FILM: Chapter 9: Sound
Terms in this set (39)
Sound that emanates from the ambience (background) of the setting of environment being filmed, either recorded during production or added during post-production. Although it may incorporate other types of film sound-dialogue, narration, sound effects, Foley sounds, and music - ____ does not include any unintentionally recorded noise made during production.
The degree of motion of air (or other medium) within a sound wave. The greater the amplitude of the sound wave, the harder it strikes the eardrum, and thus the louder the sound.
Sound that comes from a source apparent in the image but is not precisely matched temporally with the actions occurring in that image.
Automatic dialogue replacement (ADR)
Rerecording done via computer-a faster, less expensive, and more technically sophisticated process than rerecording done with actors.
A polelike mechanical device for holding the microphone in the air, out of camera range. A ____ can be moved in almost any direction.
Also known as rushes. Usually, synchronized picture/sound work prints of a day's shooting that can be studied by the director, editor, and other crew members before the next day's shooting begins.
The lip-synchronous speech of characters who are either visible on-screen or speaking offscreen, say from another part of the room that is not visible or from an adjacent room.
Sound that originates from a source within a film's world.
A means of storing recorded sound made possible by computer technology in which each sound wave is represented by combinations of the numbers 0 and 1.
Invention of Ran Dolby that marked the change from analog to digital movie sound. It reduced noise, enabled a movie's sound to have the same emotional intensity as its pictures, and gave audiences sounds superior to anything they had heard before.
The standard technique of recording film sound on a medium separate from the picture. This technique allows for both maximum quality control of the medium and the many aspects of manipulating sound during postproduction editing, mixing, and synchronization.
A dorm of diegetic sound that comes from a place within the world of the story, which we and the characters in the scene hear but do not see.
The faithfulness or unfaithfulness of a sound to its source.
A sound belonging to a special to a special category of sound effects, invented in the 1930s by Jack Foley, a sound technician at Universal Studios. Technicians known as Foley artists create these sounds in specially equipped studios, where they use a variety of props and other equipment to stimulate sounds such as footsteps in the mud, jingling car keys, or cutlery hitting a plate.
The speed with which a sound is produced (the number of sound waves produced per second). The speed of sound remains fairly constant when it passes through air, but it varies in different media and in the same medium at different temperatures.
The wavelengths that make up a sound.
A variation on the mental, subjective point of view of an individual character that allows us to see the character and hear his or her thoughts in their own voice, even though the character's lips don't move.
A form of diegetic sound in which we hear the thoughts of a character we see on-screen but other characters cannot hear them.
The volume or intensity of a sound, which is defined by its amplitude. ____ is described as either loud or soft.
The process of combining different sound tracks onto one composite sound track that is synchronous with the picture.
Sound that originates from a source outside a film's world.
Sound that has previously been established in the movie and replays for some narrative or expressive purpose. ____ often occur when a character has a mental flashback to an earlier voice that recalls a conversation, or to a sound that identifies a place, event, or other significant element of the narrative.
A form of sound, either diegetic or nondiegetic, that derives from a source we do not see. When diegetic, it consists of sound effects, music, or vocals that emanate form of a musical score or narration by someone who is not a character in the story.
A form of diegetic sound that emanates from a source that we both see and hear. ____ may be internal or external.
Material that is not used in either the rough cut or the final cut, but is nevertheless cataloged and saved.
Also known as a sound bridge. Sound that carries over from one shot to the next before the sound of the second shot begins.
The level of a sound, which is defined by its frequency. Pitch is described as either high or low.
Also known as timbre, texture, or color. The complexity of a sound, which is defined by its harmonic content. Described as simple or complex, quality is the characteristic that distinguishes a sound from others of the same pitch and loudness.
Also known as looping or dubbing. The replacing of dialogue, which can be done manually with the actors rereading the lines while watching the footage, synchronizing their lips with it; or, more likely today, through computerized automatic dialogue replacement (ADR). (Dubbing can also refer to the process of replacing foreign language dialogue with English, or the reverse, throughout a film.)
Sound that is diegetic end occurs onscreen.
The group that physically generates and controls a movie's sound, manipulating its properties to produce the effects the director desires.
A state-of-the-art concept, pioneered by director Francis Ford Coppola and film editor Walter Murch, combining the crafts of editing and mixing and, like them, involving both theoretical and practical issues. In essence, ____ represents advocacy for movie sound, to counter some people's tendency to favor the movie image.
A sound artificially created for the sound track that has a definite function in telling the story.
A separate recording tape occupied by one specific type of sound recorded for a movie-one track for vocals, one for sound effects, one for music, and so on. (A single element on an individual track that can be combined in a multitrack sound design.
A film example of sound mixing
Apocalypse Now (Francis Ford Coppola, 1979) Creates a dissociation of time and space with the blending of the helicopter blade and the music. Used surround system in movie theater in sync with what was on screen.
Refers to the mixing of the sound elements to achieve the proper balance between music, dialogue, sound effects and any other elements.
Perceptual characteristics of sound
Loudness (volume or intensity)
loud/soft; depends on amplitude
Quality (timbre, texture, color)
simple/complex; harmonic content (wavelengths)