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Test 3

Reciprocity in Families

What happens to one member effects other members

Adolescent changes affect

the whole family

Parental changes

effect family.

During adolescence parents are

in the prime of their life, happiest

why are parents in the prime of their life during adolescence?

most sleep, less demand on their time

marital stress =

less effective parenting

stress in parenting =

less bliss in marriage

good marriage =

effective parenting = less child issues

Communication (marriage = parenting)

Good marriage due to good communication = good skills with child

benefit of good communication in marriage (2)

good parenting skills, and modeling for child

The Developmental Construction of Relationships are / 2

continuously changing
continuity view and discontinuity view

continuity view in parent/child relationship

what is stable. attachment in first year = attachment in later relationships

Discontinuity view

Lawful, makes sense. secure attachment, loss = insecurity (reason for change in attachment)

attachment diffs b/w infant & teens

Infant: protect physically, hold when scare
Teen: protect emotionally show support when scared (phone call)

Discontinuity view states:

Differences in relationships, parents = hierarchal / friends = equal

discontinuity in the continuity view

yes, shifts but temporary and relationship stays the same

shifts in discontinuity view

Not same b/w 4 year old and 14 year old.
Not same b/w peers and parents.

4 year old w parent vs 14 year old w parent

entirely different interactions. similarity but some differences

Function of parent relationship 1

provide opportunity for independence, learn to dress self , learn to drive

Function of parent relationship 2

Provide warmth, important at every age. Looks different in adolescence (less touch)

Function of parent relationship 3

prepare for equalitarian relationships with peers (maybe more disclosure or problem sharing)

Function of parent relationship in family whole

Managers. Less in adolescence, more moms, teens get more involved

More involved in day to day =

more disclosure from teens

demanding & controlling + warm & accepting =

reciprocal, authoritative, high in communication in both directions

demanding & controlling + no warmth, rejecting =

authoritarian, power assertive

undemanding and low in control + warm & accepting =


Undemanding & low in control + no warmth, rejecting =

neglectful, ignoring, indifferent, uninvolved


demanding, no warmth
low reciprocity and high controlling

Kids of authoritarian

risky behaviors, school issues, negative view of relationships, low self esteem

Authoritative (ive hint)

Expectations, but warm

kids of authoritative

less risky behaviors, reciprocity, lots of communication, kids can talk about life, can talk about punishment

Indulgent parents

parents as friends, high warmth, no demands

children of indulgent parenting

risky behavior, school issues, higher relationship satisfaction than authoritarian, and not has bad self esteem issues.

kids of neglectful parenting

0 good results

What kids say about family

80% think highly of parents
75% feel parents support them
60% want to be like parents

Children attribute their _____ _____ to parents

core values

core values defined

how to treat others, religion & politics, not details but underlying values of religion even if not every practice.

conflict stereotypes


reality about conflict

often but over small things

reality about teen years (with parents)

alot of good

conflict: which is more distressing to family

parent to parent conflict, not parent to teen conflict

benefits of conflict (2)

practice and increase independence & autonomy, practice conflict resolution

gunlicks, stoessel & powers study

Conflict expressed and experienced
mom w teen, pick topic that induces argument, videoed

gunlicks, stoessel & powers study method

given a joystick they rate emotions during video playback, school surveys to measure internalizing/ externalizing

gunlicks, stoessel & powers study results

Gender predicted the rate of change across task. Boys felt less negative as they watch conversation. Females still engaged (upset) stable across viewing.

gunlicks, stoessel & powers study results of internalizing at 6 months

girls who were had negative feelings across conversation had lower internalizing

gunlicks, stoessel & powers study why results

got deeper into meaning, fully hashed out, completed feelings.

high internalizing =

higher depression and anxiety

gunlicks, stoessel & powers study interpretation

negative emotion ok, especially through out course of neg emotions

why is negative emotion ok

test out anger expression in safe relationship

why is expressing negative emotion especially beneficial for girls

girls internalize more, higher risk of depression and anxiety.

gunlicks, stoessel & powers study implications 2

interactions with parents provide teens with practice and foundations for future relationships / need to experience and manage conflict (can still be warm relationship)

Individuation A&C

the process of becoming your own person autonomy and connectedness

autonomy is important but healthiest:

with family connectedness

how does autonomy happen?

in Conflict, teen expresses disagreement, family disagrees, and has support & compromise

disagreement in family is


children who can disagree with family plans have

higher self esteem

individuation A&C have both

secure base and safe haven

secure base

do you feel safe to explore : autonomy

safe haven

who do you go to when scared or really upset, who is best to meet you needs


happens in first year, by needs being met, protection = what you grow up expecting

more secure attachment =

more exploring

self focus exploring =


safe haven + secure =

higher identity achievement / higher self esteem

peers defined

same age or maturity level

often determined by

classroom or grade level

functions of peer groups 1

info outside of families beliefs

functions of peer groups 2

first equalitarian relationship, practice before romantic relationships

functions of peer groups 3

a way to identify self in early adolescence

functions of peer groups 4

A sense of acceptance and belonging can lead to higher self esteem

crowds (cliques) + identity is most important in _______ __________ =______.

early adolescence = belonging

crowd structures more influential to less influential:

early to middle adolescence, middle to late adolescence

early : crowd defined as

cool or not cool

middle: crowd defined as

type, sports etc

late: high school crowd losses

hierarchy, not cool vs uncool just diff types.

Breakfast Club study question:

who did you most identify with from movie breakfast club (princess, jock, brain, basket case, criminal

Breakfast Club study type of study

longitudinal, 10th grade, 2 years post high school, 6 years post high school.

Breakfast Club study DVs

substance use, academic outcome, psychological adjustment

Breakfast Club study Results substance use

most: criminals and jocks high drinking
least: brains and basket case

Breakfast Club study Results

brains more college and better jobs

Breakfast Club study Results

highest in depression: criminals
highest in social, self esteem : jocks

crowds are important to


are peers necessary to development


is peer influence good?

can influence bad behavior, and good behavior can increase already bad / good

no peer interaction =

bad to development, lack socially and cognitively

sarcasm is found among


2 types not in peer groups

1) rejected: obvious not in group = lots of challenges
2) overlooked: can't define, introverts

Peer groups at Options: pro & con

Pro: belonging, understanding
con: encourage bad behaviors

Peer Pressure: more conformity in

adolescence that middle childhood

Peer Pressure: who conforms the most: (4)

unsure about social identity
unsure where they belong
low self esteem
high anxiety

Adolescence also a time to learn to ______ peer pressure


Friends are a __________ of peers


Friends engage in

emotional support and companionship

Friends are ____-_____.


Friends assist in ________ _________.

identity exploration

Friends offer help (2 examples)

with homework, with advice

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