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subcontinent
a large landmass that is smaller than a continent
himalayas
highest mountains in the world
present day pakistan
location of the 1st civilization
monsoons
seasonal wind patterns that cause wet & dry seasons
Mohenjo Daro
another city along the Indus that was only 300 miles from Harappa
vedas
religious writings that are a collection of poems, hymns, myths, and rituals by Aryan priests
sanskrit
most important language of ancient India b/c it provides a major source of info about aryan society
brahmins
priests
Kshatriyas
rulers and warriors
Vaisyas
farmers, craftspeople, and traders
Sudras
laborers and non-Aryans
caste system
divided indian society into groups based on a person's birth, wealth, or occupation
untouchables
people who were not even members of a caste and were considered outsiders and unclean by those who did belong to a caste
sutras
guides of rules for the caste system
rigveda
oldest veda
upanishads
written by 600s BC, were a reflection of the vedas by religious students and teachers
hinduism
largest religion in india today
brahma
the creator
siva
the destroyer
Vishnu
the preserver
brahman
each god was part of a single universal spirit called what?
reincarnation
process of rebirth
karma
effects that good or bad actions have on a person's foot
reborn into a lower caste
bad karma does what
moksha
salvation
jainism
based on the teachings of Mahavira
ahimsa
nonviolence
Jains
vegetarians
siddhartha gautama
563 BC - 483 BC
fasting
going without food
meditation
focusing of the mind of spiritual ideas
buddha
enlightened one
buddhism
religion based on the teachings of the buddha that developed in India in 500s BC
four noble truths
1. suffering and unhappiness are part of human life No one can escape sorrow
2. Suffering comes from our desires for pleasure and material goods
3. People can overcome their desire and ignorance and reach nirvana
4. People can overcome ignorance and desire by following an eightfold path that leads to wisdom, enlightenment, and salvation
nirvana
state of perfect peace
missionaries
people who work to spread their religious beliefs to other kingdoms in Asia
theravada
tried to follow Buddha's teachings exactly
Mahayana
believed other people could interpret buddhas teachings to help people reach nirvana
metallurgy
science of working with metals
candragupta mauyra
320's BC
asoka
270 BC, known as the strongest of all the Mauyran emperors
Mahabarata
two religious epics
iron
very hard, pure, and a valuable, trade item
Hindu- Arabic numerals
number system we use today; created by indian scholars and brought to europe by arabs
inoculation
injecting a person with a small dose of a virus to help him/her build up defenses to disease
astronomy
the study of stars and planets- indians knew of 7 of the 9 planets in our solar system, knew the earth was sphere and rotated on its axis, and they could predict eclipses of the sun moon