17 terms

Chapter 5 Friedland pt 1

STUDY
PLAY
species richness
the number of species in a given area
species evenness
the relative proportion of different species in a given area
evolution
a change in the genetic composition of a population over time
microevolution
evolution occurring below the species level
macroevolution
evolution that gives rise to new species, genera, families, classes, or phyla
genes
a physical location on the chromosomes within each cell of an organism
genotype
the complete set of genes in an individual
mutation
a random change in the genetic code produced by a mistake in the copying process
recombination
the genetic process by which one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome during reproductive cell division
phenotype
a set of traits expressed by an individual
evolution by artificial selection
a change in the genetic composition of a population over time as a result of humans selecting which individuals breed, typically with a preconceived set of traits in mind
evolution by natural selection
a change in the genetic composition of a population over time as a result of the environment determining which individuals are most likely to survive and reproduce
fitness
an individual's ability to survive and reproduce
adaptations
a trait that improves an individual's fitness
genetic drift
a change in the genetic composition of a population over time as a result of random mating
bottleneck effect
a reduction in the genetic diversity of a population caused by a reduction in its size
founder effect
a change in a population descended from a small number of colonizing individuals