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AP Human Geography chapter 1 vocab

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map
a two-dimensional or flat scale model of Earth's surface, or a portion of it
place
a specific point of Earth distinguished by a particular character
region
an area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features
scale
the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole
space
refers to the physical gap or interval between two objects
connections
relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
cartography
the science of map-making
projection
the scientific method of transferring locations on Earth's surface to a flat map
Land Ordinance of 1785
a law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers
township
a square 6 miles on each side
principal meridians
some of the north-south lines separating townships
base lines
some east-west lines
section
a square normally 1 mile on a side
GIS (geographic information system)
a computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze and display geographic data
remote sensing
the acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting Earth or from other long-distance methods
GPS (global positioning system)
a system that determines accurately the precise position of something on Earth
location
the position that something occupies on Earth's surface
toponym
the name given to a place on Earth
site
the physical character of a place
situation
the location of a place relative to other places
meridian
an arc drawn between the North and South poles
parallel
a circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
longitude
the numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian
prime meridian
the meridian that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England, is 0 degrees longitude
latitude
the numbering system to indicate the location of a parallel
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
the time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0 degrees longitude
International Date Line
an arc that for the most part follows 180 degrees longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas
cultural landscape
a combination of cultural features, economic features, and physical features
regional studies
contemporary cultural landscape approach in geography
formal region
an area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics
functional region
an area organized around a node or focal point
vernacular region
a place that people believe exists as a part of their cultural identity
mental map
an internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface
culture
the body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people
cultural ecology
the geographic study of human-environment relationships
environmental determinism
an approach on how the physical environment caused social development
possibilism
the theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
resources
substances that are useful to people, economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use
polder
a piece of land that is created by draining water from any area
globalization
a force of process that involves the entire world and results in making something worldwide in scope
distribution
the arrangement of a feature in space
density
the frequency with which something occurs in space
arithmetic density
the total number of objects in an area
physiological density
the number of persons per unit of area suitable for agriculture
agricultural density
the number of farmers per unit of farmland
concentration
the extent of a feature's spread over space
pattern
the geometric arrangement of objects in space
space-time compression
a term applied by geographers to describe the reduction in the time it takes for something to reach another place
distance decay
the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearence of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
diffusion
the process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time
hearth
the place from which an innovation originates
relocation diffusion
the spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another
expansion diffusion
the spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process
hierarchical diffusion
the spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
contagious diffusion
the rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population
stimulus diffusion
the spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse
uneven development
the increasing gap in economic conditions between regions in the core and periphery that results from globalization of the economy
transnational corporation
conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries