D. ultra-high temp treatment (UHT)
High-temp short-time (HTST) pasteurization
Process of sterilizing an inoculating loop by holding it in an open flame

A. Hot-air sterilization
B. High-temp short-time (HTST) pasteurization
C. flaming
D. ultra-high temp treatment (UHT)
flaming
Sterilization by the use of an oven at 170C for 2hours

A. Hot-air sterilization
B. High-temp short-time (HTST) pasteurization
C. flaming
D. ultra-high temp treatment (UHT)
Hot-air sterilization
Kills by oxidation effects

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization
Dry heat sterilization
This is used to sterilize heat-sensitive materials, such as culture media, enzymes, vaccines and antibiotic solutions

A. Low Temps
B. Moist Heat
C. Filtration
D. High Pressure
E. Osmotic Pressure
Filtration
True/ False

Bacteria are to large to pass through a filter and are retained on it.
True
True/False

HEPA filters are used to remove microorganisms from the air
True
What type of filter is when a sample needs to be sterilized.

A. Membrane filter
B. HEPA filter
Membrane filter
Which filter is used to remove microorganisms from the air

A. Membrane filter
B. HEPA filter
HEPA filter
The main effect of cold treatment is to

A. kill pathogenic microbes
B. To sterilize an item
C. To slow microbial growth
D. To destroy vegetative cells
To slow microbial growth
Most pathogenic bacteria are

A. mesophilic
B. psychotrophic
C. thermophilic
mesophilic
Refrigeration has a bacteriostatic effect on most microbes so they

A. grow farily well
B. will not grow at all
C. cannot reproduce or make toxins
cannot reproduce or make toxins
Psychrotrophs _______ at refrigerator temps

A. grow farily well
B. will not grow at all
C. cannot reproduce or make toxins
grow farily well
Bacteria that are mesophilic _____ at refrigerator temps

A. grow farily well
B. will not grow at all
C. cannot reproduce or make toxins
will not grow at all
Advantage of this method is that it preserves the flavors, colors, and nutrient values of products

A. Low Temps
B. Moist Heat
C. Filtration
D. High Pressure
E. Osmotic Pressure
High Pressure
If the pressure is _____ enough, it alters the molecular structures of proteins and carbohydrates.

A. Low
B. High
High
WHat happens to vegetative cells when the pressure is high

A. the vegetative cells become deystroyed, rapidly
B. the vegetative cells grow slowly over a longer period of time
C. the vegetative cells multiply at a faster rate
the vegetative cells become deystroyed, rapidly
This processes uses high concentrations of salts and sugars to cause water to leave cells

A. Low Temps
B. Moist Heat
C. Filtration
D. High Pressure
E. Osmotic Pressure
Osmotic Pressure
What resists osmotic pressure the most

A. vegetative bacteria
B. Molds and yeasts
C. pathogenic bacteria
Molds and yeasts
Ionization of water, which forms highly reactive hydroxyl radicals that damage cellular components

A. Radiation
B. Osmotic pressure
C. Filtration
D. High Pressure
Radiation
HIgh energy electron beams are used for the sterilization of pharmaceuticals and disposable dental and medical supplies

A. Radiation
B. Osmotic pressure
C. Filtration
D. High Pressure
Radiation
Forms highly reactive hydroxyl radicals that damage cellular components

A. Ionizing radiation
B. Nonionizing radiation
Ionizing radiation
This type of radiation is used to control microbes in the air, such as in hospital rooms, nurseries, and cafeterias

A. Ionizing radiation
B. Nonionizing radiation
Nonionizing radiation
Uses gamma rays , X-rays, and high-energy electron beams

A. Ionizing radiation
B. Nonionizing radiation
Ionizing radiation
Uses UV light

A. Ionizing radiation
B. Nonionizing radiation
Nonionizing radiation
This process resembles preservation by desiccation, denying it the moisture to grow

A. Radiation
B. Osmotic pressure
C. Filtration
D. High Pressure
Osmotic pressure
What are resistant to desiccation

A. Molds and yeast
B. Viruses
C. bacteria
Viruses
True/False

When water is made available, after desiccation, micrboes can resume their growth and division
True
True/ False

Most chemical agents achieve sterility
False

Few chemical agents achieve sterility
This dicinfectant was first used by Joseph Lister to control surgical infections in the OR

A. Biphenols
B. Halogens
C. Aldehydes
D. Phenolics
Phenolics
Used in throat lozenges

A. Biphenols
B. Halogens
C. Aldehydes
D. Phenolics
Phenolics
These disinfectant damage to plasma membrane, resulting in leakage of cellular contents

A. Biphenols
B. Halogens
C. Aldehydes
D. Phenolics
Phenolics
What makes mycobacterium susceptible to phenolics

A. the cell wall
B. the plasma mebrane
C. nucleic acid
D. ribosomes
the cell wall
These disinfectants remain active in the presence of organic material such as pus, saliva, and feces

A. Biphenols
B. Halogens
C. Aldehydes
D. Phenolics
Phenolics
What is the main ingredient in the product lysol

A. Biphenols
B. Halogens
C. Aldehydes
D. Phenolics
Phenolics
This bisphenol is used for hospital microbial control during procedures

