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law of conservation of mass

mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes

law of definite proportions

hemical compound contains the same lements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound

law of multiple proportions

if 2 or more differents compounds are composed of the same 2 elements, then the ratio of the masses of the 2nd element combined with a certain mass of the 1st element is always ratio of small whole numbers


smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element

nuclear forces

short range proton-neutron, proton-proton, and neutron-proton, and neutron-neutron forces hold the nuclear particles together

atomic number

number of protons of each atom of that element


atoms of the same element that have different masses

mass number

total number of protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus of an isotope


specific isotope of an element

atomic mass unit

1/12 the mass of carbon-12 atom

average atomic unit

weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occuring isotopes of an element


amount of substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12

avogadro's number

6.002 1415x10*23 number of particles in exactly 1 mole of a pure substance

molar mass

mass of 1 mole pure substance

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