How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

292 terms

Psych Exam

STUDY
PLAY
Fernando's favorable attitude toward capital punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a university debate class. His attitude change is best explained by ________ theory.
cognitive dissonance
The subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to the prevention and treatment of illness is known as
health psychology.
Those who feel socially pressured sometimes assert their freedom by doing the opposite of what is socially expected. This best illustrates
personal control.
In every one of the 53 countries surveyed, people typically expressed self-esteem above the midpoint of the most widely used self-esteem scale. This best illustrates the pervasiveness of
self-serving bias.
In a study of social loafing, blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students tugged hardest when they thought
no others were pulling with them.
In addition to secreting orexin, the ________ monitors levels of the body's other appetite hormones.
hypothalamus
Although she is intelligent and a good athlete, Abigail believes that her low grades in school and losing the quarter-mile race are reflections of her own intellectual and athletic incompetence. Her conclusion best illustrates
a pessimistic attributional style.
Humanistic psychology has been most closely associated with an emphasis on the importance of
a positive self-concept.
Luella publicly agrees with her seventh-grade classmates that parents should allow 13-year-olds to date. Later that day, she writes in her diary that she actually believes parents should prohibit kids from dating until they are at least 15 years old. Luella's public conformity to her classmates' opinion best illustrates the power of
normative social influence.
A lie detector test is used to monitor a person's
respiration.
Stress is most likely to speed the progression from HIV to AIDS by
inhibiting the production of lymphocytes.
A characteristic pattern of behavior or tendency to act and feel in a certain way is called a
trait.
A Harvard School of Public Health research team studied 1306 initially healthy men over a 10-year period. They found that ________ were more than twice as likely as ________ to develop heart disease.
pessimists; optimists
People are more critical of their ________ selves than of their ________ selves.
past; current
The study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes combine to affect our immune system and health is called
psychoneuroimmunology.
Those with an internal locus of control act ________ independently and feel ________ depressed than those with an external locus of control.
more; less
Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as
unconditional positive regard.
Motivation is defined by psychologists as
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.
The MMPI is an example of a(n)
personality inventory.
Mr. Porter believes that aggression is an unlearned behavior characteristic of all children. He obviously believes that aggression is a(n)
instinct.
By motivating us to satisfy our physical needs, hunger and thirst serve to
maintain homeostasis.
Although Rolf frequently cheats on classroom tests, he justifies his behavior by erroneously thinking that most other students cheat even more than he does. His mistaken belief best illustrates
self-serving bias.
According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that
even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.
Which of the following is most likely to foster stronger immune functioning?
social support
Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet
lost interest in sex and social activities.
According to the ________, you would be able to experience emotion even without sympathetic nervous system arousal.
Cannon-Bard theory
Studies of college students' conscientiousness revealed only a modest relationship between a student being conscientious on one occasion and being similarly conscientious on another occasion. This should make psychologists more cautious about overestimating the impact of ________ on behavior.
personality traits
A notable improvement in morale was observed among nursing home patients who experienced an enhanced sense of
personal control.
After she was promoted to a high-level executive position in the large company for which she worked, Jorana developed more pro-business political attitudes. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on attitudes.
role playing
Antonio's car stalls in the middle of a railroad crossing just as a train is rapidly approaching. His emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by
dilation of his pupils.
The tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear or happiness is called
the facial feedback effect.
Students perceive themselves as less likely than the average classmate to develop drinking problems or drop out of school. This best illustrates
unrealistic optimism.
Undergraduate women who had been sexually abused as children were especially likely to report health problems if they had
kept the abuse a secret.
According to the James-Lange theory, we experience emotion ________ we notice our physiological arousal. According to the Cannon-Bard theory, we experience emotion ________ we become physiologically aroused.
after; at the same time as
When "executive" and "subordinate" rats received simultaneous electric shocks, the ________ rat was subsequently more likely to develop ________.
"subordinate"; ulcers
Judy found that her party guests ate less from a very large plate of cupcakes that were cut in half rather than whole. This best illustrates
unit bias.
Two-thirds of Americans responding to surveys taken in the three weeks after the 9/11 terrorist attacks reported
sleeping difficulties.
Humanistic theorists have been criticized for
underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors.
