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1,118 terms

Study for Midterm and National

STUDY
PLAY
Beef stew must be cooled from 135 F to 70 F within ___ hours and from 70 F to 41 F or lower in the next ___ hours.
2, 4
Which is NOT a safe method for thawing frozen food?
Thawing it at room temperature.
Stuffed pork chops must be cooked to a minimum internal temperature of
165 F (74 C) for for fifteen seconds
When reheating potentially hazardous good for hot holding, reheat the food to
165 F (74 C) for fifteen seconds within two hours
Meat, poultry, and fish cooked in a microwave must be heated to at least
165 F (74 C)
All of these practices can help prevent cross-contamination during food preparation except
preparing food in small batches
What is the proper way to cool a large stockpot of clam chowder?
Divide the clam chowder into smaller containers and place them in an ice-water bath
what is the minimum internal cooking temperature for eggs that will be hoy-held for later service?
155 F (68 C) for fifteen seconds
All of these practices can help prevent time and temperature abuse except
Thawing steaks in a microwave and promptly refrigerating them for later use
Generally, establishments that use a private water source, such as a well, must have it tested at least
once a year
A food handler who has been diagnosed with shigellosis should be
told to stay home
employees must be excluded from the establishment if they have been diagnosed with a foodborne illness resulting from which pathogen
Shigella spp
What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for ground beef?
155 F ( 68 C)
What is the danger when thawing food at room temperature?
Time-temperature abuse
what is the minimum internal cooking temperature for eggs,poultry and seafood cooked in microwave?
165 F (74 C)
when serving. it is important to avoid touching the_____of a plate
top
Serving utensils should be used to serve max of _________ food items at a time?
1
At what minimum internal temp should hot TCS food be held?
135 F
At what max internal temp should cold TCS food be held?
41 F
When returning to self-service lines for more food, customers should not_____ their dirty plates?
refill
Where allowed, hot TCS food can be held without temperature control for a maximum of ____ hours before being sold,served, or discarded.
4
Wrapping preset silverware can help it from becoming
contaminated
Re-serving food safely
*menu items returned by one costumer cannot be re-served to another costumer
*Never re-serve plate garnishes, such as fruit or pickles
*Never reserve uncovered condiments
*Do not reserve uneaten bread or rolls
Self-serving areas- rules for food bars
*maintain proper food temperature
*keep raw meat, seafood, and poultry separate from ready to eat food
*protect food on display with sneeze guards or food shields
*identify all food items
*do not let costumers refill soiled plates or used soiled utensils at the food bar
*ice used to keep food or beverages cold should never be used as an ingredient.
Safety procedures for delivery
*use insulated food containers capable of maintaing food at 135 F or higher or 41 F or lower
*clean the inside of delivery vehicles regularly
*Practice a good personal hygiene when distributing food
*check internal food temperatures regularly
*label food with use by and time and reheating and service instructions for employees at off site locations
*consider providing food safety guidelines for costumers.
When power or running water is not available, caterers may have to change their food-handling procedures
*use insulated containers to hold TCS food
*Serve cold food in containers on ice or in chilled, gel filled containers
*store raw and ready to eat products separately
*if leftovers are given to costumers, provide instructions on how they should be handled
*place garbage disposal containers away from food preparation and serving areas.
Why are preschool-age children at a higher risk for foodborne illnesses?
They have not built up strong immune systems.
Which is a TCS food?
Sprouts (1-6)
The five common mistakes that can lead to foodborne illness are failing to cook food adequately, holding food at incorrect temperatures, using contaminated equipment, practicing poor personal hygiene, and
Purchasing food from unsafe sources.
What is an important measure for preventing foodborne illness?
Controlling time and temperature
Raw chicken breast are left out at room temperature on a prep table. What is the main risk that could cause a foodborne illness?
Time-temperature abuse
A server cleans a dining table with a wiping cloth and then puts the wiping cloth in an apron pocket. What is the risk that could cause a foodborne illness?
Poor cleaning and sanitizing
What are the most common symptoms of a food-borne illness?
Diarrhea, vomiting, fever, nausea, abdominal cramps, and jaundice
What is the most important way to prevent a foodborne illness from bacteria?
Control time and temperature
Enterohemorrhagic and shiga toxin-producing E. coli are commonly linked with what type of food?
Raw ground beef
What is the most important way to prevent a foodborne illness from viruses?
practice good personal hygiene..
A guest called a restaurant and told the manager about getting sick after eating there. The customer complained of vomiting and diarrhea a few hour after eating the raw oysters. what pathogen probably caused the illness?
Norovirus.
Parasites are commonly linked with what type of food?
Seafood
A guest had a reversal of hot and cold sensations after eating seafood. What most likely caused the illness?
The cause is a Toxin (see page 2-27)
Which FAT TOM condition will a foodservice operation be most able to control?
Time.
Which pathogen can be controlled by washing hands and controlling flies inside and outside the operation?
Shigella species (spp.)
A food handler stored a sanitizer spray bottle on a shelf above the prep table that had just been sanitized. Throughout the day, the food handler used the sanitizer on the prep table, storing it in the same spot. What should the food handler have done differently?
Store the sanitizer bottle away from the prep area.
Eggs and peanuts are dangerous for people with which condition?
food allergies
Wheezing and shortness of breath are symptoms of what?
allergic reaction
To prevent the deliberate contamination of food, a manager should know who is in the facility, monitor the security of products, keep information related to food security on file, and know
Who to contact about suspicious activity
After which activity must food handlers wash their hands?
Clearing tables
What should food handlers do after prepping food and before using the restroom?
Take off their aprons
Which piece of jewelry can be worn on a food handler's hand or arm?
Plain band ring
When should hand antiseptics be used?
After washing hands
When should food handlers who wear gloves wash their hands?
Before putting on the gloves
A cook wore single-use gloves while forming raw ground beef into patties. The cook continued to wear them while slicing hamburger buns. What mistake was made?
The cook did not wash hands and put on new gloves before slicing the hamburger buns.
A food handler has been diagnosed with a illness from shigella species. What should the manager tell this food handler to do?
Stay home until a doctor approves a return to work.
A food handler prepares and delivers meals to elderly individuals receiving cancer care services at home. what symptoms require this food handler to stay home from work?
Sore throat with fever.
When is it acceptable to eat in an operation?
When sitting in a break area.
What should a manager of a hospital cafeteria do if a cook calls in with a headache, nausea, and diarrhea?
Tell the cook to stay away from work and see a doctor.
A food handler has finished trimming raw chicken on a cutting board and needs it to prep vegetables. what must be done to the cutting board?
It must be washed, rinsed, and sanitized.
How far must a bimetallic stemmed thermometer be inserted into food to give an accurate reading?
Up to the dimple of the thermometer stem.
What probe should be used to check the temperature of a large stockpot of chili?
Immersion probe.
At what temperatures do most foodborne pathogens grow most quickly?
Between 70 and 125 degrees F.
Which type of thermometer can read temperature without touching the item's surface?
Infrared
A thermometer used to measure the temperature of food must be accurate to what temperature?
plus or minus 2 degrees F or plus or minus 1 degrees C.
What is the most important factor in choosing a food supplier?
It has been inspected and complies with local, state, and federal laws.
What is the best method of checking the temperature of a delivery of fresh fish?
Insert a thermometer probe into the thickest part of the fish.
What is the correct temperature for receiving cold TCS food?
41 degrees F (5 C) or lower.
Milk can be received at 45°F (7°C) under what condition?
It is cooled to 41 degrees F or lower in 4 hours.
Frozen shrimp is rejected during receiving for having large ice crystals on the food and packaging. What is the problem that caused this?
Time-temperature abuse.
What is required when receiving fish that will be served raw or partially cooked?
It must be correctly frozen before you receive it.
Live shellfish must be received with what documentation?
Shell-stock identification tag.
How should cartons of coleslaw be checked for the correct receiving temperature?
Open a carton and insert a thermometer stem into the food.
What should be done with an item that has been recalled?
Remove the item from inventory, and place it in a secure location.
what must be included on the lable of TCS food that was prepped in-house?
Date that the food should be thrown out.
How long can ready-to-eat TCS food that was prepped in-house be stored if it was held at 41°F (5°C) or lower?
7 days
When storing food using the FIFO method, where should the food with the earliest use-by dates be stored?
In front of the food with the later used-by dates
How far above the floor should food be stored?
At least 6 inches (15 cm)
What is the problem with storing raw ground beef above prepped salads?
Cross-contamination
In top-to-bottom order, how should a fresh pork roast, fresh salmon, a container of lettuce, and a pan of fresh chicken breasts be stored in a cooler?
Lettuce, fresh salmon, fresh pork roast, fresh chicken breasts.
What is the maximum water temperature allowed when thawing food under running water?
70 degrees F (21 C)
What must food handlers do to food immediately after thawing it in the microwave oven?
Cook it.
What can occur if prep tables are not cleaned and sanitized between uses?
Cross-contamination
A food handler thaws several frozen turkeys on a prep table. What is the danger that this poses to the food?
Time-temperature abuse
A food handler pulled a hotel pan of tuna salad from the cooler and used it to prepare six tuna salad sandwiches. What is the problem with this situation?
Time-temperature abuse
What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for stuffed pork chops?
165 degrees F (74 C) for 15 seconds.
What is the minimu internal cooking temperature for eggs, meat, poultry, and seafood cooked in a microwave oven?
165 degrees F (74 C)...
What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for eggs that will be hot-held for service?
155 degrees F (68 C) for 15 seconds
What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for ground beef?
155 degrees F (68 C) for 15 seconds
Which food should NOT be offered on a children's menu: a rare hamburger, fried chicken tenders, grilled cheese sandwich, or spaghetti with meat sauce?
Rare hamburger
A food handler can cool a stockpot of clam chowder by placing it into a
Sink of ice.
What temperature must TCS food be reheated to if it will be hot-held?
165°F (74°C) for 15 seconds
Which part of the plate should a food handler avoid touching when serving customers?
Top of the plate
An operation has a small salad bar with 8 different items on it. How many serving utensils are needed to serve the items on the salad bar?
8 are needed, one for each
At what maximum internal temperature should cold TCS food be held?
41°F (5°C)
What item must customers take each time they return to a self-service area for more food?
a clean plate
At what minimum temperature should hot TCS food be held?
135°F (57°C)
What is the maximum distance that sneeze guards can be located from the self service counter to protect food from contamination?
14 inches (35 cm)
The temperature of a roast is checked to see if it has met its critical limit of 145° F (63°C) for 4 minutes. This is an example of which HACCP principle?
Monitoring
The temperature of a pot of beef stew is checked during holding. The stew has not met the critical limit and is thrown out according to house policy. Throwing out the stew is an example of which HACCP principle?
Corrective action
A deli serves cold sandwiches in a self-serve display. which step in the flow of food would be a critical control point?
Storage
A chef sanitized a thermometer probe and then checked the temperature of minestrone soup being held in a hot-holding unit. The temperature was 120°F (49°C), which did not meet the operation's critical limit of 135° F (57°). The chef recorded the temperature in the log and reheated the soup to 165°F (74°C) for 15 seconds withing 2 hours. which was the corrective action?
Reheating the soup
What is the purpose of a food safety management system?
Identify and control possible hazards throughout the flow of food.
Reviewing temperature logs and other records to make sure that the HACCP plan is working as intended is an example of which HACCP principle?
Verification
What is the first step in developing a HACCP plan?
Conduct a hazard analysis.
What does an operation that wants to smoke food as a method of preservation need to have before processing food this way?
Variance from the regulatory authority
What are the most important food safety features to look for when selecting flooring, wall, and ceiling materials?
Smooth and durable
What organization creates national standards for foodservice equipment?
NSF
When installing tabletop equipment on legs, the space between the base of the equipment and the tabletop must be at least
4 inches (10 centimeters)
Besides information on chemical concentration and water temperature, what other machine setting information should be posted on dishwashing machines?
Water pressure
Signage posted at a handwashing station must include a reminder to staff to
Wash hands before returning to work.
What is the only completely reliable method for preventing backflow?
Air gap
A food handler drops the end of a hose into a mop bucket and turns the water on to fill it. What has the food handler done wrong?
Created a cross-connection
Which area of the operation is usually required to be the brightest?
Preparation
An operation has a buildup of grease and condensation on the walls and ceiling. What is the most likely problem?
The ventilation system is not working correctly.
An operation received a violation in the outside area of the facility. The manager reviewed the area and saw that the Dumpster was placed on a freshly graveled drive. The lids were closed, and the drain plug was in place to prevent the Dumpster from draining. What was the problem?
The surface underneath the Dumpster should have been paved with concrete or asphalt.
A broken water main has caused the water in an operation to appear brown. What should the manager do?
Contact the local regulatory authority before use.
What is the best way to eliminate pests that have entered the operation?
Work with a licensed pest control operator aka P C O
Which thermometer should be used to monitor the temperature of the sanitizing rinse in a dishwashing machine?
Maximum registering
What is sanitizing?
Reducing pathogens to safe levels
If food-contact surfaces are in constant use, how often must they be cleaned and sanitized?
every 4 hours
What must food handler do to make sure sanitizing solution for use on food-contact surfaces has been made correctly?
Test the solution with a sanitizer kit.
A food handler was assigned to clean a slicer that was too difficult to move. The slicer was unplugged. Then the removable parts were taken off the slicer and cleaned and sanitized in a three-compartment sink. Food bits on the slicer were removed. After the machine was wiped down with detergent and water, it was sanitized and allowed to air-dry. Then the food handler put the machine back together. What mistake did the food handler make?
Failed to rinse the machine after wiping it down with detergent and water
What should be done when throwing away chemicals?
Follow label instructions and regulatory requirements.
How should flatware and utensils that have been cleaned and sanitized be stored?
With handles facing up
What is the correct way to clean and sanitize a prep table?
Remove food from the surface, was, rinse, sanitize, air-dry
Who should apply pesticides?
a Pest control operator
In what type of places are cockroaches typically found?
Warm, moist, and dark places
What smell may be a sign that cockroaches are present?
Strong, oily
The three basic rules of an integrated pest management program are: work with a PCO; deny pests access; and
Deny pest food, water, and a nesting or hiding place.
What should be done with food-contact surfaces after pesticides have been applied?
Washed, rinsed, and sanitized
If pesticides are stored in the operation, where should they be kept?
In a secure location, away from food and equipment
A backup of raw sewage and significant lack of refrigeration can result in...
closure of the operation by the regulatory authority.
A person arrives at a restaurant claiming to be a health inspector. What should the manager ask for?
Inspector's Identification
Which agency enforces food safety in a restaurant?
State or local regulatory authority
Who is responsible for keeping food safe in an operation?
Manager / operator
When should staff receive food safety training?
When hired, and then periodically after that
New staff must be trained in the critical areas of personal hygiene, cleaning and sanitizing, controlling time and temperature, and...
preventing cross-contamination
The manager's responsibility for staff food safety training is to...
make sure that staff have the knowledge and skills to keep food safe.
All new staff should receive training on
general food safety
An operation is located in a jurisdiction that allows it to hold TCS food without temperature control. How many nours can it display hot TCS food without temperature control before the food must be sold, served, or thrown out?
Four Hours
Which food items can be displayed in a self-service area without the use of packaging, sneeze guards, or a display case to protect them from contamination?
Nuts in the shell
A food handler is reheating commercially processed cheese sticks, which will be hot-held on a buffet. What temperature must the cheese sticks be reheated to?
