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an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over its internal and foreign affairs


independence from control of its internal affairs by other states


states with small land area


sovereign state comprising of a town and a surrounding countryside


territory legally tied to a sovereign state


effort by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic and cultural principles on such territory


control of a territory already occupied

compact state

the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly

prorupted state

an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension

elongated state

states with a long, narrow shape

fragmented state

includes several discontinuous pieces of territory

perforated state

a state that completely surrounds another

landlocked state

lacks a direct outlet to the sea because it is completely surrounded by several other countries


a zone where no state exercises complete political control

unitary state

places most power in the hands of central government officials

federal state

allocates strong power to units of local government within the country


the process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power

balance of power

a condition of roughly equal strength between opposing alliances


invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory

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