A. Triclosan
B. Chlorine
C. Hexachlorophene (pHisoHex)
D. Chlorhexidine
Hexachlorophene (pHisoHex)
Gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci are susceptible

A. Triclosan
B. Chlorine
C. Hexachlorophene (pHisoHex)
D. Chlorhexidine
Hexachlorophene (pHisoHex)
Can be found in household antibacterial soaps

A. Triclosan
B. Chlorine
C. Hexachlorophene (pHisoHex)
D. Chlorhexidine
Triclosan
Effective against most bacteria and fungi

A. Triclosan
B. Chlorine
C. Hexachlorophene (pHisoHex)
D. Chlorhexidine
Triclosan
Which one is not paired correctly

A. Triclosan - Bisphenol
B. Chlorhexidine - Biguanide
C. Formaldehyde - Aldehydes
D. Chlorine - Alcohol
Chlorine - Alcohol
This disinfectant damages the plasma membrane of vegetative cells

A. Biphenols
B. Halogens
C. Aldehydes
D. Biguanide
Biguanide
Effective against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria except pseudomonads

A. Biphenols
B. Halogens
C. Aldehydes
D. Biguanide
Biguanide
Triclosan is a member of this group

A. Biphenols
B. Halogens
C. Aldehydes
D. Biguanide
Biphenols
Chlorhexidine is a member of this group

A. Biphenols
B. Halogens
C. Aldehydes
D. Biguanide
Biguanide
Hexachlorophene is a member of this group

A. Biphenols
B. Halogens
C. Aldehydes
D. Biguanide
Biphenols
Iodine is a member of this group

A. Biphenols
B. Halogens
C. Aldehydes
D. Biguanide
Halogens
Chlorine is a member of this group

A. Biphenols
B. Halogens
C. Aldehydes
D. Biguanide
Halogens
Formaldehyde is a member of this group

A. Biphenols
B. Halogens
C. Aldehydes
D. Biguanide
Aldehydes
Glutaraldehyde is a member of this group

A. Biphenols
B. Halogens
C. Aldehydes
D. Biguanide
Aldehydes
Used in hospital surgical scrubs

A. Triclosan
B. Chlorine
C. Hexachlorophene (pHisoHex)
D. Chlorhexidine
Chlorhexidine
When this two components are combined they make Avagard, which is a biguanide

A. Iodine and chlorhexidine
B. Alcohol and chlorhexidine
C. Triclosan and Alcohol
D. phenol and chlorine
Alcohol and chlorhexidine
What can be combined with certain amino acids to inactivate enzymes and other cellular proteins

A. Alcohol
B. Metals
C. Chlorhexidine
D. Iodine
Iodine
What is effective against all kinds of bacteria, many endospores, various fungi, and some viruses

A. Triclosan
B. hexachlorophene
C. Chlorhexidine
D. Iodine
Iodine
Most commonly used in iodophor

A. Triclosan
B. hexachlorophene
C. Chlorhexidine
D. Betadine
Betadine
Used in resin filters for water treatment

A. Triclosan
B. hexachlorophene
C. Chlorhexidine
D. Iodine
Iodine
Can be used for both skin disinfection and wound treatment

A. Triclosan
B. hexachlorophene
C. Chlorhexidine
D. Betadine
Betadine
Widely used disinfectant either as a gas or liquid

A. formaldehyde
B. hexachlorophene
C. Chlorhexidine
D. Chlorine
Chlorine
Used to disinfect drinking water, swimming pools and sewage

A. formaldehyde
B. hexachlorophene
C. Chlorhexidine
D. Chlorine
Chlorine
Germicidal action, is based on when this disinfectant is added to water to create hypochlorous acid

A. formaldehyde
B. hexachlorophene
C. Chlorhexidine
D. Chlorine
Chlorine
What are more resistant to disinfectants and antiseptics

A. gram-negative bacteria
B. gram-positve bacteria
C. viruses
D. mold and fungi
gram-negative bacteria
True/ False

Mycobacteria, endo spores and protozoan cysts are very resistant to disinfectants and antispetics
True
Which are generally more resistant to disinfectants

A. nonenveloped viruses
B. enveloped viruses
nonenveloped viruses
What are more resistant to disinfectants and antiseptics

A. gram-negative bacteria
B. gram-positive bacteria
gram-negative bacteria
True/ False

Prions are not resistant to disinfectants and autoclaving
False
Effectively kill bacteria and fungi but not endospores and nonenveloped viruses

A. Alcohol
B. Metals
C. Chlorhexidine
D. Iodine
Alcohol
True/ False

One advantage of alcohol is that they act then evaporate rapidly and leave no residue
True
Why is water needed to make alcohol more effective
denaturation
Which disinfectant exerts their action by denaturing proteins and dissolving lipids