165 F (74 C)
Foodborne Illness
disease carried or transmitted to people by food
Foodborne illness outbreak
an incident in which two or more people get the same illness after eating the same food
contamination
the presence of harmful substances in food
3 catagories of contaminants
biological, chemical, physical
5 ways food becomes unsafe
purchased from unsafe sources, failing to cook correctly, holding at incorrect temps, using contaminated equip, practicing poor personal hygiene
Time-Temp abuse
stays too long at temps that are good for pathogen growth
cross-contamination
occurs when pathogens are transferred from one surface or food to another
poor personal hygiene
Failure to wash hands, cough or sneeze on food, come to work while sick.
poor cleaning and sanitizing
o Equipment and utensils are not washed, rinsed, and sanitized between uses
o Food contact surfaces are wiped clean instead of being washed, rinsed, and sanitized
o Wiping cloths are not stored in a sanitizer solution between uses
o Sanitizer solution was not prepared correctly
TCS foods
foods that need time & temp. control for safety
ready-to-eat foods
Foods that require no further preparation in order to be eaten
high-risk population
Infants and preschool age children, pregnant women, elderly people, and other people with compromised immune systems, such as people with cancer/on chemotherapy, people with HIV/AIDS, and transplant recipients
Key practices for ensuring food safety
Controlling time and temperature; Preventing cross-contamination; Practicing good personal hygiene; Purchasing food from approved, reputable suppliers; Cleaning and sanitizing properly.
pathogen
any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
microorganism
a living organism too small to be seen with the naked eye, such as a virus or bacterium
symptoms of foodborne illness
diarrhea, vomiting, fever, nausea, abdominal cramps, jaundice
The big five
Shigella spp., salmonella typhi, enterohemorrhagic and shiga toxin-producing E. Coli, Hepatitis A, Norovirus
Bacteria
single-celled, living microorganism that can spoil food and cause FBI
FAT TOM
FOOD, ACIDITY, TEMPERATURE, TIME, OXYGEN, MOISTURE
4 stages of bacterial growth
Lag, Log, Stationary and Death phases
spores
single-celled reproductive bodies highly resistant to cold and heat damage; capable of new organisms
major foodborne bacteria controlled by time temp
- Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
- Listeriosis
- E. Coli
- Campylobacter jejuni
- Clostridium perfringens
- Clostridium botulinum
major foodborne bacteria controlled by cross-contamination
salmoells spp. and salmonella typhi
major foodborne bacteria controlled by buying from reuptable source
vibri vulnificus and vibrio parahaemolyticus
virus
smallest of microbial food contaminates
major foodborne virus
Norovirus and Hep. A. practice personal hygiene to prevent
parasites
prevent by buying food from reputable approved source.
- Anisakis simplex -fish
- Cryptosporidium parvum -produce
- giardia duodenalis - produce
- cyclospora cayetanensis
Fungi
found in air, dirt, plants, water and some food.. Mold and yeast are examples
Mold and yeast
spoil food and cause illness, some produce toxins grow under any condition, likes slightly acidic with low wa. prevention measures throw out food
biological toxins
toxins (poisons) produced by pathogens, plants,or animals. they may also occur in animals as a result of their diet.
preventing biological toxins by purchasing from approved reputable suppliers
- Histamine (fish)
- Ciguatoxin (fish)
- Saxitoxin (shellfish)
- Brevetoxin (shellfish)
- Domoic toxin (shellfish)
Physical contaminates in food
metal shavings, wood, fingernails, staples, glass, bandages, jewelery, dirt
chemical contaminates in food
cleaners, sanitizers, polishes, machine lubricants, pesticides, deoderizers, first-aid products, hba products
deliberate contamination of food
prevent by having a sstem in place such as A.L.E.R.T
-Assure
-Look
-Employees
-Reports
-Threat
food allergens
Eight major foods that cause a allergic reaction:
Milk, Eggs, Peanuts, Tree nuts, Fish, Shellfish, Soy, Wheat. Label must say either "contains" or list the source of the ingredient.
prevent allergic reactions
service staff should be able to tell customers about menu items, describe dishes, indentify ingredients, suggest items and deliver food seperatly
cross-contact
the transfer of an allergen from a food containing an allergen to a food that does not contain the allergen
avoid cross-contact
1. wash, rinse, sanitize cookware, utensils, and equipment before preparing food
2. wash your hands and change gloves before preparing food
3. assign specific equipment for preparing food for customers with allergens
how food handlers can contaminate food
A foodborne illness, symptoms of diarrhea, vomitting, or jaundice, have any wounds, have contact with a person who is ill, not washing hands
carrier
a person who has some pathogen to which he is immune but who can pass it on to others
good personal hygiene
1. following hygienic hand practices
2. maintaining personal cleanliness
3. wearing clean and appropriate uniforms and following dress codes
4. avoiding certain habits and actions
5. maintaining good health
6. reporting illnesses
hand washing procedure
1( wash arms and hands with hot water of a temp no less than 100F 2( apply soap 3( vigorously scrub hands and arms for 20 seconds. Clean under fingernails and between fingers. 4( Rinse hands and arms thoroughly under running water. 5( Dry hands and arms with a single-use paper towel or hand dryer. When leaving the restroom, consider using a aper towel to turn off the faucet and to open the door.
when to change gloves
If you pick something up off the floor, they get contaminated, you touch yourself or uniform, or whenever they get damaged.
how to use gloves
1) ash and dry hands
2) use correct glove size
3) hold gloves by edge when putting on
4) check for tears and rips
5) do not blow into gloces
6) do not roll gloves
eating, drinking, smoking
do not do this when:
1) preping or serving food
2) working in prep areas
3) or in areas used to clean utensils
preventing cross-contamination
Use separate equipment, Clean and sanitize, Prep food at different times, Buy prepared food
time temp control
hold food no more than 4 hrs the temp danger zone. 41-135 degrees
types of food thermometers
bimetallic stemmed thermometer
thermocouplers
thermistors
immersion probes
infrared
approved, reputable suppliers
have been inspected and meet all applicable local, state and federal laws
gmp and fda sanitation and procesing report
make sure reports contain the following:
1) receiving and storage
2) processing
3) shipping
4) cleaning and sanitizing
5) personal hygiene
6) staff training
7) recall program
8) HACCP program
key drop deliveries
after-hours food delivery
rejecting shipments
1) set all rejects asie
2) tell delivery person whats wrong
3) get a signed adjustment credit slip
4) log the incident
temperature requirements for various foods
1) cold tcs 41 or lower
2) hot tcs 135 or higher
3) frozen food should be frozen solid
4) live shellfish air temp 45, internal temp 50, once recieved colol to internal temp of 41 degrees in under 4 hrs
5) shucked shellfish 45 or lower, must be cooled to 41 inside 4 hrs
6) milk 45 degrees, must be cooled to 41 in less than 4 hrs
7)shell eggs 45 or lower
general inspection guidelines
1) temp. check all foods in temp ranges
2) packaging - dmg, liquid, pests, dates
3) documents and stamps - inspection stamps, shellfish id,. tag
4) food quality - appearance, texture, odor
food labeling
1) identify food
2) qauntity of food
3) ingredients by wt. in descending order
4) artificial colors anf flavorings, chem preservatives
5) name and place of mfg, packer, or distributor
6) souce of each major food allergen
date marking
if food is to be held longer than 24 hrs, ready to eat tcs can be held 7 days at 41 degrees
fifo
First In, First Out. Rotation system that uses the oldest products first
food storage
store raw meat, poultry and fish seperate from ready-to-eat foods, if the cannont be stored seperatly, store ready to eat food above raw meant, poultry, fisf
food linen and single use item storage
store at least 6 inches off the floor
general food preperation practices
1) keep utensils and cutting boards clean
2) only remove a quantity of food you can prep in a short amt of time
3) return prepped food to cooler or cook immediatly
4) present food to customers in a manner that does not mislead them
thawing
under refrigeration
under cold running water
in microwave and cook immediately
raw and undercooked food
you must advise customers that food cooked raw or under cooked increases changes of FBI
TCS food cooling
cool from 135 to 70 within 2 hrs, then from 70 to 41 within the next 4 hrs
reheating tcs foods
reheat to a minimun 165 degrees for 15 seconds
minimun internal cooking temperatures
1) poultry stuffing with poutry, stuffed meat, poultry, previously cood tcs foods - 165 degrees 15 seconds
2) ground meat, seafood, shell eggs held hot for svc. - 155 15 seconds
3) steak/chops, beef veal lamb, seafood commercally raised game. shell egg served immediatly - 145 15 seconds
4) roast pork veal or lamb 145 degrees 4 min (may vary depending on type of roast and oven used)
5) fruit, veggies, grains, legumes 125 degrees
tea - 175 defrees
HACCP
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point - based on identifying significant biological, chemical, or physical hazards at specific points within a product's flow. Once identified, the hazards can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels. It must be specific to each facility's menu, customers, equipment, processes, and operations.
in a heat-sanitizing dishwashing machine, what is the minimum temperature for the final rinse?(just put the #)
180
a foodhandler must be excluded from the operation for which symptom?
Jaundice
what is the temperature range for the danger zone?(_ to _, just put the #s)
41 to 135
what is form some bacteria take to keep from dying when they do not have enough food?
spore
most regulations for foodservice operations are at what level?
state
to learn a new skill, learners must be given the opportunity to__.
practice the skill
at what internal temperature should raw meat, poultry, and seafood be stored?
41 or lower
what type of container should be used to transport TCS food from the place of preparation to the place of service?
insulated
a backup of raw sewage has occured in the kitchen. what should happen next?
close the affected area and clean it
when using a bottom to top shelving order, what determines the best placement of food in a cooler?
minimum internal cooking temperature of food
a hose connected to a running faucet that is left submerged in a bucket is an example of a
cross-connection
an example of TCS food is
sliced cantaloupe
a customer having an allergic reaction may show which symptom?
wheezing
raw or undercooked dishes made for high-risk populations must use eggs that have been__.
pasteurized
the effectiveness of chemical sanitizers is NOT affected by its
color
which agency enforces food safety in a foodservice operation?
state or local regulatory authority
what can cause histamine to form in tuna?
time-temperature abuse
what is the second basic rule of an integrated pest management(IPM) program?
deny pests food, water, and a nesting or hiding place
what is the first basic rule of an integrated pest management program?
deny pests access to the operation
what is the third basic rule of an integrated pest management(IPM) program?
work with a licensed PCO to eliminate pests that do enter the operation
screen all windows and vents with at least
16 mesh per square inch screening
food stored in a dry-storage area should NOT be
touching the walls
how lons must shellstock tags be kept on file?
90 days after the container has been emptied or the last shellfish was served from the container
you should label all ready to eat TCS food that is prepped in house and held longer than
24 hours
people who are carriers are able to carry pathogens in their systems and infect others, yet they never
become ill themselves
what is the only certain way to prevent backflow?
vacuum-breaker
when should employees receive food safety training?
when hired, and then periodically after that
on-the-job training works best for
individuals and small groups
TCS food must be reheated to what temperature for 15 seconds within 2 hours
165
what do time-temperature indicators do?
show if food has been time-termpature abused during shipment
what is one way that food should NEVER be thawed?
at room temperature
what is the minimum internal cooking temperature for poultry?
165
what is the first step in developing a HACCP plan?
conduct a hazard analysis
what is the second step in developing a HACCP plan?
determine critical control points(CCPs)
what is the third step in developing a HACCP plan?
establish critical limits
what is the fourth step in developing a HACCP plan?
establish monitoring procedures
what is the fifth step in developing a HACCP plan?
identify corrective actions
what is the sixth step in developing a HACCP plan?
verify that the system works
what is the seventh step in developing a HACCP plan?
establish procedures for record keeping and documentation
is used to control risks and hazards throughout the flow of food
the HACCP system
the first step in cooling TCS food
cool food from 135 to 70 within 2 hours
the second step in cooling TCS food
cool it from 70 to 41 in the next four hours
useful for checking large or thick food
bimetallic stemmed thermometer
good for checking the temperature of thick and thin food
thermocouples and thermistors
use these to check the temperature of liquids, like soups, sauces, and frying oil
immersion probes
minimum internal temperature for poultry, stuffing, stuffed meat or seafood or pasta, dishes that include previously cooked, TCS ingredients
165 for 15 seconds
minimum internal temperature for ground meat or seafood, injected meat, and eggs for hot held service
155 for 15 seconds
seafood, steaks, pork chop, and eggs that will be served immediately
145 for 15 seconds
roasts of pork, beef
145 for 4 minutes
commercially processed food that will be hot held
135
fruit, vegetables, grains like rice, and legumes or beans that will be hot held for service
135
the best way to deal with pets is to have an
IPM program
removes bits of baked cheese from a pot
abrasive cleaner
clean a grill backsplash
degreaser
remove mineral deposits from a steam table
delimer
wash a kitchen wall
detergent
what are the the steps in a three compartment sink
clean, rinse, and sanitize
store tableware and utensils at least___off the floor.
6 inches
occupational safety and health administration(OSHA) has requirements for using__
chemicals
OSHA requires chemical manufacturers and suppliers to provide a____ for each hazardous chemical they sell
Material Safety Data sheet
what is the purpose of Material Safety Data Sheets
inform employees of safe use and hazards associated with chemicals used in the operation
three things to focus on when developing a cleaning program
Creating a master cleaning schedule, training your employees to follow it, and monitoring the program to make sure it works
what type of pathogen is hepatitis A?
Virus
where is the only place a foodborne virus can reproduce?
person's intestines
what is an infrared thermometer used to measure?
surface temperature
a training need is a
gap between what an employee knows and what an employe needs to know
__is a sign of a possible rodent infestation
pile of soft materials in a corner
hot TCS food that has been held below 135 for over 4 hours should be
thrown out immediately
what is the FDA food code?
the federal goverment's recommendations for foodservice sanitation regulations
what should a manager do when a foodhandler reports being diagnosed with shigellosis?
keep the foodhandler away from duties that involve food
what happends when the water temperature in a high temperature dishwashing machine is too high?
the water vaporizes before items can be sanitized
to make sure that the chemical sanitizer is at the correct strength,__
use a test kit to check the sanitizer's concentration when mixing it
cold TCS food must be received at what inernal temperature
41 or lower
what is the minimum internal cooking temperature for TCS food cooked in a microwave?
155
what is the calibration nut on a bimetallic stemmed thermometer used for?
keep it accurate
lables on containers of ready to eat TCS food that was prepped on site must include
the date the food should be sold
if a food contact surface has been soiled, what three actions must be performed before it can be used again?
cleaned, rinsed, and sanitized
if a food contact surface is in constant use, how often must it be cleaned and sanitized
every 4 hours
what is the right way to measure the temperature of fresh meat, poultry, or seafood when it is deliverd
insert the thermometer of the stem into the thickest part of the product
what temperature does the water have to be for washing hands
100
a foodhandler who spends an entire shift deboning chicken should change gloves after
1 hour
when taking the orders of customers with food allergies, a server should
fully describe each menu item to customers who ask, including any secret ingredients
why should food NOT be stored in a galvanized container
acids in the food can leach zinc into the food
food commonly linked with the bacteria are dented cans, baked potatoes
botulism
cooking food in an airtight bag in hot water at 140 degrees for a long period of time
sous-vide
linked with contaminated ground beef and produce
shiga toxin producing e coli
can reduce salmonella spp. in poultry to safe levels
cooking food in the right temperature
viruses such as norovirus and hepatitis a can be spread when foodhandlers fail to
wash their hands
cooking tomato sauce in a copper pot can cause which food borne illness
toxic metal poisoning
Porosity
The extent to which a material will absorb liquids
Resiliency
Material has the ability to react to a shock without breaking or cracking
Coving
Curved, sealed edge placed between the floor and wall to eliminate sharp corners or gaps that would be impossible to clean.
NSF International
Develops and publishes standards for sanitary equipment design
Underwriters Laboratories
Provides sanitation classification listings for equipment found in compliance with NSF International Standards
Potable Water
Water that is safe to drink
Booster Heater
Used to heat water when water heaters don't heat to required temperatures for hot-water sanitizing
Cross-Connection
Physical link through which contaminants from drains, sewers, or other wastewater sources can enter a potable water supply
Backflow
The unwanted, reverse flow of contaminatns through a crossconnection into a potable water system
Air Gap
An air space used to separate a water supply outlet from an potentially contaminated source
Cleaning
Process of removing food and other types of soil from a surface
Sanitizing
Process of reducing the number of microorganisms on surfaces to safe levels
Detergents
Contain surfactants that quickly penetrate and soften the soil on surfaces
Degreasers
Detergents that contain a grease-dissolving agent
Delimers
Cleaners used on mineral deposits and soils other cleaners can't remove.
Abrasive Cleaners
Contain a scouring agent that helps scrub hard-to-remove soil.
Heat Sanitizing
Immerse items in hot water at least 171 F for at least thirty seconds
Chemical Sanitizers
Chlorine, Iodine, and Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (quats)
Chemical Santizing
immerse a clean object in specific concentration of soluition for specific amount of time or rinse, swab or spray the object with the solution.
Sanitizer Effectiveness Factors
Contact Time, Termperature, Water Hardness, pH, Concentration
Master Cleaning Schedule
Schedule that uses info gathered while indentifying cleaning needs. Includes what should be cleaned, who should clean it, and when it should be cleaned and how it should be cleaned
For a food-borne illness to be considered an "outbreak," a minimum of how many people must experience the same illness after eating the same food?
Two.
Why are the elderly at higher risk for getting food-borne illness?
Their immune systems have weakened with age.
What are the three major types of hazards to food safety?
Biological hazards, chemical hazards, and physical hazards.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the five most common risk factors that cause food-borne illnesses are
#1. Failing to cook food adequately
#2. Holding food a incorrect temperatures
#3. Using contaminated equipment
#4. Practicing with poor personable hygiene
#5. Purchasing food from unsafe sources.
Foodborne pathogens grow well at temperatures
between 41 degrees and 135 degrees.
FAT TOM stands for
Food, Acidity, Temperature, Time, Oxygen, and Moisture.
Which pathogen is primarily found in the hair, nose, and throat of humans?
Staphylococcus aureus
While commonly linked with contaminated ground beef, what pathogen has also been linked with contaminated produce?
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli
Which pracice can reduce Salmonella spp. in poultry to safe levels?
Cooking food to the right temperature.
Covering wounds can help prevent the spread of which pathogen?
Staphylococcus aureus
Which foodborne illness has been linked with ready-to-eat food and shellfish contaminated by sewage?
Hepatitis A
Viruses such as Norovirus and hepatitis A can be spread when foodhandlers fail to
wash their hands.
What is the best way to prevent a food-borne illness caused by seafood toxins?
purchasing seafood from approved, reputable suppliers.
A person who ate raw oysters later became disoriented and suffered memory loss. what illness was most likely the cause?
Amnesic shellfish poisoning
Foodservice operations should not use mushrooms unless they have been
purchased from an approved, reputable supplier.
Eggs and peanuts are dangerous for people with which condition?
Food allergies
Cooking tomato sauce in a copper pot can cause which foodborne illness?
toxic-metal poisoning
To prevent chemical contamination, chemicals should be stored ____ food and utensils.
separate from.
itching and tightening of the throat are symptoms of what?
Food allergy
To prevent food allergens from being transferred to food..
clean and sanitize utensils before use.
what three points should a food defense program focus on to prevent possible threats to food?
Human elements, building interior, building exterior.
what should foodhandlers do after prepping food and before using the restroom?
take off their aprons
which piece of jewelry can be worn by a foodhandler?
plain band ring
when should hand antiseptics be used?
after washing hands
when should foodhandlers who wear gloves wash their hands?
before putting on the gloves
foodhandlers should keep their fingernails
short and unpolished
A cook wore single-use gloves while forming raw ground beef into patties. The cook continued to wear them while slicing hamburger buns. What mistake was made?
The cook did not wash hands and put on new gloves before slicing the hamburger buns.
When a foodhandler has been diagnosed with shigellosis, what steps must be taken?
The foodhandler must be told to not come to work.
Foodhandlers cannot work in their operation if they have an illness caused by which pathogen?
Salmonella Typhi
Foodhandlers who work in a nursing home cannot work in the operation if they have which symptom?
Sore throat with fever.
Foodhandlers should not eat, drink, smoke, or chew gum or tobacco while
prepping food.
what should foodhandlers do if they cut their fingers while preparing food?
Cover the wound with a bandage and a glove or a finger cot.
What should a manager at a nursing home do if a cook calls in a headache, nausea, and diarrhea?
Tell the cook to stay away from work and see a doctor.
A foodhandler has finished trimming raw chicken on a cuting board and needs to prep vegetables. What must be done to the cutting board?
It must be washed, rinsed, and sanitized.
Which of these practices can help prevent cross-contamination?
Using a designated cutting board when preparing meat.
Infrared thermometers should be used to measure the
surface temperature of a grill.
At what temperatures do foodborne pathogens grow most quickly?
Between 70 degrees and 125 degrees (21 C and 52 C)
Which thermocouple probe should be used to check the temperature of a large stockpot of soup?
Immersion probe.
When a thermometer is calibrated using the ice-point method, it should be adjusted to ____ after the stem or probe has been placed in the ice water.
32 degrees (0 C)
What type of thermometer is not appropriate for use in a restaurant or foodservice operation?
Glass thermometer.
what is the most important factor in choosing an approved food supplier?
it has been inspected and complies with local, state, and federal laws.
Raw, shucked shellfish that is received in a container bigger than one-half gallon must have the packer's name, the packer's address, a certification number, and a
shucked date.
what is the maximum acceptable receiving temperature for fresh beef?
41 degrees
What is the warmest acceptable receiving temperature for eggs?
45 degrees
Large ice crystals in a case of frozen food are evidence that the product may have been
thawed and refrozen.
how should cartons of coleslaw be checked for correct receiving temperature?
Open a carton and insert a thermometer stem into the food.
A box of sirloin steaks carries a state department of agriculture inspection stamp. What does this stamp indicate?
The meat and processing plant have met USDA or a state department of agriculture's standards.
which food should be rejected?
Live shellfish received without shellstock tags.
Which food requires a USDA inspection stamp?
Egg products
In top-to bottom order, how should a fresh pork roast, fresh salmon, a carton of lettuce, and pan of fresh chicken breasts be stored in a cooler?
Lettuce, fresh salmon, fresh pork roast, fresh chicken breasts
Where should raw poultry be placed in a cooler?
On the bottom shelf.
Why is first in, first out (FIFO) storage used?
To ensure that the oldest food is used first.
When storing ready-to-eat TCS food that was prepared on site, what information must be included on the label?
Sell-by or discard date.
What is the warmest temperature at which ground beef can be safely stored?
41 degrees
At what temperature should dry-storage rooms be kept?
50 degrees to 70 degrees.
When storing food using the FIFO method, the food with the earliest use-by dates should be stored
in front of food with later use-by-dates.
A restaurant that has prepared tuna salad can store it at 41 degrees or lower for a maximum of how many days?
7
It is important to avoid lining cooler shelves with aluminum foil because the foil
can restrict the flow of cold air.
Which storage practice is correct?
Storing chicken at 41 degrees.
Beef stew must be cooled from 135 degrees to 70 degrees within ___ and from 70 degrees to 41 degrees (or lower) in the next ___ hours.
2, 4.
What must you do to keep food safe after thawing it in a microwave?
Cook it.
What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for stuffed pork chops?
165 degrees
what are the time and temperature requirements for reheating TCS food for hot holding?
165 degrees for 15 seconds within 2 hours.
what is the minimum internal cooking temperature for eggs, meat, poultry, and seafood cooked in a microwave?
165 degrees
What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for eggs that will be hot-held for later service?
155 degrees.
What is the danger of not cleaning and sanitizing a prep table between uses?
Cross-contamination
What is the correct way to cool a stockpot of clam chowder?
Put the stockpot into ice-water.
What is the danger when thawing food at room temperature?
Time-temperature abuse.
What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for ground beef?
155 degrees.
When serving, it is important to avoid touching the ___ top of a plate
Top
Serving utensils should be used to serve a maximum of __ food item(s) at a time.
One
At what maximum internal temperature should cold TCS food be held?
41 degrees
When returning to self-service lines for more food, customers should not ___ their dirty plates.
Refill
At what minimum internal temperature should hot TCS food be held?
135 degrees
Where allowed, hot TCS food can be held without temperature control for a maximum of _4 hours before being sold, served, or discarded.
4
The temperature of a roast is checked to see if it has met its critical limit of 145 degrees for four minutes. This is an example of which HACCP principle?
Monitoring
The temperature of a pot of beef stew is checked during holding. The stew has not met the critical limit and is thrown out according to house policy. Throwing out the stew is an example of which HACCP principle?
Corrective action.
The CDC has determined five common risk factors for foodborne illness. they are: purchasing food from unsafe sources, failing to cook good adequately, holding food at incorrect temperatures, practicing poor personal hygiene, and using
contaminated equipment
What is the first step in developing a HACCP plan?
Conduct a hazard analysis.
A food safety management system is a group of ____ preventing foodborne illness.
Procedures and practices.
What is the purpose of a food safety management system?
To identify, and control possible hazards.
An operation that wants to smoke food as a method of preservation must have a(n)
HACCP plan
what is the third step in active managerial control?
monitor the policies and procedures
Which is an example of when a HACCP plan is required?
Serving raw oysters from a display tank
Generally, operations that use a private water source, such as a well, must have it tested at least
Once a year.
What is the only competely reliable method for preventing backflow?
Air gap
When installing tabletop equipment on legs, the space between the base of the equipment and the tabletop must be at least
4 inches
How hot should the hot water at a hand-washing station get?
At least 100 degrees.
Foodservice equipment that has been certified as meeting certain standards may be stamped with the __ mark.
NSF
What imformation should be posted on or near a dishwasher?
Water temperature, conveyor speed, and water pressure.
what is sanitizing?
reducing pathogens to safe levels
if food-contact surfaces are in constant use, how often must they be cleaned and sanitized?
every four hours
An employee wants to make a sanitizer solution to spray onto food-contact surfaces. What must be done to ensure that it has been made correctly?
Test the solution with a sanitizer test kit.
How can foodservice managers find out which chemical sanitizers are appropriate for their operations?
Check with the local regulator authority.
what should be done when throwing away chemicals?
Follow label instructions and any regulatory requirements that apply.
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) should be
kept so employees can access them.
Flatware and utensils hat have been cleaned and sanitized should be stored
with the handles facing up.
what is the correct way to clean and sanitize a prep table?
wash, rinse, sanitize, air-dry
who should apply pesticides?
pest control operator
cockroaches typically are found in places that are
warm, moist, and dark
what kind of odor is a sign that roaches might be present
strong, oily.
the three basic rules of an integrated pest managemtn program are
1. deny pests access to the operation
2. deny pests food, water, and a nesting or hiding place
3. work with a licensed PCO to eliminate pests that do enter.
after pesticides have been applied, food-contact surfaces should be
washed, rinsed, and sanitized.
IF pesticides are stored in the operation, where should they be kept?
in a secure location, away from food.
general guidelines for holding food
check food temp every 4 hours, establish policy for discarding food, cover food and provide sneeze guard for self serve areas
cold food can be held without temp control for up to 6 hours if:
held at 41 F or lower before removing it from refrigeration, doesn't exceed 70 F, has a label specifying time it was removed from fridge/time to be thrown out, is sold, served or thrown out within 6 hours
hot food can be held w/o temp control for up to 4 hours if:
held at 135 F or hotter before removing from temp control, has label specifying when to be thrown out, is sold, served or thrown out within 4 hours
never re-serve:
food returned by one customer to another customer, plate garnishes, uncovered condiments, uneaten bread or rolls
in general, only unopened prepackaged food can be reserved
condiment packets, wrapped crackers or breadsticks
when delivering food off-site
use insulated, food grade containers that maintain right temps, clean inside of delivery vehicles regularly, check internal food temps, label food w/ a use-by date and time and reheating and service instructions, make sure the service site has right utilities (safe water, garbage stored away from food), store raw meat, seafood, poultry and RTE food separately
to keep vended food safe:
check product shelf life daily, keep TCS food at right temp, dispense TCS food in its original container, wash and wrap fresh fruit w/ edible peels before putting in machine
when serving, it is important to avoid touching the ____ of a plate
top
serving utensils should be used to serve a max of ___ food items at a time
one
at what minimum temp should hot TCS food be held?
135 F
where allowed, hot TCS food can be held without temp control for a maximum of ___ hours before being sold, served or discarded
4
active managerial control focuses on
controlling the most common foodborne illness risk factors identified by the CDC
T or F: purchasing fish directly fro a local fisher would be considered a risk in an active managerial control system
true
a point in flow of food where a hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels
critical control point
prerequisite food safety programs:
personal hygiene program, supplier selection and specification program, sanitation and pest control programs, facility design and equipment maintenance program, food safety training program
5 most common risk factors that cause foodborne illness
purchasing food from unsafe sources, failing to cook food adequately, holding food at incorrect temps, using contaminated equipment, practicing poor personal hygiene
steps for active managerial control
consider 5 risk factors throughout flow of food and identify any issues that could impact food safety, create policies and procedures that address the issues that were identified, regularly monitor the policies and procedures that have been developed, verify that the policies and procedures are actually controlling the risk factors
based on identifying significant biological, chemical and physical hazards at specific points within a product's flow through an operation
HACCP
the seven HACCP principles
1) conduct a hazard analysis, 2) determine critical control points, 3) establish critical limits, 4) establish monitoring procedures, 5) identify corrective actions, 6) verify that the system works, 7) establish procedures for record keeping and documentation
a successful crisis management plan has a written plan that focuses on 3 areas
preparation, response, recovery
prepare for a foodborne illness outbreak:
create a crisis management team, train staff on food safety policies and procedures, develop a FBI incident report form, create an emergency contact list, develop a crisis communication plan
air space used to separate a water supply outlet from any potentially contaminated source
air gap
unwanted, reverse flow of contaminants through a cross connection into a potable water system
backflow
most important factor to consider when selecting flooring
material's porosity, or extent to which it can become saturated w/ liquids - FDA recommends use of nonporous flooring in food prep areas
what action must be taken in event of a backup of raw sewage in an establishment
cause for immediate closure of the area, correction of the problem and thorough cleaning
what can be done to prevent backflow in an establishment
install vacuum breakers or other approved backflow prevention devices on threaded faucets and connections between 2 piping systems, install air gaps wherever practical and possible - only completely reliable method
what are some potable water sources for an establishment? what are the testing requirement for nonpublic water systems
sources: approved public water mains, private water sources regularly maintained and tested, closed portable water containers filled w/ potable water, properly maintained water transport vehicles. requirements: should be tested at least annually
requirements of a handwashing station? what areas are they required?
hot/cold running water supplied through mixing valve or combo faucet at temp of at least 100 F, soap in liquid, bar or powder form, means to dry hands is required - most required disposable paper towels, waste container required, signage must indicate employees are required to wash before returning to work, stations required in food prep areas, service areas, dishwashing areas, and restrooms
what are requirements for installing stationary equipment
must be mounted on legs, at least 6 inches off the floor, or must be sealed to a masonry base
operations that use a private water source such as a well must have it tested at least ____ times a year
1
what is the only completely reliable method for preventing backflow
air gap
when installing tabletop equipment on legs, the space b/w the base of equipment and tabletop must be at least
4 inches
how hot should the water at a handwashing station get
at least 100 F
foodservice equipment that has been certified as meeting certain standards may be stamped with the ____ mark
NSF
what info should be posted on or near a dishwasher
water temp, conveyor speed and water pressure
to keep food from being contaminated by lighting, use
shields on heat lamps
what is an example of potable water source
water transport vehicles
outdoor garbage containers should be
kept covered w/ tight fitting lids
what is a cross connection
link b/w sources of safe and dirty water
backflow is when water
flows opposite its normal direction because of water pressure
180
in a heat-sanitizing dishwashing machine, what is the minimum temperature for the final rinse?(just put the #)
Jaundice
a foodhandler must be excluded from the operation for which symptom?