The use of positive emotion words in text messaging is best predicted by the Big Five trait of
agreeableness.
Research on self-perception indicates that most people
view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others.
When Mr. Morgan misinterpreted his harmless symptoms of autonomic nervous system arousal as indicative of an impending heart attack, he suffered an unusually intense level of fear. His emotional suffering is best understood in terms of the
two-factor theory.
Freud is to psychoanalytic theory as Allport is to ________ theory.
trait
Evidence that obesity is influenced by factors in addition to genetics includes the fact that
the average American weighs more today than did the average American 50 years ago.
While taking a difficult test, Cindy's muscles tense and her heart pounds. These physiological responses are
stress reactions.
A terrorist mentality that becomes increasingly extreme among people who interact without outside moderating influences best illustrates
group polarization.
Trait theorists are more concerned with ________ personality than with ________ it.
describing; explaining
In an experiment to test the spillover effect, college men were injected with epinephrine prior to spending time with an experimenter's accomplice who acted either euphoric or irritated. Which individuals in this experiment were LEAST likely to experience the emotion demonstrated by the experimenter's accomplice?
those who were told that the injection would cause them to become physiologically aroused
The impact of our actions on our attitudes is best illustrated by the
foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior.
belief-based feelings
Aleksis has recently begun to bully and hurt his younger brother. If this behavior continues, it is likely that Aleksis will
develop an increasing dislike for his brother.
Type A personality is to Type B personality as ________ is to _______.
irritable; calm
Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as
the body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state.
Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor is known as
problem-focused coping.
A diminished sense of self, space, and time is most likely to be associated with
meditative relaxation.
Elderly nursing home residents tend to decline faster and die sooner than they would otherwise if they lack
perceived control.
Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and
drive reduction.
The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ________ than does the James-Lange theory.
cognitive activity
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called
conformity.
The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ________ and to overestimate the impact of ________ in explaining the behavior of others.
situational influences; personal dispositions
Food deprivation is to ________ as hunger is to ________.
need; drive
Which theorist emphasized that an individual's personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic?
Carl Rogers
Social loafing refers to the tendency for people to
exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal.
Feelings of hunger accompany ________ levels of blood glucose and ________ levels of ghrelin.
low; high
Social-cognitive psychologists suggest that the best way to predict a political candidate's performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual's
past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities.
Emma believes that she will succeed in business if she works hard and carefully manages her time. Her belief most clearly illustrates
an internal locus of control.
People who score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as ________ are also more likely to earn better high school and university grades.
conscientiousness
Exercising regularly and getting enough sleep contribute to a(n) ________ in metabolism and a(n) ________ in the settling point.
increase; decrease
Resistance to stress is greatest during ________ of the GAS.
Phase 2
In which country are people most likely to convey visible facial expressions of their inner feelings?
Australia
In one experiment, professional actors played the role of either normal-weight or overweight job applicants. Research participants' willingness to hire the applicants revealed
greater discrimination against overweight women than against overweight men.
Eyeblinks ________ during lie telling, and those who are lying use ________ first-person pronouns.
decrease; more
The idea that an emotion-arousing stimulus is simultaneously routed to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system is central to the
Cannon-Bard theory.
Rodents who experienced inescapable shocks were more prone to developing cancer if they had previously been exposed to
carcinogens.
Botox paralysis of the frowning facial muscles ________ people's reading of sadness-related sentences and ________ activity in emotion-related brain circuits.
slows; slows
According to Maslow, the desire to fulfill one's potential is the motivation for
self-actualization.
Carl Rogers suggested that the ________ is a central feature of personality.
self-concept
Which of the following BEST explains why stress heightens vulnerability to bacterial and viral infections?
Stress hormones suppress the production of lymphocytes.
In terms of ability to recognize others' facial expressions of emotion
introverts do better than extraverts and women do better than men.
One gene scan of 40,000 people worldwide identified a variant of a gene called FTO. This gene nearly doubles the risk of
obesity.
Which of the following is a hunger-arousing hormone secreted by the hypothalamus?
orexin
Trait theorists are more concerned with ________ personality than with ________ it.
describing; explaining
Lymphocytes are
white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system.
An aroused, motivated state that is often triggered by a physiological need is called a(n)
drive
According to Maslow, our need for _______ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ________.
adequate clothing; self-esteem
Individuals who believe that the death penalty should be abolished meet to discuss the issue. Research on group interaction suggests that after discussion the individuals will be
even more convinced that the death penalty should be abolished.
Randy's substandard academic performance is both a result and a cause of his feelings of academic inferiority. This best illustrates the importance of
reciprocal determinism.
Some students work hard in school to attain high grades. This best illustrates the importance of
incentives.
Bart complied with his friends' request to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night, he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart's experience best illustrates the
foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
Immune system cells that pursue and destroy diseased body cells are called
NK cells.
Dr. Zytowics wants to assess the extent to which a client is suffering from depression, social withdrawal, and other symptoms of an emotional disorder. Which personality inventory would be most helpful for this purpose?
MMPI
Humanistic psychology has been most closely associated with an emphasis on the importance of
a positive self-concept.
Who is the best example of a Type B personality?
Wang Lung, a relaxed, easygoing dentist
After breaking up with her boyfriend, Kathy alleviated her stress by avoiding contact with her ex-boyfriend and by planning recreational activities with her best girlfriend. Kathy's behavior best illustrates
emotion-focused coping.
People become obsessed with water when thirsty and obsessed with food when hungry. This illustrates that activated motives
dominate consciousness.
People often overestimate the clarity of their intentions in their e-mails because they underestimate the importance of ________ in communication.
tones of voice
Andrea's physician has suggested that a program of relaxation training would provide the best treatment for her high blood pressure. The physician probably considers Andrea's hypertension to be a(n) ________ illness.
psychophysiological
Which theory would be most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch horror movies?
arousal theory
Imitating another person's facial expression of emotion is most likely to facilitate
empathy.
Aleksis has recently begun to bully and hurt his younger brother. If this behavior continues, it is likely that Aleksis will
develop an increasing dislike for his brother.
Research on obesity and weight control indicates that
Research on obesity and weight control indicates that
Expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. When four people watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots. This best illustrates
social facilitation.
Exercising regularly and getting enough sleep contribute to a(n) ________ in metabolism and a(n) ________ in the settling point.
increase; decrease
The arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for understanding the aversive effects of
boredom
People who laugh a lot have exhibited a lower incidence of
heart disease.
Comedy routines that are mildly amusing to people in an uncrowded room seem funnier in a densely packed room. This is best explained in terms of
social facilitation.
The relentless pursuit of thinness puts people at ________ risk for depression and ________ risk for binge eating.
increased; increased
The second phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by
resistance.
A stress-moderating hormone released by cuddling and associated with pair-bonding is known as
oxytocin.
Politicians who publicly oppose a tax increase that they privately favor best illustrate that
actions may sometimes be inconsistent with attitudes.
A notable improvement in morale was observed among nursing home patients who experienced an enhanced sense of
personal control.
Compared with central route persuasion, peripheral route persuasion tends to
occur more rapidly.
The James-Lange theory of emotion states that
to experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event.
Martin Seligman's positive psychology differs from the humanistic perspective in that it
emphasizes the use of scientific methods.
A psychologist would most likely use biofeedback to provide clients with information about their
muscle tension.
Who suggested that "we feel sorry because we cry . . . afraid because we tremble"?
William James
When encouraged to eat their fill of M&M's, people ate more when given a large rather than a small serving spoon. This most clearly reflects
unit bias.
Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior.
belief-based feelings
We can better predict drivers' behavior at traffic lights from knowing the color of the lights than from knowing the drivers' personalities. This best illustrates the importance of
situational influences.
An integrated understanding of Tara's consistent cheerfulness in terms of her supportive peer relationships, her calm temperament, and her perceived internal locus of control best illustrates
a biopsychosocial approach.
After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg's reaction most clearly illustrates
learned helplessness.
Compared with men, women have ________ immune systems, and they are ________ susceptible to lupus and multiple sclerosis.
stronger; more
A deep neural center activated when people smell some disgusting food or when they feel moral disgust in response to a perceived injustice is called the
insula.
People's dislike of novel foods best illustrates
neophobia.
Participants in the Milgram obedience studies were ordered to
deliver electric shocks to a learner for giving incorrect answers.
Although Frieda is typically very reserved, as part of a huge rock concert crowd she lost her inhibitions and behaved in a very sexually provocative way. Frieda's unusual behavior is best understood in terms of
deindividuation.
Which of the following is most likely to help us empathize with others?
automatic mimicry
Psychologist Jean Twenge refers to today's new generation as Generation Me because it expresses high levels of
narcissism.
Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another?
social psychology
According to the ________, you would be able to experience emotion even without sympathetic nervous system arousal.
Cannon-Bard theory
Which of the following terms is used to describe the study of 15 positive emotions, desirable character traits, and enabling communities?
positive psychology
Alex experiences little stress because he expects things to work out the way he wants them to. This best illustrates the value of
optimism.
The tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear or happiness is called
the facial feedback effect.
To study social facilitation, Norman Triplett observed adolescents while they were
winding fishing reels.
Food deprivation is to ________ as hunger is to ________.
need; drive
A therapist tells a patient who is afraid of elevators that his rapid breathing while on an elevator is not due to fear but is a natural consequence of too little oxygen in a small, enclosed space. With this new interpretation of his arousal, the patient no longer dreads elevators. The reduction in the patient's fear is best understood in terms of the
two-factor theory.
When people with severe obesity undergo bypass surgery that seals off part of the stomach, the remaining stomach then produces much less
ghrelin.
When offered as many servings of ice cream as they would like to eat, people are likely to eat more if they
are offered servings from a wide variety rather than a small variety of ice cream flavors.
The participants in Philip Zimbardo's simulated prison study
were so endangered by their role-playing experience that the study was discontinued.
Which of the following suggestions would be the WORST advice for a dieter?
"Avoid eating during the day so you can enjoy a big meal in the evening."
The general adaptation syndrome describes stages in the
body's response to prolonged stress.
The macrophage and lymphocytes are major agents of the
immune system.
Aviad, a 50-year-old banking executive and Type A personality, recently suffered a serious heart attack. To prevent a recurrence, Aviad would probably benefit most from
relaxation training.
Professional athletes perform better before an audience than when alone. This best illustrates
social facilitation.
The ill-fated decision of President John F. Kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of
groupthink.
To alleviate the stress he feels after failing a college course, Jeremy seeks social support from his friends and family. Jeremy's behavior best illustrates
emotion-focused coping.
Which division of the nervous system calms the body after an emergency has passed?
parasympathetic
Social-cognitive psychologists suggest that the best way to predict a political candidate's performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual's
past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities.
A hormone that increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels in times of emergency is
epinephrine.
Fernando's favorable attitude toward capital punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a university debate class. His attitude change is best explained by ________ theory.
cognitive dissonance
Avoiding stress is LEAST likely to inhibit the progression of ________ in humans.
advanced cancer
The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through group discussion is called
group polarization.
Trait theorists are more concerned with ________ personality than with ________ it.
describing; explaining
Sarah's optimism is both a contributor to and a product of her successful career accomplishments. This best illustrates
reciprocal determinism.
In addition to secreting orexin, the ________ monitors levels of the body's other appetite hormones.
hypothalamus
The most universally understood way of expressing emotion is through
facial expressions.
Social support helps to promote cardiovascular health by
lowering blood pressure.
The instantaneous and automatic fear response we experience when unexpectedly stumbling upon a snake illustrates the importance of the
amygdala.
The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for
food and water.
Around the world, people describe others' personality traits in terms that are consistent with a set of factors called
the Big Five.
Eyeblinks ________ during lie telling, and those who are lying use ________ first-person pronouns.
decrease; more
Unlike the low-road brain pathway, the high road for emotional responses extends through the
cortex
Politicians who publicly oppose a tax increase that they privately favor best illustrate that
actions may sometimes be inconsistent with attitudes.
The ABC program is an educational program designed to prevent
HIV infections.
People are especially likely to demonstrate an increase in ________ during their twenties.
conscientiousness
Heritability generally runs about ________ percent or a tad bit more for each of the Big Five trait dimensions.
50
To alleviate the stress of losing her job, Alicia enrolled in a work retraining program that led to full-time employment. Alicia's behavior best illustrates
problem-focused coping.
