The rise of Witch-Hunting
Terms in this set (28)
The rise of witch-hunting came from changing ideas about Witchcraft
What is black/maleficent magic?
Performance of harmful deeds by a supernatural power.
E.g. killing a person by piercing a doll
What is white magic?
Performance of good deeds that help grow and enhance society.
E.g. crops, disease, foretell future, counter evil sorcery.
Good thing at local level - medical knowledge.
Why did these ideas of white/black magic change?
New ideas developed from the Church about changing houghts on Christian orthodoxy and heresy.
What three heretical groups developed after 1200?
How did Church leaders respond to the development of these heretical groups?
Part of a diabolic plot to weaken Church and destroy Christianity.
1326 Pope John XXII authorized Inquisition to persecute WC as a type of heresy - Opened floodgate (real religious threat)
What were accusations like before 15c?
WC trials were prosecutions for maleficium.
Witches were rarely executed.
What were accusations like after 15c?
Focus on Devil.
Witches paid homage to Devil who made promises of material reward.
Mark of allegiance to Devil.
What was the main view of witches after 1500?
Gathered periodically to perform blasphemous rites at Sabbat: sacrifice children, cannibalism, dance naked, sex with devil and witches.
Imprinted in concealed spot by Devil to mark allegiance.
Instructed and equipped by Devil to ply their trade.
How did demonologists portray witches?
Members of a heretical sect
Menace to Christianity
Need to be hunted down and destroyed
In what way were witches increasingly treated like heretics?
Inquisitors dispatched by Pope to investigate WC
Burned at the stake
Which Pope did what?
Pope Innocent VIII
Summis desiderantes affectibus (Desiring with Passionate Ardour)
WC = exceptional crime. Removed legal limits on application of torture for cases with little evidence.
What work was Heinrich Kramer?
Malleus Maleficarum (Witches' Hammer) 1486
WC = worst crime
Eradication of witches = urgent
Abandon legal inhibitions and procedures
Informed judges how to prosecute witches
What work was Jean Bodin?
On the Demon-mania of witches 1580
WC = major threat
Urged Christians to resist Satan's forces
What work was Nicolas Remy?
Judge from Lorren executed 800+ witches in 16 years
What work was Martin Del Rio?
Six Books of Discussion on Magic 1600
Most popular WC treastie in 17c
How did texts and manuals contribute to Witch Hunts?
Spread further than word of mouth
Extending the field of people influenced by knowledge
Wider impact upon accusations
What other changes contributed to information about witches?
Changes to judicial process for investigating accusations
Use of torture led to more confessions - support suspicions of inquisitors, validated beliefs in literature, e.g. for new texts.
Where were the accusations of maleficium from?
From below (normal people)
Harm committed by magic
Potential harm peasantry could receive from witches - not where they gained their power.
Where were the accusations of diabolism from?
From above (elites)
WC = diabolical crime
WC practiced on large scale by conspirational sect of Devil worshippers
Witch = Satanist
Clergy preached against WC
Who were the 5 sceptics?
What did Erasmus argue and when?
Ridiculed zealous Inquisitors who sacrificed innocent victims to serve their foolish theories.
What did Andrea Alciatti argue?
Witch-hunts in Alps = inhumane.
Papal Inquisition was creating witchcraft.
What did Agrippa argue and when?
Attacked the fantasies of Malleus.
What did Johann Weyer argue and when?
The Deceptive Tricks of Evil Sprits 1563
Killing witches is massacre of innocents.
Maleficia of witches could be explained by natural causes.
Confessions resulted from mental disorders.
What did Reginald Scot argue and when?
Discoverie of witchcraft 1584
Absence of biblical foundation for witch-hunting.
Why was the existence of sceptical material insufficient to stop the accusations and the Witch-Hunts?
Fear of Satan was too large
Not enough sceptics
Why had there never been a Witch Craze before?
There had never been this combination of factors.