why are parents in the prime of their life during adolescence?
most sleep, less demand on their time
Communication (marriage = parenting)
Good marriage due to good communication = good skills with child
The Developmental Construction of Relationships are / 2
continuity view and discontinuity view
continuity view in parent/child relationship
what is stable. attachment in first year = attachment in later relationships
Lawful, makes sense. secure attachment, loss = insecurity (reason for change in attachment)
attachment diffs b/w infant & teens
Infant: protect physically, hold when scare
Teen: protect emotionally show support when scared (phone call)
shifts in discontinuity view
Not same b/w 4 year old and 14 year old.
Not same b/w peers and parents.
4 year old w parent vs 14 year old w parent
entirely different interactions. similarity but some differences
Function of parent relationship 1
provide opportunity for independence, learn to dress self , learn to drive
Function of parent relationship 2
Provide warmth, important at every age. Looks different in adolescence (less touch)
Function of parent relationship 3
prepare for equalitarian relationships with peers (maybe more disclosure or problem sharing)
Function of parent relationship in family whole
Managers. Less in adolescence, more moms, teens get more involved
demanding & controlling + warm & accepting =
reciprocal, authoritative, high in communication in both directions
Kids of authoritarian
risky behaviors, school issues, negative view of relationships, low self esteem
kids of authoritative
less risky behaviors, reciprocity, lots of communication, kids can talk about life, can talk about punishment
children of indulgent parenting
risky behavior, school issues, higher relationship satisfaction than authoritarian, and not has bad self esteem issues.
What kids say about family
80% think highly of parents
75% feel parents support them
60% want to be like parents
core values defined
how to treat others, religion & politics, not details but underlying values of religion even if not every practice.
conflict: which is more distressing to family
parent to parent conflict, not parent to teen conflict
benefits of conflict (2)
practice and increase independence & autonomy, practice conflict resolution
gunlicks, stoessel & powers study
Conflict expressed and experienced
mom w teen, pick topic that induces argument, videoed
gunlicks, stoessel & powers study method
given a joystick they rate emotions during video playback, school surveys to measure internalizing/ externalizing
gunlicks, stoessel & powers study results
Gender predicted the rate of change across task. Boys felt less negative as they watch conversation. Females still engaged (upset) stable across viewing.
gunlicks, stoessel & powers study results of internalizing at 6 months
girls who were had negative feelings across conversation had lower internalizing
gunlicks, stoessel & powers study why results
got deeper into meaning, fully hashed out, completed feelings.
gunlicks, stoessel & powers study interpretation
negative emotion ok, especially through out course of neg emotions
why is expressing negative emotion especially beneficial for girls
girls internalize more, higher risk of depression and anxiety.
gunlicks, stoessel & powers study implications 2
interactions with parents provide teens with practice and foundations for future relationships / need to experience and manage conflict (can still be warm relationship)
how does autonomy happen?
in Conflict, teen expresses disagreement, family disagrees, and has support & compromise
crowds (cliques) + identity is most important in _______ __________ =______.
early adolescence = belonging
crowd structures more influential to less influential:
early to middle adolescence, middle to late adolescence
Breakfast Club study question:
who did you most identify with from movie breakfast club (princess, jock, brain, basket case, criminal
Breakfast Club study type of study
longitudinal, 10th grade, 2 years post high school, 6 years post high school.
Breakfast Club study Results substance use
most: criminals and jocks high drinking
least: brains and basket case
Breakfast Club study Results
highest in depression: criminals
highest in social, self esteem : jocks
is peer influence good?
can influence bad behavior, and good behavior can increase already bad / good
2 types not in peer groups
1) rejected: obvious not in group = lots of challenges
2) overlooked: can't define, introverts
Peer Pressure: who conforms the most: (4)
unsure about social identity
unsure where they belong
low self esteem