Which personality theorists have been criticized the most for encouraging individual selfishness and self-indulgence?
humanistic theorists
Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet
lost interest in sex and social activities.
Which of the following is MOST likely to be associated with high self-esteem?
self-serving bias
The emotional bonding and mutual support that survivors of natural disasters provide to one another best illustrates
the tend-and-befriend response.
Because Greta is an extravert, she frequently goes to parties where she is encouraged to laugh and socialize with her friends. Because Jim is an introvert, he frequently spends weekends in the library where it's easy to quietly reflect and study. Greta and Jim best illustrate what is meant by
reciprocal determinism.
Rapid fear reactions to sensory input in the absence of conscious thought are possible because certain neural pathways bypass the
prefrontal cortex.
Overestimating the extent to which others notice and evaluate our appearance and performance is called
the spotlight effect.
Individuals with high self-esteem are more likely than those with low self-esteem to
work persistently at difficult tasks.
The role of learning in motivation is most obvious from the influence of
incentives.
After hearing respected medical authorities lecture about the value of regular exercise, Raul, who has rarely exercised, begins to jog regularly. The change in Raul's behavior best illustrates the impact of
informational social influence.
A body that can store fat has the advantage of possessing
stored energy.
Our weight thermostats are somewhat flexible and are influence by environmental as well as biological factors. Some researchers have therefore adopted the term
settling point.
Boyd, a suspect in a criminal investigation, has agreed to take a lie detector test. The machine used in this test is most likely to measure his
perspiration levels.
Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior.
belief-based feelings
Wild animals placed in zoos sometimes die shortly thereafter. These deaths are likely to result from a(n)
decrease in the animals' production of lymphocytes.
Our most rapid and automatic emotional responses may result from the routing of sensory input through the thalamus directly to the
amygdala
As her professor distributed the mathematics test to the class, Blair's heart started to pound and her palms began to sweat. These physiological reactions were activated by her ________ nervous system.
sympathetic
Which theory of motivation most clearly emphasizes the importance of genetically predisposed behaviors?
instinct theory
Kentaro hates to wear ties but wears one to his sister's wedding to avoid his family's disapproval. Kentaro's behavior exemplifies the importance of
normative social influence.
We have a tendency to explain the behavior of strangers we have observed in only one type of situation in terms of ________ and to explain our own behavior in terms of ________.
personality traits; situational constraints
The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to
comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.
Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes?
cognitive dissonance theory
Type A personality is to Type B personality as ________ is to _______.
irritable; calm
The relaxation response associated with meditation is most likely to
decrease oxygen consumption and decrease blood pressure.
The parasympathetic nervous system is to the sympathetic nervous system as ________ is to ________.
contraction of pupils; dilation of pupils
Some sexually active undergraduate women do not consistently use contraceptives because they see themselves as less vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy than most other undergraduate women. This best illustrates
unrealistic optimism.
Freire did very poorly on his last arithmetic test. The tendency to make the fundamental attribution error might lead his sixth-grade teacher to conclude that Freire did poorly because
he is unmotivated to do well in school.
Instead of providing arguments in favor of a political candidate, ads may build political support by associating pictures of the candidate with emotion-evoking music and images. This strategy best illustrates
peripheral route persuasion.
Ksana insists that her boyfriend's car accident resulted from his carelessness. Her explanation for the accident provides an example of
a dispositional attribution.
Who suggested that "we feel sorry because we cry . . . afraid because we tremble"?
William James
Because Mr. Maloney trusts his employees, he treats them kindly. His kindness leads them to work diligently on his behalf, which in turn increases his trust in them. This pattern of trust, kindness, diligence, and increasing trust illustrates what is meant by
reciprocal determinism.
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called
conformity.
The macrophage and lymphocytes are major agents of the
immune system.
Which of the following research findings would be consistent with the James-Lange theory of emotion?
Distinctly different patterns of brain activity are associated with distinctly different emotions.
Research on nonverbal communication indicates that
blind children who have never observed others demonstrate normal facial expressions of emotion.
Expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. When four people watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots. This best illustrates
social facilitation.
According to the ________, you would be able to experience emotion even without sympathetic nervous system arousal.
Cannon-Bard theory
Social loafing is MOST likely to occur among
audience members who are asked to applaud after a speaker is introduced.