41 to 135
what is the temperature range for the danger zone?(_ to _, just put the #s)
spore
what is form some bacteria take to keep from dying when they do not have enough food?
state
most regulations for foodservice operations are at what level?
41 or lower
at what internal temperature should raw meat, poultry, and seafood be stored?
insulated
what type of container should be used to transport TCS food from the place of preparation to the place of service?
practice the skill
to learn a new skill, learners must be given the opportunity to__.
close the affected area and clean it
a backup of raw sewage has occured in the kitchen. what should happen next?
minimum internal cooking temperature of food
when using a bottom to top shelving order, what determines the best placement of food in a cooler?
cross-connection
a hose connected to a running faucet that is left submerged in a bucket is an example of a
sliced cantaloupe
an example of TCS food is
wheezing
a customer having an allergic reaction may show which symptom?
pasteurized
raw or undercooked dishes made for high-risk populations must use eggs that have been__.
color
the effectiveness of chemical sanitizers is NOT affected by its
state or local regulatory authority
which agency enforces food safety in a foodservice operation?
time-temperature abuse
what can cause histamine to form in tuna?
deny pests food, water, and a nesting or hiding place
what is the second basic rule of an integrated pest management(IPM) program?
deny pests access to the operation
what is the first basic rule of an integrated pest management program?
work with a licensed PCO to eliminate pests that do enter the operation
what is the third basic rule of an integrated pest management(IPM) program?
16 mesh per square inch screening
screen all windows and vents with at least
touching the walls
food stored in a dry-storage area should NOT be
90 days after the container has been emptied or the last shellfish was served from the container
how lons must shellstock tags be kept on file?
24 hours
you should label all ready to eat TCS food that is prepped in house and held longer than
become ill themselves
people who are carriers are able to carry pathogens in their systems and infect others, yet they never
vacuum-breaker
what is the only certain way to prevent backflow?
when hired, and then periodically after that
when should employees receive food safety training?
individuals and small groups
on-the-job training works best for
165
TCS food must be reheated to what temperature for 15 seconds within 2 hours
show if food has been time-termpature abused during shipment
what do time-temperature indicators do?
at room temperature
what is one way that food should NEVER be thawed?
165
what is the minimum internal cooking temperature for poultry?
conduct a hazard analysis
what is the first step in developing a HACCP plan?
determine critical control points(CCPs)
what is the second step in developing a HACCP plan?
establish critical limits
what is the third step in developing a HACCP plan?
establish monitoring procedures
what is the fourth step in developing a HACCP plan?
identify corrective actions
what is the fifth step in developing a HACCP plan?
verify that the system works
what is the sixth step in developing a HACCP plan?
establish procedures for record keeping and documentation
what is the seventh step in developing a HACCP plan?
the HACCP system
is used to control risks and hazards throughout the flow of food
cool food from 135 to 70 within 2 hours
the first step in cooling TCS food
cool it from 70 to 41 in the next four hours
the second step in cooling TCS food
bimetallic stemmed thermometer
useful for checking large or thick food
thermocouples and thermistors
good for checking the temperature of thick and thin food
immersion probes
use these to check the temperature of liquids, like soups, sauces, and frying oil
165 for 15 seconds
minimum internal temperature for poultry, stuffing, stuffed meat or seafood or pasta, dishes that include previously cooked, TCS ingredients
155 for 15 seconds
minimum internal temperature for ground meat or seafood, injected meat, and eggs for hot held service
145 for 15 seconds
seafood, steaks, pork chop, and eggs that will be served immediately
145 for 4 minutes
roasts of pork, beef
135
commercially processed food that will be hot held
135
fruit, vegetables, grains like rice, and legumes or beans that will be hot held for service
IPM program
the best way to deal with pets is to have an
abrasive cleaner
removes bits of baked cheese from a pot
degreaser
clean a grill backsplash
delimer
remove mineral deposits from a steam table
detergent
wash a kitchen wall
clean, rinse, and sanitize
what are the the steps in a three compartment sink
6 inches
store tableware and utensils at least___off the floor.
chemicals
occupational safety and health administration(OSHA) has requirements for using__
Material Safety Data sheet
OSHA requires chemical manufacturers and suppliers to provide a____ for each hazardous chemical they sell
inform employees of safe use and hazards associated with chemicals used in the operation
what is the purpose of Material Safety Data Sheets
Creating a master cleaning schedule, training your employees to follow it, and monitoring the program to make sure it works
three things to focus on when developing a cleaning program
Virus
what type of pathogen is hepatitis A?
person's intestines
where is the only place a foodborne virus can reproduce?
surface temperature
what is an infrared thermometer used to measure?
gap between what an employee knows and what an employe needs to know
a training need is a
pile of soft materials in a corner
__is a sign of a possible rodent infestation
thrown out immediately
hot TCS food that has been held below 135 for over 4 hours should be
the federal goverment's recommendations for foodservice sanitation regulations
what is the FDA food code?
keep the foodhandler away from duties that involve food
what should a manager do when a foodhandler reports being diagnosed with shigellosis?
the water vaporizes before items can be sanitized
what happends when the water temperature in a high temperature dishwashing machine is too high?
use a test kit to check the sanitizer's concentration when mixing it
to make sure that the chemical sanitizer is at the correct strength,__
41 or lower
cold TCS food must be received at what inernal temperature
155
what is the minimum internal cooking temperature for TCS food cooked in a microwave?
keep it accurate
what is the calibration nut on a bimetallic stemmed thermometer used for?
the date the food should be sold
lables on containers of ready to eat TCS food that was prepped on site must include
cleaned, rinsed, and sanitized
if a food contact surface has been soiled, what three actions must be performed before it can be used again?
every 4 hours
if a food contact surface is in constant use, how often must it be cleaned and sanitized
insert the thermometer of the stem into the thickest part of the product
what is the right way to measure the temperature of fresh meat, poultry, or seafood when it is deliverd
100
what temperature does the water have to be for washing hands
1 hour
a foodhandler who spends an entire shift deboning chicken should change gloves after
fully describe each menu item to customers who ask, including any secret ingredients
when taking the orders of customers with food allergies, a server should
acids in the food can leach zinc into the food
why should food NOT be stored in a galvanized container
botulism
food commonly linked with the bacteria are dented cans, baked potatoes
sous-vide
cooking food in an airtight bag in hot water at 140 degrees for a long period of time
shiga toxin producing e coli
linked with contaminated ground beef and produce
cooking food in the right temperature
can reduce salmonella spp. in poultry to safe levels
wash their hands
viruses such as norovirus and hepatitis a can be spread when foodhandlers fail to
toxic metal poisoning
cooking tomato sauce in a copper pot can cause which food borne illness
180°F (82°C)
In a heat-sanitizing dishwashing machine, what is the minimum temperature for the final rinse?
Jaundice
A foodhandler must be excluded from the opeation for which symptom?
using shields on fluorescent lighbulbs where food is stored.
The risk of physical contaimination can be reduced by
41°F to 135°F (5°C to 57°C)
What is the temperature range of the temperature danger zone?
Spore
What is a form some bacteria take to keep from dying when they do not have enough food?
State
Most regulations for food service operations are written at what level?
cross-contamination.
Using one set of cutting boards for raw TCS food and another set of cutting boards for ready-to-eat food reduces the risk of
Single-use paper towel
What should be used to dry hands after washing them?
41°F (5°C) or lower
At what internal temperature should raw meat, poultry, and seafood be stored?
Food allergies
Peanuts and soy products are dangerous for people with what condition?
Insulated
What type of container should be used to transport TCS food from the place of preparation to the place of service?
practice the skill.
To learn a new skill, learners must be given the opportunity to
plain-band ring.
What is the only jewelry that may be worn on the hands or arms while handling food?
Pest control operator
Who should apply pesticides inan operation?
Close the affected area and clean it.
A backup of raw sewage has occurred in the kitchen. What should happen next?
Minimum internal cooking temperature of food
When using a bottom -to-top shelving order, what determines the best placement of food in a cooler?
cross-connection.
A hose connected to ta running faucet that is left submerged in a bucket is an example of a(n)
Reduce pathogens on skin
What is the intended use for a hand antiseptic?
sliced cantaloupe.
An example of TCS food is
Wheezing
A customer having an allergic reaction may show which symptom?
pasteurized
Raw or undercooked dishes made for high-risk populations must use eggs that have been
color.
The effectiveness of chemilcal sanitizers is NOT affected by its
The foodhandler failed to wash hands and change gloves after handling the raw meat.
After forming raw ground beef into patties onthe prep line, a foodhandler kept on the same gloves while slicing hamburger buns. What did the foodhandler do wrong?
Wash hands
A foodhandler who has just bused tables must do what before handling food?
In a secure storage area away from food
Where should pesticides be stored?
Sate or local regulatory authority
Which agency enforces food safety in a foodservice operation?
First in, first out
Food in storage should be rotated using which method?
Time-temperature abuse
What can cause histamine to form in tuna?
Foodborne illness
Several people became ill with Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis after eating teime-temperature abuse rice. This result is an example of what?
Their immune systems are not yet fully developed.
Why are young children at a higher risk for foodborne illness?
Deny pests food, water, and a nesting or hiding place.
What is the second basic rule of an integrated pest management program?
touching the walls.
Food stored in a dry-storage area should NOT be
90 days after the container has been emptied or that last shellfish was served from the container
How long must shellstock tags be kept on file?
24 hours.
You should label all ready-to-eat TCS food that is prepped in-house and held longer than
Reducing the number of pathogens on a surface to safe levels
What is the definition of sanitizing?
Labels on food
When transporting food off-site, how should information such as use-by date and time be communicated to the off-site staff?
Deny pests access to the facility.
What is the first basic rule of an IPM program?
chemical.
The three potential hazards to food are biological, physical, and
become ill themselves.
People who are "carriers" are able to carry pathogens in their systems and infect others, yet they never
Air gap
What is the only certain way to prevent backflow?
When hired, and then periodicially after that
When should employees receive food safety training?
individuals or small groups
On-the-job training works best for
165°F (74°C)
Chili that is being rehated for hot-holding must reach what temperature for 15 seconds within 2 hours?
bandage the wound and wear a single-use glove.
To work with food, a foodhandler with a hand wound must
Modeling proper behavior at all times
How can managers play a key role in promoting good personal hygiene?
Show if food has been time-temperature abused during shipment
What do time-temperature indicators do?
At room temperature
What is one way that food should NEVER be thawed?
165°F (74°C)
What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for poultry?
Conduct a hazard analysis.
What is the first step in developing a HACCP plan?
Virus
Which type of pathogen is hepatitis A?
Person's intestine
Where is the only place a foodborne virus can reproduce?
Sureface temperature
What is an infrared (laser) thermometer used to measure?
gap between what an employee knows and what an employee needs to know.
A training need is a
Pile of soft materials in a corner
Which is a sign of a possible rodent infestation?
thrown out imediately.
Hot TCS fodd that has been held below 135°F (57°C) for over 4 hours should be
Inform employees of safe use and hazards associated with chemicals used in the operation
What is the purpose of Material Safety Data Sheets?
The federal government's recommendations for foodservice sanitation regulations
What is the FDA Food Code?
rejected and returned to the supplier.
A package of flour that arrives on the receiving dock with signs of dampness on the bag should be
Send the foodhandler home, and then call the local regulatory authority.
What action should a manager take when a foodhandler reports being diagnosed with shigellosis?
The water vaporizes before items can be sanitized.
What happens when the water temperature in a high-temperature diswashing machine is too high?
inspect all food immediately before storing it.
When receiving a delivery of food for an operation, it is important to
use a test kit to check the sanitizer's concentration when mixing it.
To make sure that the chemical snaitizer being used on a food-prep surface is at the correct strength,
41°F (5°C) or lower
Cold TCS food must be received at what internal temperature?
165°F (74°C)
What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for TCS food cooked in a microwave?
Keep it accurate
What is the calibration nut on a bimetallic stemmed thermometer used for?
The foodhandler did not store ready-to-eat food above raw food.
A foodhandler put labeled, ready-to-eat food under raw hamburger patties in the cooler. What was done wrong?
Cleaned, rinsed, sanitized, air-dried
If a food-contact surface has been soiled, what four actions must be performed before it can be used again?
41°F (5°C)
What is the maximum acceptable receiving temperature for fresh poultry?
date that the food should be sold.
Labels on containers of ready-to-eat TCS food that was prepped on-site must include the
Clean and rinse the surface, sanitize the surface, and then air-dry.
How should a prep table be cleaned and sanitized?
Every 4 hours
If a food-contact surface is in constant use, how often must it be cleaned and snaitized?
Insert the thermometer stem or probe into the tickest part of the product.
What is the right way to measure the temperature of fresh meat, poultry, or seafood when it is delivered?
Acidity
What is one factor that affects the growth of microorganisms in food?
wet hands and arms with water at least 100°F (38°C). Apply soap. Vigorously scrub hands and arms for 10 to 15 seconds.
What is the correct procedure for washing hands?
Short and unpolished
How should foodhandlers keep their fingernails?
every 4 hours during continual use, and more often as needed
A foodhandler who spends an entire shift deboning chicken should change gloves
Controlling time and temperature
What is the key to limiting bacterial growth?
fully describe each menu item to customers who ask, including any "secret" ingredients.
When taking the orders of customers with food allergies, a server should
Acids in the food can leach zine into the food.
Why should food NOT be stored in a galvanized container?
2, 4
Food should be cooled from 135°F to 70°F (57°C to 21°C) within _____ hours, and then from 70°F to 41°F (21°C to 5°C) or lower within _____ hours.
Bacillus cereus
Which bacteria is commnly linked with cooked rice dishes?
purchasing fish from approved, reputable suppliers.
Scombroid poisoning can be prevented by
Sprouts
Whic is a TCS food?
Ciguatera toxin in a red snapper
Which of the following is an example of a biological hazard?
Hepatitis A
Jaundice is a symptom of which foodborne illness?
10 to 15 seconds.
As part of handwashing, foodhandlers must scrub their hands and arms for
Restrict the foodhandler from working with food.
What should a manager of a quick-service operation do if a foodhandler reports having a sore throat and a fever?
handling raw meat, poultry, or seafood.
Foodhandlers should wash their hands before and after
every 4 hours during continual use, and more often as needed.