A. Alcohol
B. Metals
C. Chlorhexidine
D. Iodine
Alcohol
The MOST effective antimicrobial

A. Biphenols
B. Halogens
C. Aldehydes
D. Biguanide
Aldehydes
Used to preserve biological specimens

A. formaldehyde
B. hexachlorophene
C. Chlorhexidine
D. Chlorine
formaldehyde
Used by morticians for embalming

A. formaldehyde
B. hexachlorophene
C. Chlorhexidine
D. Chlorine
formaldehyde
Used as a topical cream for use on burns

A. silver-sulfadiazine
B. Mercuric chloride
C. Copper sulfate
silver-sulfadiazine
inorganic compound that is used as a disinfectant

A. silver-sulfadiazine
B. Mercuric chloride
C. Copper sulfate
Mercuric chloride
Used to destroy green algae that grows in reservoirs, stock ponds, swimming pools and fish tanks

A. silver-sulfadiazine
B. Mercuric chloride
C. Copper sulfate
Copper sulfate
True/ False

Soap has little value as an antiseptic. It is only used as a mechanical means to remove microbes
True
Break down of oily film into tiny droplets

A. emulsification
B. denaturation
emulsification
This effect is produced by the action of heavy sulfhydryl groups on cellular proteins

A. emulsification
B. denaturation
denaturation
Their sanitizing ability is related to the negatively charged portion if the molecule, which reacts with the plasma membrane

A. QUATS
B. Acid-Anionic Sanitizers
C. Aldehydes
D. Halogens
Acid-Anionic Sanitizers
MOst widely used surface agents, they are related to the positively charged portion of the molecule

A. QUATS
B. Acid-Anionic Sanitizers
C. Aldehydes
D. Halogens
QUATS
These sanitizers act on thermoduric bacxteria, nontoxic, noncorrosive and fast-acting

A. QUATS
B. Acid-Anionic Sanitizers
C. Aldehydes
D. Halogens
Acid-Anionic Sanitizers
They are strongly bactericidal, fungicidal, amebicidal, and virucidal against enveloped viruses

A. QUATS
B. Acid-Anionic Sanitizers
C. Aldehydes
D. Halogens
QUATS
QUATS do Not kill

A. fungus
B. endospores
C. enveloped viruses
endospores
True/False

Some species of Pseudomonas not only survive in QUATS but actively grow in them
True
Food with a pH of ___ or ____, are most susceptible to spoilage by molds

A. 7.0, higher
B. 5.5, lower
C. 9.6, higher
D. 7.0, 8.3
5.5, lower
An effective fungistat used in bread, prevents the growth of surface molds and bacillus bacterium

A. Sodium nitrate
B. Calcium propionate
C. Mercuric chloride
D. Copper sulfate
Calcium propionate
Added to meat products

A. Sodium nitrate
B. Calcium propionate
C. Mercuric chloride
D. Copper sulfate
Sodium nitrate
These organic acids interfer with mold's metabolism or the integrity of the plasma membrane

A. Sodium nitrate
B. Calcium propionate
C. Mercuric chloride
D. Copper sulfate
Calcium propionate
Prevent germation and growth of any botulism endospores

A. Sodium nitrate
B. Calcium propionate
C. Mercuric chloride
D. Copper sulfate
Sodium nitrate
Nitrate inhibits _____ containing enzymes

A. Copper
B. Iron
C. Mercury
D. Silver
Iron
A state of matter in which a gas is excited to make a mixture of nuclei with assorted electrical charges and free electrons

A. Hydrogen Peroxide
B. Plasma
C. Peracetic acid
D. Alcohol
Plasma
This has free radicals that quickly destroy endopore-forming microbes

A. Hydrogen Peroxide
B. Plasma
C. Peracetic acid
D. Alcohol
Plasma
Plasma sterilization requires

A. Low Temps
B. Moist Heat
C. Filtration
D. High Pressure
Low Temps
True/False

Hydrogen peroxide is a good antiseptic for open wounds
False
Hydrogen peroxide is best used

A. as a antiseptic for open wounds
B. to disinfect inanimate objects
C. To clean a surgical site
D. To kill prions
to disinfect inanimate objects
This disinfectant quickly breaks down into water and gaseous oxygen by the action of the enzyme catalase.

A. Hydrogen Peroxide
B. Plasma
C. Peracetic acid
D. Alcohol
Hydrogen Peroxide
One of the most effective liquid chemical sporicides available and can be used as a sterilant

A. Hydrogen Peroxide
B. Plasma
C. Peracetic acid
D. Alcohol
Peracetic acid
A group of oxidizing agents that include hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid

A. Peroxygens
B. Halogens
C. Aldehydes
D. Biguanide
Peroxygens
The two microbes most resistant to biocides
(pick two)

A. prions
B. endospores
C. viruses with lipid envelopes
D. gram-positive bacteria
E. gram-negative bacteria
A. prions
B. endospores
The MOST vulnerable forms of microbes to biocides are: (pick two)

A. prions
B. endospores
C. viruses with lipid envelopes
D. gram-positive bacteria
E. gram-negative bacteria
C. viruses with lipid envelopes
D. gram-positive bacteria
Moist heat kills cells by denaturing their

A. plasma membrane
B. cell wall
C. proteins
D. nuclei
proteins
Some hepatitis viruses can survive up to 30 minutes of

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization
boiling