Each nursing diagnosis in the NANDA-I taxonomy has four parts: label, deﬁnition, deﬁning characteristics, and related or risk factors. You must consider all four parts when formulating a nursing diagnosis.
■ The diagnostic labell* (title or name) is a word or phrase that represents a pattern of related cues and describes a problem or wellness response, such as Disturbed Body Image or Readiness for Enhanced Nutrition. Some labels include descriptors for time, age, and other factors (e.g., acute, deﬁcient, delayed).
■ The deﬁnitionion* explains the meaning of the label and distinguishes it from similar nursing diagnoses. For example, for a patient with a sleep problem, would you label the problem Sleep Deprivation or Disturbed Sleep Pattern? The following deﬁnitions can help you to decide:
Sleep Deprivation: Prolonged periods of time without
Disturbed Sleep Pattern: Time limited disruption of sleep amount and quality
■ Deﬁning characteristicsics* are the cues (signs and symptoms) that allow you to identify a problem or wellness
diagnosis. To use a problem label appropriately, a cluster of deﬁning characteristics must be present in the patient data. For example, you cannot decide to use the label Sleep Deprivation merely by reading the deﬁnition. You must be sure the patient actually has some of the deﬁning characteristics for Sleep Deprivation.
■ Related factorss* are the cues, conditions, or circumstances that cause, precede, inﬂuence, contribute to, or are in some way associated with the problem (label). They can be pathophysiological, psychological, social, treatment-related, situational, maturational, and so on. NANDA-I lists the related factors that are most often associated with each problem
label, but keep in mind:
1. The list is not exhaustive. Factors other than those listed by NANDA-I could also be associated with the problem. For example, imagine the vast number of factors that might cause someone to have Chronic Low Self-Esteem.
2. The problem may have more than one related factor. Human beings are complex, and their problems rarely have one single cause. Nursing diagnoses may have multiple factors as their etiology.
3. An individual patient will not have all the factors on the list in the NANDA-I Related Factors for his problem etiology.
■ Risk factorss* are events, circumstances, or conditions that increase the vulnerability of a person or group to a health problem. They can be environmental, physiological, psychological, genetic, or chemical. For example, ignoring the urge to defecate and being pregnant increase the risk a person will become constipated. The diagnostic statement would be: Risk for Constipation r/t pregnancy and habitually ignoring the urge to defecate.