A foodhandler who spends an entire shift forming hamburger patties should change glove
Remove the lid of a container and put the thermometer stem into the sour cream.
How should the temperature of a shipment of sour cream be taken with it arrives at an operation?
No USDA or state department of agriculture inspection stamp
For which condition should you reject a shipment of fresh chicken?
Macaroni salad stored above raw salmon
Which item is store correctly in the cooler?
41°F (5°C) or lower
Cut melons should be stored at what internal temperature?
24
All ready-to-eat TCS food that will be stored for longer than ___ hours must be labeled.
145°F (63°C) or lower for 15 seconds
What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for seafood?
165°F (74°C) for 15 seconds within two hours.
Leftover chili to be put in hot-holding must be reheated to
70°F (21°C)
Food must be cooled from 135°F (57°C) to _____ within 2 hours.
in an ice-water bath.
A stockpot of soup that needs to be cool should be placed
7 days
How long can refrigerated food that is prepped on-site be stored in a cooler?
Curved, sealed edge between a floor and a wall
What is coving?
rinsing, scraping, or soaking items.
The first step in cleaning and sanitizing items in a three-compartment sink is
Sanitizing
What is the third step in cleaning and sanitizing a cutting board?
Penetration
Which probe should be used to check the temperature of a pork roast?
clean and sanitize utensils before each use.
To prevent cross-contact,
allergies.
Wheezing and hives are symptoms of
Food and Drug Administration
Which organization makes recommendations for food safety regulation of the foodservice industry?
Infestation of cockroaches or mice
For which reason could an inspector close an operation?
On-the-job training
Taking experienced staff away from their tasks is a disadvatage of which training method?
Role-play
Which training method relies on volunteers acting out a script?
Time-temperature abuse
Leftover soup is cooled on the counter.
Cross-contaimination
A foodhandler wearing gloves places a hamburger on the grill and then places lettuce and tomato on a bun.
Poor personal hygiene
A foodhandler prepping a salad stop to scratch an itch on her arm and then returns to making the salad.
Cross-contamination
A server setting tables touches the food-contact surfaces of the utensils when placing them on the table.
Hepatitis A
Shellfish, ready-to-eat food, and contaminated water.
Norovirus gastroenteritis
Shellfish, ready-to-eat food, and contaminated water.
Bacillus gastroentertis
Meat, produce, rice/grains, and milk/dairy products.
Listeriosis
Meat, ready-to-eat food, and milk/dairy products.
Hemorrhagic colitis
Meat and produce.
Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis
Poultry and meat.
Botulism
Produce.
Salmonellosis
Poultry, eggs, produce, and milk/dairy products.
Shigellosis
Ready-to-eat food, produce, and contaminated water.
Staphylococcal gastroenteritis
Ready-to-eat food.
Vibrio vulnificus primary septicemia/gastroenteritis
Shellfish and contaminated water.
Anisakiasis
Fish.
Cryptosporidiosis
Produce and contaminated water.
Giardiasis
Produce and contaminated water.
Common Food Allergens
Milk and dairy products; eggs and egg products; fish and shellfish; wheat; soy and soy products; peanuts and tree nuts.
Allergic Reaction
Symptoms listed should include four of the following: itching in and around the mouth, face, or scalp; tightening in the throat; wheezing or shortness of breath; swelling of the face, eyes, hands, or feet; abdominal cramps, vomiting, or diarrhea; loss of conscieousness; death.
glass
Never use ____ thermometers to check food temperature.
thickest
Place a probe into the _____ part of the food.
15
Wait _____ seconds after inserting a probe before recording the temperature of a food.
calibrating
Make sure your themometers are accurated by _____ them regularly.
food-contact
Sanitize thermometers by using a sanitizing solution for _____ surfaces.
six; fifteen
Store food at least _____ inch(es)/centimeter(s) off the floor.
below
Store raw meat, paultry, and seafood _____ ready-to-eat food.
approved
Purchase food from _____, reputable suppliers.
seven
Store ready-to-eat food for a maximum of _____ days.
Swordfish steaks/Pork chops
Minimum internal cooking temperatures: 145°F (63°C) for 15 seconds
Whole chicken
Minimum internal cooking temperatures: 165°F (74°C) for 15 seconds
Ground-beef patties
Minimum internal cooking temperatures: 155°F (68°C) for 15 seconds
Glazed carrots for hot-holding
Minimum internal cooking temperatures: 135°F (57°C)
Foodservice manger
Sets up and enforces food safety practices for a specific operation.
State government
Decides whether to adop the FDA Food Code.
Health inspector
Conducts foodservice inspections.
Role-play
The instructor provides a script for learners to act out.
Guided discussion
The instructor asks learners questions that draw on their knowledge and experience.
Information search
Learners use a variety of materials to answer questions.
Jigsaw design
A small group of learners study a topic, decide how to teach it, and teach it to another group.
Demonstration
The instructor shows the learner how to do a task and then lets the learner do the task.
has been inspected and approved by the FDA.
An approved source is a supplier that
Histamine is not destroyed by cooking or freezing.
Which of the following statements about the toxin histamine is true?
unpasteurized milk and dairy products.
The most likely source of Hepatitis A virus is
0ºF (-18ºC) to 220ºF (104ºC).
An acceptable food thermometer with a bi-metallic stem has a minimum range of
below foods that will not be cooked before they are served.
Raw animal foods, such as ground beef, should be stored
That the frozen foods may have thawed
A shipment of frozen food arrives at receiving, and there are water stains on the bottom of a number of boxes. What does this indicate?
Cook it in the microwave to a temperature of 145ºF (63ºC) for two minutes
Maria needs to prepare one chicken breast for a luncheon order. She removes a ready-to-eat chicken breast from the freezer. Which of the following steps should she do next?
exercise care to prevent cross-contamination.
When thawing a Cornish game hen under potable running water, a foodhandler should
"Before eating this meal, measure the temperature of the food"
Which instruction should be provided to a person receiving delivery of a catered ready-to-eat hot meal?
At higher temperatures, the water can vaporize before sanitizing the items.
The posted directions on your high-temperature warewashing machine tell you to keep the final rinse water temperature between 180ºF (82ºC) and 195ºF (91ºC). What is the reason for this direction?
laboratory analysis shows that a specific food is the source of the illness.
Evidence of a foodborne-illness outbreak is confirmed when
Baked potatoes
Which of the following is considered a potentially hazardous food item?
pathogens, which then grow in the intestines and cause illness.
A foodborne infection occurs when a person eats food containing
Vibrio vulnificus
Which of the following microorganisms is likely to be found in raw oysters?
food, the appropriate level of acidity, proper temperature, adequate time, the necessary level of oxygen, and ample moisture.
To grow and reproduce, bacteria need
Storing cleaning chemicals near food in the dry-storage area
Which of the following could lead to the contamination of food?
By purchasing the swordfish from a reputable supplier who practices strict time-temperature control
Several customers were diagnosed with scombroid poisoning after eating swordfish at a local seafood restaurant. How could this have been prevented?
wash her hands, cover the cut with a clean bandage, put a single-use glove over it and return to work.
While chopping vegetables, a foodhandler cuts her finger. She should
Ten to fifteen seconds
When washing your hands, you should scrub them for at least
Work as a host
An employee at a fine-dining, Italian restaurant comes to work with a sore throat and fever, but still desires to work. What should the manager have him do?
Chewing tobacco while preparing food
Which of the following behaviors poses a hazard to the safety of food?
Sneeze Guards
Food on display or salad bars are required to be protected from customer contamination by use of sneeze guards or food shields. This shield should be placed in a direct line between the customer's mouth and the food.
Sous Vide Food
Packaging method by which cooked or partially cooked food is vacuum packed in individual pouches and then chilled.
Active Managerial Control
Food safety management system designed to prevent foodborne illness by addressing the five most common risk factors identified by the CDC.
Air Gap
An unobstructed, vertical distance through the air that separates an outlet of the potable (suitable for drinking) water supply from any potentially contaminated source. The air gap must measure twice the diameter of the outlet, and in no case may the air gap be less than one inch.
Backflow
The flow of contaminants from unauthorized or undrinkable sources into the potable water supply.
Back Siphonage
A kind of backflow that occurs whenever the pressure in the potable water supply drops below that of the contaminating water supply.
Bacterium
A living micro-organism made up of a single cell.
Carrier
A person or animal who harbors disease-causing micro-organisms in the body, without being noticeably affected, and can transmit the organisms to food or to other humans.
Clean
Free from visible soil, blood and food.
Clean in Place
Concept of cleaning stationary equipment in place instead of using three-compartment sink.
Cold-holding Equipment
Equipment specifically designed to keep cold food at 41°F or lower.
Contamination
The presence of harmful substances/organisms in food.
Critical Control Point (CCP)
A step in the preparation of food where a hazard can be prevented or eliminated. Typically involves time & temperature abuse and/or human contact.
Cross Connection
A physical link that could allow contaminated water into the potable water supply.
Cross Contamination
The transfer of micro-organisms (germs) from one food to another food either by improper employee handling or equipment that is not cleaned and sanitized correctly.
FAT-TOM
Acronym for Food, Acidity, Time, Temperature, Oxygen; conditions needed by most foodborne microorganisms to grow.
FDA Food Code
Recommendations written by the FDA to assist state health departments in developing regulations for a foodservice inspection program.
FIFO
First In First Out. Goods should be used in the order in which they are received.
Finger Cot
Protective covering used to cover a properly bandaged cut on the finger.
Food Allergy
The body's negative reaction to a particular food protein; most common include dairy, eggs/products, seafood, wheat, soy products, nuts.
Food-borne Illness
An illness caused by food to human beings.
Food-borne Infection
An illness that is a result of eating food that contains harmful micro-organisms. You are eating live germs.
Food-borne Intoxication
An illness that is a result of eating food that contains pre-formed toxins (poisons). You are eating the toxic waste.
Fungi
Small living things. There are two types of fungi: molds and yeast.
Hand Antiseptic
Liquid used to lower the number of micro-organisms on the skin surface.
HACCP
A food safety inspection system that highlights TCS foods and how they are handled in the food service environment.
Hazard
Unacceptable food contamination. May be biological, chemical, or physical contamination.
Heimlich Maneuver
The major technique used to stop choking. It consists of manual thrusts to the abdomen, just under the rib cage. State law requires that Heimlich Maneuver information be posted in a conspicuous area of the food service facility.
Hot-holding Equipment
Equipment specifically designed to hold food at 135°F or higher.
Infestation
Situation that exists when pests overrun or inhabit an establishment in large numbers.
Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)
A packaging process by which air is removed from a food package and replaced with gases. The gases help extend the product's shelf life.
Material Safety Data Sheet
Sheets supplied by chemical manufacturers listing specific information about the chemical, such as name, hazards, and safety information. OSHA requires MSDS sheets to be accessible to employees.
Micro-organism
A form of life that can only be seen with a microscope. These include bacteria, parasites, viruses, and fungi.
Mold
Various types of fungi with a powdery, "furry" appearance that will grow on most foods in almost any type of environment.
MSG (Monosodium Glutamate)
A legal flavor enhancer. Some people are allergic to MSG and respond with dizziness, rashes, headaches and nausea.
Outbreak
Occurs when 2 or more people from different households become sick because of a common food they ate. Can also be one case of botulism or one case of a chemical-caused illness.
Pathogen
Any disease-causing agent; usually a living organism.
Parasites
Small microscopic creatures that live within or feed off another organism. Commonly found in pork, fish, and contaminated water.
pH
A measure of the acid or alkaline content of a solution; 7.0 pH is neutral, 0.0 to 6.9 is acidic, and 7.1 to 14.0 is alkaline.
Reduced Oxygen Packaging
Packaging methods used to prevent the growth of micro-organisms in packaged food by reducing the oxygen in the packaging.
Safe Food
Hot food that is hot, cold food that is cold, and food that is not contaminated by disease-causing organisms or physical or chemical contaminants.
Shellstock Tags
Each container of live, molluscan shellfish received must have an ID tag, on which the delivery date must be written. Tags must be kept on file for 90 days from the harvest date of the shellfish.
Spoilage
Food that has acquired an unacceptable taste, appearance or aroma. Damage to the edible quality of food through improper handling and aging.
Spore
A thick walled formation that serves as a means of protection against an unfavorable environment.
Sulfites
Preservatives used to maintain freshness and color of certain foods and wine. Asthmatics can react severely to it. Customers should be made aware of the specific menu items that contain sulfites. Sulfites can be found in merichino cherries, dehydrated potatoes, canned pie fillings, bakery products, shrimp, and raisins.
Temperature Danger Zone
41ºF to 135ºF. Most bacteria grow and reproduce within these temperatures.
TCS food
Food that contains moisture and protein and has a neutral or slightly acidic PH. Such foods require time-temperature control to prevent the growth of microorganisms and the production of toxins.
Thermometer
Device used to accurately measure the internal temperature of food or food storage equipment; the most common types of thermometers in the foodservice industry are bi-metallic stemmed thermometers, thermocouples and thermistors.
Time & Temperature Principle
Requires that all TCS food be kept at an internal temperature below 41ºF or above 135ºF during transport, storage, handling, preparation, display and serving. Also, TCS food cannot remain at temperatures in the danger zone for more than a total of four hours.
Toxin
Toxins are colorless, tasteless and poisonous to humans. Toxins can cause a food-borne illness even though the bacteria may be dead. Heating does not destroy toxins.
Toxin-Mediated Infection
A disease that results from eating a food containing a large amount of disease-causing micro-organisms. Once these micro-organisms are ingested, the human intestine provides the perfect conditions for the micro-organisms to produce toxins.
Two- stage Cooling
Requirement that food must be cooled from 135°F to 70°F within two hours and from 70°F to 41°F or lower within an additional 4 hours.
UHT (ultra-high temperature) Food
UHT food is heat-treated at very high temperatures (pasteurized) for a short time to kill micro-organisms. These foods are often also aseptically packaged, which is sealed under sterile conditions to keep them from being contaminated.
Vacuum Breaker
Device for preventing the backflow of contaminants into a potable water system.
Variance
Document issued by a regulatory agency that allows a requirement to be waived or modified.
Virus
The smallest, and possibly simplest form of life. Because they are not complete cells, they must be able to connect to bacteria or other hosts like plants, insects, animals or humans to grow. They do not require TCS foods to survive. They also do not increase in number while they are in food.
Water Activity
Amount of moisture available in food for micro-organisms to grow; measured on scale from 0 to 1.0; TCS food has water activity of .85 or greater.
Yeast
A type of fungus that requires sugar and moisture for survival. It is most recognizable by the presence of bubbles, pink discoloration or an alcoholic smell. There is no evidence that yeasts occurring naturally in foods are harmful to humans. Yeast does spoil food, therefore, it needs to be controlled.
Salmonellosis
Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, headache, fever, and diarrhea; mayc cause severe dehydration in infants and elderly
Salmonellosis :: Source
Water, soil, insects, domestic and wild animals, and the human intestinal tract; widespread in poultry and swine.
