96 terms


Test 3
Reciprocity in Families
What happens to one member effects other members
Adolescent changes affect
the whole family
Parental changes
effect family.
During adolescence parents are
in the prime of their life, happiest
why are parents in the prime of their life during adolescence?
most sleep, less demand on their time
marital stress =
less effective parenting
stress in parenting =
less bliss in marriage
good marriage =
effective parenting = less child issues
Communication (marriage = parenting)
Good marriage due to good communication = good skills with child
benefit of good communication in marriage (2)
good parenting skills, and modeling for child
The Developmental Construction of Relationships are / 2
continuously changing
continuity view and discontinuity view
continuity view in parent/child relationship
what is stable. attachment in first year = attachment in later relationships
Discontinuity view
Lawful, makes sense. secure attachment, loss = insecurity (reason for change in attachment)
attachment diffs b/w infant & teens
Infant: protect physically, hold when scare
Teen: protect emotionally show support when scared (phone call)
Discontinuity view states:
Differences in relationships, parents = hierarchal / friends = equal
discontinuity in the continuity view
yes, shifts but temporary and relationship stays the same
shifts in discontinuity view
Not same b/w 4 year old and 14 year old.
Not same b/w peers and parents.
4 year old w parent vs 14 year old w parent
entirely different interactions. similarity but some differences
Function of parent relationship 1
provide opportunity for independence, learn to dress self , learn to drive
Function of parent relationship 2
Provide warmth, important at every age. Looks different in adolescence (less touch)
Function of parent relationship 3
prepare for equalitarian relationships with peers (maybe more disclosure or problem sharing)
Function of parent relationship in family whole
Managers. Less in adolescence, more moms, teens get more involved
More involved in day to day =
more disclosure from teens
demanding & controlling + warm & accepting =
reciprocal, authoritative, high in communication in both directions
demanding & controlling + no warmth, rejecting =
authoritarian, power assertive
undemanding and low in control + warm & accepting =
Undemanding & low in control + no warmth, rejecting =
neglectful, ignoring, indifferent, uninvolved
demanding, no warmth
low reciprocity and high controlling
Kids of authoritarian
risky behaviors, school issues, negative view of relationships, low self esteem
Authoritative (ive hint)
Expectations, but warm
kids of authoritative
less risky behaviors, reciprocity, lots of communication, kids can talk about life, can talk about punishment
Indulgent parents
parents as friends, high warmth, no demands
children of indulgent parenting
risky behavior, school issues, higher relationship satisfaction than authoritarian, and not has bad self esteem issues.
kids of neglectful parenting
0 good results
What kids say about family
80% think highly of parents
75% feel parents support them
60% want to be like parents
Children attribute their _____ _____ to parents
core values
core values defined
how to treat others, religion & politics, not details but underlying values of religion even if not every practice.
conflict stereotypes
reality about conflict
often but over small things
reality about teen years (with parents)
alot of good
conflict: which is more distressing to family
parent to parent conflict, not parent to teen conflict
benefits of conflict (2)
practice and increase independence & autonomy, practice conflict resolution
gunlicks, stoessel & powers study
Conflict expressed and experienced
mom w teen, pick topic that induces argument, videoed
gunlicks, stoessel & powers study method
given a joystick they rate emotions during video playback, school surveys to measure internalizing/ externalizing
gunlicks, stoessel & powers study results
Gender predicted the rate of change across task. Boys felt less negative as they watch conversation. Females still engaged (upset) stable across viewing.
gunlicks, stoessel & powers study results of internalizing at 6 months
girls who were had negative feelings across conversation had lower internalizing
gunlicks, stoessel & powers study why results
got deeper into meaning, fully hashed out, completed feelings.
high internalizing =
higher depression and anxiety
gunlicks, stoessel & powers study interpretation
negative emotion ok, especially through out course of neg emotions
why is negative emotion ok
test out anger expression in safe relationship
why is expressing negative emotion especially beneficial for girls
girls internalize more, higher risk of depression and anxiety.
gunlicks, stoessel & powers study implications 2
interactions with parents provide teens with practice and foundations for future relationships / need to experience and manage conflict (can still be warm relationship)
Individuation A&C
the process of becoming your own person autonomy and connectedness
autonomy is important but healthiest:
with family connectedness
how does autonomy happen?
in Conflict, teen expresses disagreement, family disagrees, and has support & compromise
disagreement in family is
children who can disagree with family plans have
higher self esteem
individuation A&C have both
secure base and safe haven
secure base
do you feel safe to explore : autonomy
safe haven
who do you go to when scared or really upset, who is best to meet you needs
happens in first year, by needs being met, protection = what you grow up expecting
more secure attachment =
more exploring
self focus exploring =
safe haven + secure =
higher identity achievement / higher self esteem
peers defined
same age or maturity level
often determined by
classroom or grade level
functions of peer groups 1
info outside of families beliefs
functions of peer groups 2
first equalitarian relationship, practice before romantic relationships
functions of peer groups 3
a way to identify self in early adolescence
functions of peer groups 4
A sense of acceptance and belonging can lead to higher self esteem
crowds (cliques) + identity is most important in _______ __________ =______.
early adolescence = belonging
crowd structures more influential to less influential:
early to middle adolescence, middle to late adolescence
early : crowd defined as
cool or not cool
middle: crowd defined as
type, sports etc
late: high school crowd losses
hierarchy, not cool vs uncool just diff types.
Breakfast Club study question:
who did you most identify with from movie breakfast club (princess, jock, brain, basket case, criminal
Breakfast Club study type of study
longitudinal, 10th grade, 2 years post high school, 6 years post high school.
Breakfast Club study DVs
substance use, academic outcome, psychological adjustment
Breakfast Club study Results substance use
most: criminals and jocks high drinking
least: brains and basket case
Breakfast Club study Results
brains more college and better jobs
Breakfast Club study Results
highest in depression: criminals
highest in social, self esteem : jocks
crowds are important to
are peers necessary to development
is peer influence good?
can influence bad behavior, and good behavior can increase already bad / good
no peer interaction =
bad to development, lack socially and cognitively
sarcasm is found among
2 types not in peer groups
1) rejected: obvious not in group = lots of challenges
2) overlooked: can't define, introverts
Peer groups at Options: pro & con
Pro: belonging, understanding
con: encourage bad behaviors
Peer Pressure: more conformity in
adolescence that middle childhood
Peer Pressure: who conforms the most: (4)
unsure about social identity
unsure where they belong
low self esteem
high anxiety
Adolescence also a time to learn to ______ peer pressure
Friends are a __________ of peers
Friends engage in
emotional support and companionship
Friends are ____-_____.
Friends assist in ________ _________.
identity exploration
Friends offer help (2 examples)
with homework, with advice