U4: Culture, Language, Religion
Terms in this set (135)
(n.) the modification of the social patterns, traits, or structures of one group or society by contact with those of another; the resultant blend
The action, process, or result of combining or uniting
the art of designing buildings
Ethnic groups lost their distinctive culture through the domination of newly expanding empires, or powerful neighbors.
Feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
the way someone acts
The man-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from personal shelter to neighborhoods to the large-scale civic surroundings
the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.
Deals with the way in which people send and receive information.
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
A total way of life held in common by a group of people, including learned features such as language, ideology, behavior, technology, and government.
The group of traits that define a particular culture.
the way people categorize their culture, sometimes by the way they dress and what they eat
The practice of trying to understand a culture on its own terms and to judge a culture by its own standards.
The specific customs that are part of the everyday life of a particular culture, such as language, religion, ethnicity, social institutions, and aspects of popular culture.
Practices followed by the people of a particular cultural group.
The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act.
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
Every event, including human actions, is caused by previous events in accordance with the natural laws that govern the universe.
The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.
The process through which academic, social, and cultural ideas and tools, both general and specific, are developed.
Movement of individuals out of an area
Neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitan city and constructed by or comprised of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs
The belief that one's group is of central importance, tendency to judge the practices of other groups by one's own cultural standards.
Expansion Diffusion (Hierarchical, Reverse Hierarchical, Contagious, Stimulus)
The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination
Folk Culture (Architecture, Landscape, Music, Literature)
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
Foods we choose to eat when all foods are available at the same time and in the same quantity.
Friction of Distance
A measure of the retarding or restraining effect of distance on spatial interaction. Generally, the greater the distance, the greater the cost of achieving the exchange.
Expectations about what is appropriate behavior for each sex.
places that are considered male or female, or even gender neutral
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
The increasing amount of interaction and integration on the international scale through exchange of products, services, ideas, and information.
in behaviorism, sets of well-learned responses that have become automatic
The region from which innovative ideas originate.
phenomenon spreads as a result of the social elite (political leaders, entertainment leaders, famous athletes) spreading societal ideas or trends
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
Where people of native, traditional cultures are encouraged to live in such a way that their cultural identity and heritage are preserved for future generations.
The term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other
An improvement of an existing technological product, system, or method of doing something.
Permanent movement from one country to another.
A global network connecting millions of computers, making it possible to exchange information.
Various ways humans use the land such as agricultural, industrial, residential, or recreational
the overall appearance of an area. Most landscapes are comprised of a combination on natural and human-induced influences.
Forms of communication, such as newspapers and radio, that reach millions of people.
expansion of railroad lines, streetcars, construction of subways. allowed middle class to live in nicer neighborhoods and commute to work
the art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people
Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
A form of marriage in which one woman and one man are married only to each other.
A perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions
A set of tones and overtones combined in ways that are pleasing to the ear.
the art of making sounds that are sung or played
Principles of right action, binding upon the members of a group and serving to guide, control, or regulate proper and acceptable behavior.
the oral traditions, songs, and stories of a culture group along with its beliefs and customary behaviors
Literature that passes by word of mouth from one generation to the next.
recurring characteristics or events
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.
the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next
cultural traits such as dress, diet, and music that identify and are part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influenced, western societies
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
A mechanical device for transferring text or graphics from a woodblock or type to paper using ink. Presses using movable type first appeared in Europe in about 1450.
Grew popular during and after WWI and available to all (even illiterate) so able to mobilize the masses for political purposes. Also used for propaganda
an area or division, especially part of a country or the world having definable characteristics but not always fixed boundaries
a group (ofen ethnic) which identifies with a particular region of a state rather than with the state as a whole
The process by which specific region acquire characteristics that differentiate them from others within the same country. In economic geography, Regionalization involves the development of dominant economic activities in particular activities.
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
Sense of Place
state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character.
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
sign of importance or wealth
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world
The unification or blending of opposing people, ideas, or practices, frequently in the realm of religion. For example, when Christianity was adopted by people in a new land, they often incorporate it into their existing culture and traditions.
A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom.
Practical use of scientific information to improve the quality of human life
the business of organizing travel for pleasure.
Exchange of goods and services
The expansion of cultural traits through diffusion, adoption, and other related processes.
occurs when two cultures of just about equal power or influence meet and exchange ideas or traits without the domination seen in acculturation and assimilation
language family from North Africa and the Middle East; Arabic is the most spoken language from this family.
language family that includes Arabic and Hebrew
languages found in Polynesia and the Southeast Asia
A set of symbols that represent the sounds of a language
Descriptive name for languages spoken largely east and south of the present day nation of Nigeria; i.e., in the regions commonly known as central Africa, east Africa, and southern Africa
A pidgin language that evolves to the point at which it becomes the primary language of the people who speak it
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
movie or a special material that is used for taking photographs
the native language of a people in an area
Indo-European Language Family
Language family including the Germanic and Romance languages that is spoken by 50% of the world's people
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate.