Salmonellosis :: Food Involved in Outbreaks
Raw poultry and poultry salads; raw meat and meat products; fish; shrimp; milk and dairy products; shell eggs and egg products, such as improperly cooked custards, sauces and pastry creams; tofu and other protein foods; sliced melons, sliced tomatoes, raw sprouts, and other fresh produce
Salmonellosis :: Preventive Measures
Thoroughly cook poultry to at least 165°F for at least 15 seconds and cook other food to required minimum internal temperatures; avoid cross-contamination; properly refrigerate food; properly cool cooked meat and meat products; properly handle and cook eggs; ensure that employees practice good personal hygiene
Shigellosis :: Symptoms
Diarrhea (may be bloody), abdominal pain, fever, nausea, cramps, vomitting, chills, fatigue, dehydration
Shigellosis :: Source
Human intestinal tract; flies; frequently found in water plluted by feces
Shigellosis :: Food Involved in Outbreaks
Salads )potato, tuna, shrimp, chicken and macaroni), lettuce; raw vegetables; milk and dairy products; poultry
Shigellosis :: Preventive Measures
Ensure that employees practice good personal hygiene when handling ready-to-eat food; avoid cross-contamination; use sanitary food and water sources; control flies; properly cool food
Listeriosis :: Symptoms
Fever and diarrhea are common in individuals who are not immuno-compromised; septicemia, meningitis, encephalitis may result in those who are imuno-compromised (elderly, pregnant women, newborns); may result in stillbirth or abortion of fetuses
Listeriosis :: Source
Soil, water, plants; cold damp enviroments; humans; domestic and wild animals
Listeriosis :: Food Involved in Outbreaks
Unpasteurized milk and soft cheeses; raw vegetables; poultry and seafood products; prepared and chiled ready-to-eat food (soft cheese, deli foods, pate, hot dogs)
Listeriosis :: Preventive Measures
Use only pasteurized milk and dairy products; cook food to required minimum internal temperatures; avoid cross-contamination; clean and sanitize surfaces; thoroughly wash raw vegetables
Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis :: Symptoms
Vomitting/retching; nausea, diarrhea, abdominal cramps; in severe cases - headache, muscle cramping, changes in blood pressure and pulse rate
Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis :: Source
Humans; nose, skin, hair, throat, and infected sores; animals
Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis :: Food Involved in Outbreaks
Reheated or improperly hot-held ready-to-eat food; meat and meat products; poultry, egg products; and other protein food; sandwiches milk and dairy products; cream-filled pastries; salads (egg, tuna, chicken, potato, and macaroni)
Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis :: Preventive Measures
Avoid contaimation of food from unwashed bare hands; practice good personal hygiene; exclude employees with skin infections from foodhandling and preparation tasks; properly refrigerate food; rapidly cool prepared food
Clostridium Perfrigners Gastroenteritis :: Symptoms
Abdominal pain and cramping, diarrhea, nausea (fever, headache, and vomiting usually absent)
Clostridium Perfrigners Gastroenteritis :: Source
Humans and domestic animals (intestinal tracts); soil
Clostridium Perfrigners Gastroenteritis :: Food Involved in Outbreaks
Meat; meat dishes such as stew and gravy; poultry; beans that have been temperature abused
Clostridium Perfrigners Gastroenteritis :: Preventive Measures
Use careful time and temperature control when holding, cooling, and reheating cooked food
Bacilluscerus Gastroenteritis :: Symptoms
Vomiting and nausea, sometimes abdominal craps or diarrhea (emetic); watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, pain, nausea (diarrheal)
Bacilluscerus Gastroenteritis :: Source
Soil and dust; cereal crops
Bacilluscerus Gastroenteritis :: Food Involved in Outbreaks
Rice products; starchy food (pasta, potatoes, and cheese products); food mixtures such as sauces, puddings, soups, casseroles, pastries, salads, and dairy products (emetic); meats; milk and dairy products; vegetables; and fish (diarrheal)
Bacilluscerus Gastroenteritis :: Preventive Measures
Practice careful time and temperature control when holding, cooling, and reheating cooked food; cook food to required minimum internal temperatures
Botulism :: Symptoms
Fatigue, weaknessm vertigo followed by blurred or double vision. difficulty speaking and swallowing, dry mouth; eventually leading to paralysis and death
Botulism :: Source
Present on almost all food of either animal or vegetable origin; soil; water
Botulism :: Food Involved in Outbreaks
Food that was under-processed or temperature abused in storage; imperly canned foods; untreated garlic-and-oil mixtures; temperature-abused sauteed onions in butter; leftover baked potatoes; stews; meat/poultry loaves; risk for MAP and sous vide products
Botulism :: Preventive Measures
Do not serve home-canned products; use careful time and temperature control for all bulky, thick foods; purchase only acidified garlic-and-oil mixtures; saute onions to order or hold them properly; properly cool leftovers
Campylobacteriosis :: Symptoms
Diarrhea (watery or bloody); fever and nausea; abdominal pain, headache, and muscle pain
Campylobacteriosis :: Source
Poultry and other animals; unpasteurized; milk; unchlorinated water
Campylobacteriosis :: Food Involved in Outbreaks
Unpasturized milk and dairy products; raw poultry; non-chlorinated or fecal-contaminated water
Campylobacteriosis :: Preventive Measures
Thoroughly cook food, especially poultry, to required minimum internal temperatures; use pasteurized milk and treated water; avoid cross-contamination
Hemorrhagic Colitis E-coli :: Symptoms
Diarrhea (watery, may become bloody); severe abdominal cramps and pain; vomitting; mild or no fever; may cause kidney failure in the very young
Hemorrhagic Colitis E-coli :: Source
Animails; particularly found in the intestinal tracts of cattle and humans; raw unpasteurized milk
Hemorrhagic Colitis E-coli :: Food Involved in Outbreaks
Raw and undercooked ground beef; unpasteurized milk and apple cider/juice; beef; improperly cured dry salami; lettuce; non-chlorinated water; alfalfa sprouts
Hemorrhagic Colitis E-coli :: Preventive Measures
Throughly cook ground beef to at least 155°F for 15 seconds; avoid cross-contamination; practice good personal hygiene; use only pasteurized milk, dairy products, and juices
Vibrio Parhaemolyticus :: Symptoms
Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomitting, headache
Vibrio Parhaemolyticus :: Source
Crabs, clams, oysters, shrimp, lobster, scallops
Vibrio Parhaemolyticus :: Food Involved in Outbreaks
Raw or partially cooked oysters, raw or partially cooked shelfish (clams and mussels); cross-contaminated crabs, lobster, shrimp
Vibrio Parhaemolyticus :: Preventive Measures
Tell high-risk populations to consult a physician before regularly consuming raw or partially cooked oysters; purchase seafood from approved suppliers; avoid cross-contaimination; maintain time and temperature control
Vibriovulnificus Primary Septicemia :: Symptoms
Fever, chills, nausea, hypotension, skin lesions may develop
Vibriovulnificus Primary Septicemia :: Source
Raw oysters, particularly those harvested during warmer months; clams; crabs
Vibriovulnificus Primary Septicemia :: Food Involved in Outbreaks
Raw or paritially cooked oysters
Vibriovulnificus Primary Septicemia :: Preventive Measures
Tell high-risk populations to consult a physician before reguarly consuming raw or paritially coocked oysters; purchase seafood from approved supplers; avoid cross-contamination; maintain time and temperature control
Hepatitis A :: Symptoms
Sudden onset of fever; fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, abdominal pain, and jaundice after several days; children often exhibit no symptoms
Hepatitis A :: Source
Human intestinal tract; feces-contaminated water
Hepatitis A :: Food Involved in Outbreaks
Shellfish; salads; cross-contaiminated deli meats and sandwiches; fruit and fruit juices; milk and milk products; vegetables; any food that will not receive further heat treatment; water and ice
Hepatitis A :: Preventive Measures
Obtain shellfish from approved sources; ensure foodhandlers practice good personal hygiene; prevent cross-contamination from hands; clean and sanitize food-contact surfaces; use sanitary water sources
Foods (TCS)
Baked potatoes; eggs (except those treated to eliminate; salmonella spp.); fish; heat-treated plant food, such as cooked rice, beans and vegetables; meat: beef, pork, lamb; milk and milk products; poultry; raw sprouts and sprout seeds; shellfish and crustacea; sliced melons; synthetic ingredients, such as textured soy protein in meat alternatives; tofu or other soy-protein food; untreated garlic-and-oil mixtures
Characteristics (TCS)
A history of being involved in foodborne-illness outbreaks; a natural potential for contamination due to production and processing methods; contains protein; moisture; neutral or slightly acidic pH levels
High Risk Populations for Foodborne Illness
Elderly people (immune systems have weakened with age); infants and preschool-age children who have not built up adequate immune systems; people taking certain medications (antibiotics and immuno-suppressants); people who are seriously ill; pregnant women
Potential Hazards to Safe Food
Biological hazards include micro-organisms in food such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as certain plants, mushrooms, and fish; chemical hazards include harmful substances such as cleaning solutions, sanitizers, metals, pesticides, food additives and preservatives; physical hazards consist of foreign objects that accidentally get into the food, such as hair, dirt, metal staples, and broken glass, as well as naturally occurring objects, such as bones in fish fillets
How Food Becomes Unsafe
Poor personal hygiene, such as infected food handlers or improper hand washing; purchasing food from unsafe sources; unsafe food handling such as time-temperature abuse (i.e. improperly cooking or holding food); using unsanitary equipment
Growth Needs of Bacteria
FAT TOM - Food, Acidity, Temperature, Time, Oxygen, and Moinsture
Growth Need of Bacteria (Food)
A high protein host. When the protein content increases, bacteria growth increases.
Growth Need of Bacteria (Acidity)
Bacteria grows best in foods that have a neutral to slightly acidic pH level. Below 7.0-acidic, above 7.0-alkaline, and 7.0-neutral.
Growth Need of Bacteria (Temperature)
The temperature danger zone is 41°F to 135°F. Below 41°F, bacteria multiply very slowly or stop multiply at all.
Growth Need of Bacteria (Time)
A four-hour maximum exposure in the temperature danger zone. The 4 hours is cumulative.
Growth Need of Bacteria (Oxygen)
There are three oxygen requirements for bacteria: aerobes - bacteria must have oxygen to grow; anaerobes-bacteria cannot have oxygen present to grow; facultative-bacteria can grow with or with out oxygen
Growth Need of Bacteria (Moisture)
0.85% moisture present, also refered to as "water activity". When the moisture content increases, bacteria growth increases.
Trichinosis :: Symptoms
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever and fatigue followd by ficial swelling and muscle pain
Trichinosis :: Source
Domestic pigs; wild game, such as bears and walruses
Trichinosis :: Food Involved in Outbreaks
Raw and undercooked pork or pork products (particularly sausage), raw and under cooked wild game
Trichinosis :: Preventive Measures
Cook pork and game meat to required minimum internal temperatures; wash, rinse and sanitize equipment, such as sausage grinders and utensils used in the preparation of raw pork and other meats; purchase meat and meat products from approved suppliers; ensure employees practice good personal hygiene
Anisakiasis :: Symptoms
Tingling or tickling sensation in throat, vomiting or caughing up worms; severe abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea
Anisakiasis :: Source
Marine fish (saltwater species only)
Anisakiasis :: Food Involved in Outbreaks
Raw, undercooked or improperly frozen seafood, especially cod, haddock, fluke, pacific salmon, herring, flouder, halibut, monkfish, mackerel and fish used for sashimi and ceviche
Anisakiasis :: Preventive Measures
Obtain seafood from approved sources; when serving raw or under cooked seafood, only use sashimi-grade fish that has been properly treated to elimiated parasites; fish intended to be eaten raw should be frozen at -4°F or lower for 7 days in a freezer, or at -31°F or lower for 15 hours in a blast chiller
Giardiasis :: Symptoms
Intestinal gas, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, weight loss, fatigue
Giardiasis :: Source
Inestinal tract of humans; contaminated water; inadequately treated water
Giardiasis :: Food Involved in Outbreaks
Contaminated water and ice, salads and (possibly) othe raw vegetables washed with contaminated water
Giardiasis :: Preventive Measures
Use snaitary water supplies; ensure that foodhandlers practice good personal hygiene; was raw produce carefully
Intestinal Cryptosporidiosis :: Symptoms
Mild to servere nausea, addominal cramping, watery diarrhea
Intestinal Cryptosporidiosis :: Source
Intestinal tract of humans, cattle, and other domestic animals; drinking water contaminated with run-off from farms or slaughterhouses
Intestinal Cryptosporidiosis :: Food Involved in Outbreaks
Water; salads and raw vegetables; milk; unpasturezed apple cider; ready-to-eat food
Intestinal Cryptosporidiosis :: Preventive Measures
Ensuree that foodhandlers practice good personal hygiene; thoroughly wash produce; use sanitary water sources
Cyclosporiasis :: Symptoms
Onset of symptoms is sudden; mild to server nausea, abdominal cramping, mild fever, water diarrhea
Cyclosporiasis :: Source
Intestinal tract of humans; containinated water supplies
Cyclosporiasis :: Food Involved in Outbreaks
Water, raw produce, marine fish, raw milk
Cyclosporiasis :: Preventive Measures
Ensure that foodhandlers practice good personal hygiene; thoroughly was produce; use sanitary water sources
Ciguatera Toxin :: Source
Pedatory tropical reef fish, such as amberjack, barracuda, grouper, and snapper
Ciguatera Toxin :: Preventive Measures
Cooking does not destroy these toxins; purchase predatroy tropical reef fish only from approved suppliers
Ciguatera Toxin :: Symptoms
Nausea; vomiting; neurological symptoms
Scombroid Toxin :: Source
Primarily occures in tuna, bluefish, mackerel, skipjack, roundfish, and bonito; other fish, such as mahi-mahi, marlin, and sardines, have also been implicated in histamine poisoning
Scombroid Toxin :: Symptoms
Diarrhea; nausea; vomiting; neurological symptoms
Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning :: Symptoms
Diarrhea; nausea; vomiting; neurological symptoms
Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning :: Symptoms
Diarrhea; vomiting; neurological symptoms
Amnesic Shelffish Poisoning :: Symptoms
Diarrhea; abdominal pain/cramps; vomitting; neurological symptoms
Plant Toxins :: Source
Fava beans rhubarb leaves, jimsonweed, water hemlock, and apricot kernels; honey from bees that have gathered nectar from mountain laurel; milk from cows that have eaten snake root, jimsonweed or other toxic plants
Plant Toxins :: Preventive Measures
Cooking may not destroy these toxins; avoid these plant species and products prepared with them
Plant Toxins :: Symptoms
Mild skin rash; vomiting; diarrhea; labored breathing
Fungal Toxins :: Source
Poisonous varieties of mushrooms and other fungi
Fungal Toxins :: Preventive Measures
Cooking does not destroy these toxins; do not use mushrooms picked in the wild or products made with them unless the musrooms have been purcahsed from approved suppliers
Fungal Toxins :: Symptoms
Vomitting; diarrihea; abdominal cramps; visual disturbance; confusion
Food Security
While the principles of food safety help an establishment address the accidental contamination of food, managers must also be aware of how to prevent or eliminate the deliberate contamination of food.
Symptoms Caused By Food Allergens
Death; gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal cramps, diarrhea or vomiting; hives; itching in and around the mouth, face or scalp; loss of consciousness; swelling of the face, eyes, hands or feet; tightening in the throat; wheezing or shortness of breath
How Foodhandlers Contaminate Food
Have a foodborne illness; have infected wounds or injuries; live with, or are exposed to, a person who is sick; show symptoms of an illness relating to the stomach or intestine; contaminate their hands by touching unclean objects
Diseases Not Transmitted Through Food
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome); Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Tuberculosis
Personal Hygiene Components
Effective handwashing practices; maintaining personal cleanliness; wearing proper work attire
Proper Handwashing Procedures
Wet hands with hot running water (at least 100°F). Apply soap. Scrub hands and arms vigorously for ten to fifteen seconds. Clean under fingernails and between fingers. Rinse hands thoroughly under clean, running water. Dry hands and arms with a single-use paper towel or warm-air hand dryer. Turn off the faucet with a paper towel to avoid re-contaminating the hands.
Supplies for Handwashing Stations
Hot and cold running water; soap; a means to dry hands; waste container; signage indicating employees are required to wash hands before returning to work
Hygienic Hand Practices
After using the restroom; before and after handling raw foods; after touching the hair, face, body, clothing or aprons; after sneezing, coughing or using a handkerchief or tissue; after smoking, eating, drinking or chewing gum or tobacco; after using any cleaning, polishing or sanitizing chemical; after taking out garbage or trash; after clearing tables or busing dirty dishes
Proper Work Attire
Remove aprons when leaving food-preparation areas; remove jewelry prior to preparing or serving food, or while working around food-preparation areas; wear a hair restraint; wear appropriate shoes; wear clean clothing on a daily basis
The Flow of Food
Purchasing - Receiving - Storing - Preparing - Cooking - Holding - Cooling - Reheating - Serving
Time and Temperature Control
Decide the most effective way to monitor time and temperature in your establishment. Develop corrective actions. Incorporate time and temperature controls into standard operating procedures. Make sure the establishment has the right kind of thermometers available. Make time and temperature control part of every employee's job. Regularly record temperatures and the times they are taken
Thermometer Guidelines
Calibrate thermometers regularly to ensure accuracy. Keep thermometers clean. Measure internal temperatures of food by inserting the thermometer stem or probe into the thickest part of the product (usually the center). Never use glass thermometers filled with mercury or spirits to monitor the temperature of food. Wait for the thermometer reading to steady before recording the temperature of a food item.
Purchasing Principles
Buy only from suppliers who get their products from approved sources. Make sure suppliers are reputable.
Receiving Principles
Arrange for deliveries during slow periods. Plan storage space in advance. Train employees on inspection procedures. Date all products to ensure proper rotation.
Inspecting Foods
Packaging intact; product undamaged, clean and properly labeled. No evidence of insect or rodent contamination. Food arrives at proper temperature; no sign of time and temperature abuse. Food has proper appearance; color, texture and odor.
Refrigerated Storage
Do not overload refrigerators. Keep refrigerator doors closed as much as possible. Monitor food temperature regularly. Never place hot food in a refrigerator. Set refrigerators to the proper temperatures. Store raw meat, poultry and fish separately from cooked and ready-to-eat food to prevent cross-contamination. Use open shelving. Wrap food properly.
Frozen Food Storage
Check freezer temperatures regularly. Defrost freezers regularly. Keep freezers at a temperature that will keep products frozen. Keep the unit closed as much as possible. Place frozen food deliveries in freezers as soon as they have been inspected. Use caution when placing food into freezers. When freezing food that has been prepared on site, clearly label the food.
Dry Storage
Keep storerooms cool and dry. Keep dry food out of direct sunlight and keep the area clean. Make sure storerooms are well ventilated. Store dry food away from walls and at least six inches (fifteen centimeters) off the floor.
Methods for Thawing Food
In a refrigerator at 41°F or lower. In a microwave oven, if the food will be cooked immediately after thawing. Submerged under running potable water, at a temperature of 70°F or lower. As part of the cooking process. The product must meet the required minimum internal cooking temperature. Water flow must be strong enough to wash loose food particles into the overflow drain.
Practices That Require a Variance
Cures food. Custom-processes animals for personal use; for example, this may include dressing deer in the establishment for home consumption. Packages food using a reduced-oxygen packaging method. Serves raw or undercooked fish, eggs, shellfish, or meat (excluding steaks). Smokes food or uses food additives as a method of preservation. Sprouts seeds or beans.
135°F for 15 seconds
Minimum internal cooking temperature for fruit or vegetables that will be hot-held for service.
145°F for 15 seconds
Minimum internal cooking temperature for fish.
155°F for 15 seconds
Minimum internal cooking temperature for ground meats, injected meats, ground/chopped or minced fish.
165°F for 15 seconds
Minimum internal cooking temprature for poultry, stuffing and stuffed meat, stuffed fish or stuffing containing fish, TCS food cooked in the microwave, fish/shellfish/crustaceans.
Dishes that include TCS ingredients
When including previously cooked ingredients: 165°F for 15 seconds.When including raw ingredients: cook the raw ingredients to their required minimum internal temperature.
Pork, beef, veal, lamb
Minimum internal cooking temperature for steaks/chops: 145°F for 15 seconds and Roasts: 145°F for 4 minutes.
Shell eggs
For immediate service: 145°F for 15 seconds. That will be hot held: 155°F for 15 seconds.
Methods of Cooling Food
Place food in an ice-water bath; place food in a blast chiller or a tumble chiller; stir the food with an ice paddle.
Rules for Holding Food :: Basic
Check the internal temperature of food using a thermometer. Check the temperature of food at least every four hours. Cover food and install sneeze guards to protect food from becoming contaminated. Establish policies around when food will be discarded. Use batch cooking (Preparing food in small batches)
Rules for Holding Food :: Hot Food
Potentially hazardous, hot food must be held at an internal temperature of 135°F or higher. Only use hot-holding equipment that can keep food at the proper temperature. Never use hot-holding equipment to reheat food if it is not designed to do so. Stir food at regular intervals to distribute heat evenly.
Rules for Holding Food :: Cold Food
Potentially hazardous, cold food must be held at an internal temperature of 41°F or lower. Only use cold-holding equipment that can keep food at the proper temperature. Do not store food directly on ice.
Rules for Holding Food :: Cold Food without Temperature Control
Can be held for up to six hours if:
It was held at 41°F or lower prior to removing it from refrigeration. It does not exceed 70°F during the six hours. It contains a label that specifies both the time it was removed from refrigeration and the time it must be thrown out. It is sold, served or discarded within six hours
Rules for Holding Food :: Hot Food without Temperature Control
Can be held for up to four hours if:
It was at 135°F or higher prior to removing it from temperature control. It contains a label that specifies when the item must be thrown out. It is sold, served or discarded within four hours.
Server Guidelines
Hold flatware and utensils by the handle. Glassware and dishes should be handled properly and not stacked when serving. Minimize bare-hand contact with food that is cooked or ready-to-eat. Never use cloths meant for cleaning food spills for any other purpose. Practice good personal hygiene. Use ice scoops or tongs to get ice.
Safely Re-serving Food
Do not re-serve uneaten bread, rolls, or garnishes to other customers. Do not re-serve menu items from one customer to another. Never re-serve uncovered condiments.
Self-Service Areas
Do not let customers refill soiled plates or use soiled silverware at the food bar - require that clean dishes are used. Identify all food items. Keep raw meat, fish, and poultry separate from cooked and ready-to-eat food. Maintain proper food temperatures. Protect food on display with sneeze guards or food shields. Replenish food on a timely basis.
Risk Factors of Food Safety
Purchasing food from unsafe sources. Failing to cook food adequately. Holding food at improper temperatures. Using contaminated equipment. Practicing poor personal hygiene.
HACCP Principles
Conduct a Hazard Analysis. Determine Critical Control Points. Establish Critical Limits.Establish Monitoring Procedures. Identify Corrective Actions. Verify That the System Works. Establish Procedures for Record Keeping and Documentation.
HACCP Plan
Establishments that perform the following activities, must have a plan in place:
Custom-process animals for personal use. Offer live, molluscan shellfish from a display tank. Package food using a reduced-oxygen packaging method. Package unpasteurized juice for sale to the consumer without a warning label. Smoke or cure food as a method of food preservation. Sprout beans or seeds. Use food additives as a method of food preservation.
Potable Water
Approved public water mains. Bottled drinking water. Closed, portable water containers filled with potable water. On-premise water storage tanks. Private water sources that are regularly maintained and tested. Water transport vehicles that are properly maintained.
Water Supply is Disrupted
Boil water (check with the local regulatory agency for requirements). Purchase ice. Use bottled water. If allowed, use boiled water for essential cleaning, such as pots and pans. Keep a supply of boiled, warm water available for handwashing. Consider using single-use items (plates and utensils) to minimize dishwashing.
Sewage
Most dangerous source of harmful bacteria and viruses in a food service operation.
Garbage
Must be leak proof and kept in good repair; they must have a tight fitting lid and be kept covered when not in use; containers should be cleaned thoroughly to prevent insect and rodent problems; sufficient capacity; does not create a public health nuisance.
Outdoor Dumpsters
Must be kept covered; drain plugs must be kept in; garbage should be kept in bag.
4.6 to 7.5
Level of pH where there is little or no acid--
pathogens grow best in food within this level.
Clostridium botulinum
The bacteria which causes Botulism.
Food commonly linked with the bacteria include:
- Incorrectly canned food
- Reduced oxygen packaged (ROP) food
- Temperature-abused vegetables, such as baked potatoes
- Untreated garlic-and-oil mixtures
Bacillus cereus
The bacteria which causes Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis.
Vomiting illness caused by cooked rice dishes.
Diarrhea illness caused by cooked vegetables, meat products and milk.
Scombroid poisoning
Illness which is also known as histamine poisoning.
Commonly linked with tuna, bonito, mackerel and mahi mahi.
Listeria monocytogenes
Bacteria found in ready-to-eat food, such as deli meat, hot dogs and soft cheeses; as well as raw meat and unpasteurized dairy products. *Grows in cool, moist environments!*
Hepatitis A
It's the illness and virus linked to ready-to-eat food and shellfish from contaminated water. The symptom JAUNDICE (appears later!) distinguishes this illness from others.
The Flow of Food
1. Purchasing
2. Receiving
3. Storing
4. Preparation
5. Cooking
6. Holding
7. Cooling
8. Reheating
9. Serving
HACCP
Hazard
Analysis
Critical
Control
Point
FAT TOM / MOISTURE
(water activity)
- The amount of moisture available in food for this growth is called WATER ACTIVITY (aw)
- Potentially hazardous food typically has an aw of .85 or higher
VIRAL Foodborne Illnesses
- Hepatitis A
- Norovirus gastroenteritis
Illnesses caused by BACTERIA
Controlled by Time & Temp
- Listeriosis
- Hemorrhagic colitis
- Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
- Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis
- Botulism
Illnesses caused by BACTERIA
Controlled by preventing CROSS-CONTAMINATION
- Salmonellosis
Illnesses caused by BACTERIA
Practicing PERSONAL HYGIENE
- Shigellosis
- Staphylococcal gastroenteritis
Illnesses caused by BACTERIA
Prevented by PURCHASING FROM APPROVED, REPUTABLE SUPPLIERS
- Vibrio gastroenteritis (oysters)
- Vibrio bulnificus primary septicemia (oysters)
Illnesses caused by PARASITES
- Anisakiasis (fish)
- Cryptosporidiosis (produce/contaminated water)
- Giardiasis (produce/improperly treated water)
Foodborne illness
Illness carried or transmitted to people by food
Foodborne-illness outbreak
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and incident in which two or more people experience the same illness after eating the same food
Warranty of sale
Rules stating how food must be handled in an establishment.
Reasonable care defense
Defense against a food-related lawsuit stating that an establishment did everything that could be reasonable expected to ensure that the food served was safe.
Immune system
The body's defense system against illness. People with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to food borne illness.
Contamination
Presence of harmful substances in food. Some food safety hazards occur naturally, while others are introduced by humans or the environment
Biological, chemical, and physical hazards
1) Illness-causing microorganisms. Other examples are certain plant, Mushroom, and seafood toxins.
2) Cleaners, sanitizers, polishes, machine lubricants, and toxic metals.
3) foreign objects that accidentally get into food. Examples include hair, dirt, bandages, metal staples, and broken glass. Naturally occurring objects, such as bones in fillets, are also physical hazards
Time-temperature abuse
Food has been time-temperature abused any time it has been allowed to remain too long at a temperature favorable to the growth of food borne microorganisms.
Cross-Contamination
Occurs when microorganisms are transferred from one food or surface to another.
Personal hygiene
Habits that include keeping the hands, hair, and body clean and wearing clean and appropriate uniforms. Avoiding unsanitary actions and reporting illness and injury are also features of good personal hygiene.
Microorganism
Small, living organisms that can be seen only with the aid of a microscope. There are four types of microorganisms that can contaminate food and cause food borne illness: bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi.
Pathogen
any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
Toxins
Poisons produced by pathogens, plants, or animals. Some occur in animals as a result of their diet.
FAT TOM
Pathogens need these to grow F: Food A: Acidity T: Temperature T: Time O: Oxygen M: Moisture
Temperature danger zone
zone from 41F° to 135F° in which foods should not be stored or kept for long periods of time due to risk of spoilage and bacteria growth
Water activity
the amount of moisture available in food for pathogens to grow
Virus
Smallest of the microbial food contaminants. Viruses rely on a living host to reproduce. They usually contaminate food through a food handler's improper personal hygiene. Some survive freezing and cooking temperatures.
Bacteria
Single-celled, living microorganisms that can spoil food and cause food borne illness. Bacteria present in food can quickly multiply to dangerous levels when food is improperly cooked, held, or reheated. Some form spores that can survive freezing and very high temperatures.
Spore
Form that some bacteria can take to protect themselves when nutrients are not available. Spores are commonly found in soil and can contaminate food grown there. A spore can resist heat, allowing it to survive cooking temperatures. Spores can also revert back to a form capable of growth. This can occur when food is not held at the proper temperature or cooled or reheated properly.
Parasite
Organism that needs to live in a host organism to survive. Parasites can be found in water and inside many animals, such as cow, chickens, pigs, and fish. Proper cooking and freezing will kill parasites. Avoiding cross-contamination and practicing proper hand washing can also prevent illness.
Fungi
Ranging in size from microscopic, single-celled organisms to very large, multi-cellular organisms. Fungi most often cause food to spoil. Molds, yeasts, and mushrooms are examples.
Mold
Type of fungus that causes food spoilage. Some molds produce toxins that can cause food borne illness.
Yeast
Type of fungus that causes food spoilage.
Biological contaminants
viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi: the leading causes of foodborne illness
Chemical contaminants
chemical substances, such as cleaners, sanitizers, polishes, machine lubricants, and toxic metals, that leach from cookware and equipment that have contaminated food
Toxic-metal poisoning
Illness caused when toxic metals have leached from utensils into food
Physical contaminants
foreign object that is accidentally introduced into food, or a naturally occurring object, such as a bone in a filter, that poses a physical hazard. common physical contaminants include metal shavings from cans, staples from cartons, glass from broken light bulbs,blades from plastic or rubber scrapes, fingernails, hair, bandages,dirt and bones.
Food defense
A program developed and implemented by an operation to prevent deliberate contamination of its food
Food Allergy
a condition in which the body's immune system reacts to substances in some foods
Cross-contact
the transfer of an allergen from a food containing an allergen to a food that does not contain the allergen
Carriers
a human reservoir. the person carries and spreads the disease with out necessarily having symptoms
Finger cot
Protective covering used to cover a properly bandaged cut or wound on the finger.
hair restraint
Device used to keep food handlers' hair away from food and to keep them from touching it.
Flow of food
path that food takes from purchasing and receiving,storing,preparing,cooking,holding,cooking,holding,cooling,reheating,serving
Bimetallic stemmed thermometer
measures temperature through a metal probe with a sensor toward the end, measures from 0-220, only one that can be calibrated, has a dimple to mark the end of the sensing area, needs accuracy within 2 degrees
Time-temperature indicator
Time and temperature monitoring device attached to a food shipment to determine if the product's temperature has exceeded safe limits during shipment or later storage.