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
original locations of the major language families
An extremely simple language that combines aspects of two or more other, more-complex languages usually used for quick and efficient communication.
condition in which many languages are spoken, each by a relatively small number of people
written works (such as poems, plays, and novels) that are considered to be very good and to have lasting importance.
terms used in one language that have an origin in another language
A symbol that represents a word rather than a sound
Mixed Languages (Franglish, Spanglish, Denglish)
a language in which particular parts of the lexicon and grammatical system come predominantly from different sources,
refers to a culture, or people, in which more than one language is spoken
Simplified languages used to help people with different languages communicate.
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
Demonstrate relatively uniform development of the sound shifts in similar words (North, West, South)
a branch of Indo - European developed from Latin; includes spanish, french, italian, portugese, and romanian
are a group of related languages whose living representatives are spoken by more than 270 million people across much of the Middle East, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. They constitute a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. The most widely spoken Semitic languages today are Arabic (206 million native speakers), Amharic (27 million), Hebrew (about 7 million), Tigrinya (6.7 million), and Aramaic (about 2.2 million).
Languages that spread through most of Southeast Asia and China and is comprised of Chinese, Burmese, Tibetan, Japanese, and Korean.
Languages (Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian, and Bulgarian) that developed as Slavic people migrated from a base in present-day Ukraine close to 2000 years ago
(n.) a building where theatrical performances or motion-picture shows can be presente
words used to communicate either a spoken or written message
Judaism, Christianity, Islam- monotheistic faiths, stemming from Abraham.
one who believes that the existence of a god can be neither proven nor disproven
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
A person who denies the existence of God
Christian Denominations (basic differences & spatial distribution)
Different "brands" of religions connected to Protestant Christianity. Ex: Baptist, Methodist, penntecostal, lutheran, presbyterian
any group migration or flight from a country or region; dispersion. Particularly used in relation to Jews scattered by Romans in 70 CE or to Africans spread to new places during the Atlantic Slave Trade.
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated
Spreading a faith or religion to others
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
Religion in which members are numerous and widespread and their doctrines might appeal to different people from any region of the globe.
Christianity, Buddhism, Baha'i, and Islam are this type of religion because their followers are spread throughout the world
boundaries between the world's major faiths
people who work to spread their religious beliefs
Belief system in which multiple deities are revered as creators and arbiters of all that exists in the universe
The rebirth of a soul in a new body.
In Hinduism and Buddhism, the process by which a soul is reborn continuously until it achieves perfect understanding
place or space people infuse with religious meaning; Ex) Jerusalem - Christianity (Church of the Holy Sepulchre), Judaism (Western Wall), and Islam (Dome of the Rock); Catholicism - The Vatican; Islam - Mecca, Medina; Hinduism - Varanasi & The Ganges River; ...
A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.
Shamamism &Traditional Religions
From of Animism, said natural spirits were influenced by priests.
seek worldwide acceptance and actively look for new converts; Christianity and Islam; started as ethnic religions but broke out of their ethnic bounds
Religion founded by Baha'ullah who declared himself as a prophet of God/"the promised one". Teachings: World peace through unity of all religions, live a simple life, dedication to serving others.
Each manifestation supersedes the previous, giving new teaching about God
Belief system that started in India in the 500s BC. Happiness can be achieved through removal of one's desires. Believers seek enlightenment and the overcoming of suffering.
A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior.
The world's most widespread religion. Christianity is a monotheistic, universalizing religion that uses missionaries to expand its members worldwide. The three major categories of Christianity are Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox.
Chinese religion that believes the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from 'the way' or 'path' of nature.
One of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back over 4000 years, and originating in the Indus River Valley of what is today part of Pakistan. Hinduism is unique among the world's religions in that it does not have a single founder, a single theology, or agreement on its origins
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.
An ancient religion of India with a small following today of only about 10 million followers. Originated in the 800s BCE. They prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice rely mainly on self-effort to progress the soul up the spiritual ladder to divine consciousness. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state of supreme being is called jina (Conqueror or Victor).
A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.
Founded by Joseph Smith, who claimed he was visited by God, and in 1830 he published a document called The Book of Mormon. He said it was a translation of a set of gold tablets he had found in the hills of New York, revealed to him by an angel of God
People who want to separate religion from all other aspects of society, including government and other social institutions such as marriage.
study of human adaptations to social and physical environments
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