Calibration
the act of checking or adjusting (by comparison with a standard) the accuracy of a measuring instrument.
Shellstock identification tages
Tags that accompany live shellfish shipment which must remain on the packaging until the last product has been used and then dated and kept on file 90 days
Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)
Packaging method by which the air inside of a package is altered using gases, such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Many fresh-cut produce items are packaged this way.
Vacuum-packed food
Food processed by removing air from around it while sealed in a package.
Sous vide food
Packaging method by which cooked or partially cooked food is vacuum packed in individual pouches and then chilled. Frozen precooked meals are often packaged this way.
Ultra-high temperature(UHT) pasteurization
Food that is heat treated at very high temperatures ( pasteurized) to kill microorganisms. This food often also aseptically packaged-sealed under sterile conditions to keep it from being contaminated.
Aseptically packaged food
food sealed under sterile conditions to keep it from being contaminated.
First in first out (FIFO)
Method of stock rotation in which products are shelved based on their use-by or expiration dates, so oldest products are used first.
Refrigerated storage
Storage used to hold TCS food at an internal temperature of 41 F (5 C) or lower.
Frozen storage
Storage typically designed to hold food at temperatures that will keep it frozen.
Dry storage
storage used to hold dry and canned food at temperature between 50 F and 70 F (10 C and 21 C) and at a relative humidity of 50 to 60 percent
Shelf life
Recommended period of time during which food can be stored and remain suitable for use.
Slacking
The process of gradually thawing frozen food in preparation for deep-frying, allowing even heating during cooking.
Food additives
Substances added to food to lengthen its shelf life. They are also used to alter food so it does not need time and temperature control. Some are used to enhance flavor.
Minimum internal temperature
the required cooking temperature the internal portion of food must be reach in order to sufficiently reduce the number of microorganisms that might be present. this temperature is specific to the type of food being cooked. Food must reach and hold its minimum internal temperature for a specified amount of time.
Ice-water bath
method of cooking food in which a container holding hot food is placed into a sink or larger container of ice water
Food bar
Self-service buffet
Sneeze guard
food shield used over self-service displays and food bars, which extends seven inches beyond the food and fourteen inches above the food counter.
Off-site service
service of food to someplace other than where it is prepared or cooked, including catering and vending.
Mobile unit
Portable food service facilities, ranging from concession vans to full field kitchens capable of preparing and cooking elaborate meals.
Temporary unit
Establishment operating in one location for no more than fourteen consecutive days in conjunction with a special event or celebration. Usually serves prepackaged food or food requiring only limited preparation.
Food safety management system
a group of programs, procedures, and measures for preventing food borne illness by actively controlling risks & hazards throughout the flow of food
Active managerial control
an approach to manage food safety risks that focuses on controlling the five most common risk factors
HACCP
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
HACCP plan
written document based on HACCP principles describing procedures a specific to a particular establishment will follow to ensure the safety of food served.
Critical control point (CCP)
In a HACCP system, the points in the process where you can intervene to prevent, eliminate, or reduce identified hazards to safe levels.
Porosity
Extent to which water and other liquids are absorbed by a substance. Term Usually used in relation to flooring material.
Resiliency
Ability of a surface to react to a chock without breaking or cracking, usually used in relation to a flooring material.
Coving
a curved, sealed edge placed b/w the floor and wall, eliminates sharp corners or gaps that would be impossible to clean, must adhere tightly to the wall to eliminate hiding places for pests and prevent moisture from deteriorating the wall
NSF International
Org. that develops and publishes standards for sanitary equipment design. Also assesses and certifies that equipment has met these standards
Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
Provides sanitation classification listings for equipment found in compliance with NSF International standards. Also lists products complying with its own published environmental and public health standards.
Potable water
Water that is safe to drink.
Booster heater
Water heater attached to hot-water lines leading to dish washing machines or sinks. Raises water to temperature required for heat sanitizing of tableware and utensils.
Cross-connection
Physical link through which contaminants from drains, sewers, or other waste water sources can enter a potable water supply. A hose connected to a faucet and submerged in a mop bucket is an example.
Backflow
unwanted reverse flow of contaminates through a cross connection into a portable water system. It occurs when the pressure in the portable water supply drops below the pressure of the contaminated supply
Air gap
Air space used to separate a water-supply outlet from any potentially contaminated source. The air space between the floor drain and the drainpipe of an sink is an example. An air gap is the only completely reliable method for preventing back flow.
Cleaning
Process of removing food and other types of soil from a surface, such as a counter top or plate.
Sanitizing
Process of reducing the number of microorganisms on a clean surface to safe levels
Detergents
Cleaner designed to penetrate and soften soil to help remove it from a surface.
Degreasers
Alkaline detergents that contain a grease dissolving agent
Delimers
used on mineral deposits and other soils that alkaline cleaners cannot remove, such as scale, rust and tarnish
Abrasive cleaners
Cleaners containing a scouring agent used to scrub off hard-to-remove soils. They may scratch some surfaces.
Heat sanitizing
Using heat to reduce the number of microorganisms on a clean surface to safe levels. One common way to heat sanitize tableware, utensils, or equipment is to submerge them in or spray them with hot water.
Chemical sanitizing
Using a chemical solution to reduce the number of microorganisms on a clean surface to safe levels. Items can be sanitized by immersing in a specific concentration of sanitizing solution for a required period of time or by rinsing, swabbing or spraying the items with a specific concentrations of sanitizing solution.
Sanitizers
Chemical used to sanitize. Chlorine, iodine, and quats are the three most common types of chemical sanitizer in the restaurant and food service industry.
Master cleanig schedule
Detailed schedule listing all cleaning tasks in an establishment, when and how they are to be performed, and who will perform them.
Infestation
Situation that exists when pests overrun or inhabit an establishment in large numbers
Integrated pest management
Program using prevention measures to keep pests from entering an establishment and control measures to eliminate any pests that do get inside.
Pest control operator
Licensed professional who uses safe, current methods to prevent and control pests
Air curtains
Devices installed above or alongside doors that blow a steady stream of air across an entryway, creating an air shield around open doors. Insects avoid them. Also called air doors or fly fans.
Pesticide
a chemical used to kill pests (as rodents or insects)
Residual sprays
Type of pesticide spray that leaves behind a film that insects absorb as they crawl across it Used in cracks and crevices like those along baseboards, these sprays can be liquid or a dust, such a boric acid.
Contact sprays
Used to kill insects on contact
Glue boards
pest-control device in which mice are trapped by glue and then die from exhaustion or lack of water or air. They are also used to identify the type of cockroaches that might be present.
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Federal agency responsible for the inspection and quality grading of meat, meat products, poultry, dairy products, eggs and egg products, and fruit and vegetables shipped across state lines.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Federal agency that issues the FDA Food Code working jointly with the U.S. Department of Agriculture 9USDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The FDA also inspects food service operations that cross state borders-interstate establishments such as food manufactures and processors, and planes and trains-because they overlap the jurisdictions of two or more states.
Regulations
Laws determining standards of behavior. Restaurant and food service regulations are typically written at the state level and based on the FDA Food Code
Health inspectors
City, county, or state employee who conducts food service inspections. Health inspectors are also known as sanitarians, health officials, and environmental health specialists. They are generally trained in food safety, sanitation, and public health principles.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Agencies of the US department of health and human services that investigate food borne illness outbreaks, study the causes and control disease, publish statistical data and conduct the vessel sanitation program
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Federal agency that sets standards for environmental quality, including air and water quality, and regulates pesticide use and waste handling.
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
Agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce that provides a voluntary inspection program that includes product standards and sanitary requirements for fish-processing operations.
Training need
Approaches for providing training to employees. this can include more traditional methods such as lectures., demonstrations, or role-play or more technology-based approaches such as Web-based training and interactive CD-ROM's. Regardless of the approach, it is important to use more than one method of delivery, because employees learn differently.
their immune systems have weakened with age
Why are elderly people at a higher risk for foodborne illnesses?
chemical
the three categories of food safety hazards are biological, physical and?
2 or more
for a foodborne illness to be considered an
between 41 and 135 degrees
Foodborne pathogens grow well at temperatures...
moisture
FAT TOM stands for Food, Acidity, Time, Temperature, Oxygen and
Staphylococcus aureus
Which pathogen is primarily found in the hair, nose, and throat of humans?
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli
While commonly linked with contaminated ground beef, what pathogen has also been linked with contaminated produce?
cooking food to the right temperature
What practice can reduce Salmonella spp. in poultry to safe levels?
Staphylococcus aureus
Covering wounds can help prevent the spread of which pathogen?
Hepatitis A
Which foodborne illness has been linked with ready to eat food and shellfish contaminated by sewage?
wash their hands
Viruses such as Norovirus and hepatitis A can be spread when foodhandlers fail to...?
Amnesic shellfish poisoning
A person who ate raw oysters later became disoriented and suffered memory loss, what illness could cause this?
purchased from an approved, reputable supplier
Foodservice operations should not use mushrooms unless then have been..?
food allergies
Eggs and peanuts are dangerous for people with which condition?
toxic-metal poisoning
Cooking tomato sauce in a copper pot can cause which illness?
separate from
To prevent chemical contamination, chemicals should be stored________ food and utensils?
food allergies
Itching and tightening of the throat are symptoms of what?
clean and sanitize utensils before use
To prevent food allergens from being transferred to food...?
human elements, building interior, building exterior
What three points should a food defense program focus on to prevent possible threats to food?
wash their hands
What must foodhandlers do after touching their hair, face or body?
take off their apron
What should foodhandlers do after prepping food and before using the restroom?
after washing hands
When should hand antiseptics be used?
before putting on the gloves
When should foodhandlers who wear gloves wash their hands?
the foodhandler must be told to not come in to work
When a foodhandler has been diagnosed with shigellosis, what steps must be taken?
Salmonella Typhi
Foodhandlers cannot work in their operation if they have an illness caused by which pathogen?
sore throat and fever
Foodhandlers who work in a nursing home cannot work in the operation if they have which symptom?
prepping food
Foodhandlers should not eat, drink, smoke, or chew gum or tobacco while..?
cover the wound with a bandage and a glove or finger cot
What should foodhandlers do if they cut their fingers while preparing food?
washed, rinsed, and sanitize
A foodhandler has finished trimming a raw chicken on a cutting board and needs it to prep vegetables. What must be done to the cutting board?
surface temperature of a grill
Infrared thermometers should be used to measure the...?
between 70 and 125 degrees
At what temperatures do foodborne pathogens grow most quickly?
Immersion probe
Which thermocouple probe should be used to check the temperature of a large stockpot of soup?
it has been inspected and complies with local, state, and federal laws
What is the most important factor in choosing an approved food supplier?
41 degrees
What is the maximum acceptable receiving temperature for fresh beef?
45 degrees
What is the warmest acceptable receiving temperature for eggs?
open the carton and insert a thermometer stem into the food
How should cartons of cloeslaw be checked for correct receiving temperature?
lettuce, fresh salmon, fresh pork roast, fresh chicken breasts
In top-to-bottom order, how should a fresh pork roast, fresh salmon, a carton of lettuce, and a pan of fresh chicken breasts be stored in a cooler?
on the bottom shelf
Where should raw poultry be placed in a cooler?
sell-by or discard date
When storing ready-to-eat TCS food that was prepared on site, what information must be included on the label?
50 to 70 degrees
At what temperature should dry-storage rooms be kept?
7 days
A restaurant that has prepared tuna salad can store it at 41 degrees or lower for a maximum of how many days?
cook it
What must you do to keep food safe after thawing it in a microwave?
165 degrees
what is the minimum internal cooking temp for stuffed pork chops?
165 for 15 sec within 2 hours
What are the time and temp requirements for reheating TCS food for hot holding?
165 degrees
What is the minimum internal cooking temp for eggs, meat, poultry, and seafood cooked in a microwave?
155 degrees
What is the minimum internal cooking temp for eggs that will be hot-held for later service?
put the stock pot in ice water
What is the correct way to cool a stockpot of clam chowder?
time-temperature abuse
What is the danger when thawing food at room temp?
155 degrees
What is the minimum internal cooking temp for ground beef?
top
When serving, it is important to avoid touching the _____ of a plate?
1
Serving utensils should be used to serve max of _________ food items at a time?
41 degrees
At what max internal temp should cold TCS food be held?
refill
When returning to self-service lines for more food, customers should not_____ their dirty plates?
135 degrees
At what minimum internal temp should hot TCS food be held?
purchasing food from unsafe sources, failing to cook food adequately, holding food at incorrect temperatures, practicing poor personal hygiene and using contaminated equipment
The CDC has determined 5 common risk factors for foodborne illness what are they?
conduct a hazard analysis
What is the first step in developing a HACCP plan?
procedures and practices
A food safety management system is a group of ___________ preventing foodborne illness?
to identify and control possible hazards
What is the purpose of a food safety management system?
HACCP plan
An operation that wants to smoke food as a method of preservation must have a(n)?
monitor the policies and procedures
What is the third step in active managerial control?
serving raw oysters from a display tank
Which is an example of when a HACCP plan is required?
once a year
Generally, operations that use a private water source, such as a well, must have it tested at least..?
air gap
What is the only completely reliable method for preventing backflow?
4 inches
When installing tabletop equipment on legs, the space between the base of the equipment and the tabletop must be at least?
at least 100 degrees
How hot should the hot water at a handwashing station get?
NSF
Foodservice equipment that has been certified as meeting certain standards may be stamped with the ______ mark?
water temp, conveyor speed, and water pressure
What information should be posted on or near a dishwasher?
shields on heat lamps
To keep food from being contaminated by lighting use..?
kept covered with tight-fitting lids
Outdoor garbage containers should be?
link between sources of safe and dirty water
What is a cross-connection?
flows opposite its normal direction because of water pressure
Backflow is when water...?
reducing pathogens to safe levels
What is sanitizing?
every 4 hours
If food-contact surfaces are in constant use, how often must they be cleaned and sanitized?
check with the local regulatory authority
How can foodservice managers find out which chemical sanitizers are appropriate for their operations?
follow label instructions and any regulatory requirements that apply
What should be done when throwing away chemicals?
kept so employees can access them
Material safety data sheets (MSDS) should be..?
wash, rinse, sanitize, air-dry
What is the correct way to clean and sanitize a prep table?
pest control operator
Who should apply pesticides?
warm, moist, and dark
Cockroaches typically are found in places that are?
strong, oily
What kind of odor is a sign that roaches might be present?
1. deny pests access to the operation, 2. deny pests food, water, and a nesting or hiding place, 3. work with a licensed PCO to eliminate pests that do enter
Three basic rules of an integrated pest management program are..?
washed, rinsed, and sanitized
After pesticides have been applied, food-contact surfaces should be..?
in a secure location, away from food
If pesticides are stored in the operation, where should they be kept?
closure of the operation by the regulatory authority
A backup of raw sewage and significant lack of refrigeration can result in..?
inspector's ID
A person shows up at a restaurant claiming to be a health inspector, what should the manager ask for?
state and local regulatory authority
Which agency enforces food safety in a restaurant?
when an employee is hired, and then periodically after that
When should staff receive food safety training?
make sure that staff have the knowledge and skills to keep food safe
The manager's responsibility for staff food safety training is to..?
safe chemical handling
All new staff should receive training on..?
guided discussion
In which training method does a trainer ask a series of questions to draw on the knowledge and experience of the learners?