Insulin, a hormone that influences appetite, is secreted by the
pancreas.
One gene scan of 40,000 people worldwide identified a variant of a gene called FTO. This gene nearly doubles the risk of
obesity.
Kelly loves to boast about her accomplishments and becomes very upset when anyone criticizes her. Kelly most clearly demonstrates
defensive self-esteem.
The idea that an emotion-arousing stimulus is simultaneously routed to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system is central to the
Cannon-Bard theory.
The participants in Philip Zimbardo's simulated prison study
were so endangered by their role-playing experience that the study was discontinued.
When confronted by an armed robber, your emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by
slowing of digestion.
The fundamental attribution error involves
underestimating situational constraints on another's behavior.
The greatest number of deaths in North America today result from
heart disease.
The third phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by
exhaustion.
Judy found that her party guests ate less from a very large plate of cupcakes that were cut in half rather than whole. This best illustrates
unit bias.
Psychologists defines stress as
the process by which we appraise and respond to threatening or challenging events.
Friedman and Rosenman referred to competitive, hard-driving, impatient, and easily angered individuals as ________ personalities.
Type A
Which division of the nervous system calms the body after an emergency has passed?
parasympathetic
The ability to delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards illustrates
self-control.
Which of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink?
"We all seem to be in basic agreement, so there's no sense in continuing our discussion of this issue."
Tranquilizing drugs that inhibit sympathetic nervous system activity often reduce people's subjective experience of intense anxiety. Which theory of emotion would have the greatest difficulty explaining this effect?
Cannon-Bard
People are more critical of their ________ selves than of their ________ selves.
past; current
Which of the following BEST explains why stress heightens vulnerability to bacterial and viral infections?
Stress hormones suppress the production of lymphocytes.
Which of the following is MOST likely to be associated with high self-esteem?
self-serving bias
The natural disappearance of a disease is called
spontaneous remission.
Resisting the temptation to eat chocolate chip cookies led research participants to subsequently give up sooner than normal on efforts to complete a tedious task. This illustrated that self-control weakens following
an exertion of energy.
In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" were MOST likely to deliver high levels of shock when
the "learner" was placed in a different room from the "teacher."
To study social facilitation, Norman Triplett observed adolescents while they were
winding fishing reels.
B lymphocytes inhibit ________, whereas T lymphocytes inhibit ________.
bacterial infections; viral infections
Frida was informed by a professional palm reader: "You generally communicate openly with others, but you have certain dark secrets that even your closest friends could never guess." The fact that Frida was impressed by the palm reader's insight into her personality best illustrates
the Barnum effect.
Luigi minimized the stress of testing positive for HIV by viewing this circumstance as an opportunity for a renewed religious commitment and spiritual growth. His reaction best illustrates the importance of
stress appraisal.
Which of the following is most likely to help us empathize with others?
automatic mimicry
Evidence suggests that ________ may foster neurogenesis.
aerobic exercise
The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as
the Barnum effect.
A business leader who welcomes a variety of opinions from subordinates and invites experts' critiques of her company's developing plans is most likely to inhibit
groupthink.
In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" exhibited a somewhat lower level of compliance with an experimenter's orders when the
experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University.
Homeopathy and herbal remedies are forms of
CAM
A hormone that increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels in times of emergency is
epinephrine.
For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce
a drive.
The autonomic nervous system regulates the ________ that accompanies different emotions.
physiological arousal
Participants in Milgram's obedience experiments were informed that they were involved in a study of
learning.
Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of
role playing on attitudes.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator labels a person who is sympathetic, appreciative, and tactful as a(n) ________ type.
feeling
The best indicator of a person's level of optimism is his or her
attributional style.
The stability of personality during adulthood best illustrates the value of
trait theories.
Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another?
social psychology
Mr. Porter believes that aggression is an unlearned behavior characteristic of all children. He obviously believes that aggression is a(n)
instinct.
The person-situation controversy involves a debate regarding the influence of ________ and ________ on behavior.
environments; traits
Who is the best example of a Type A personality?
Philip, a competitive, hot-tempered corporation president
The guilty knowledge test is typically used to
assess a suspect's responses to details of a crime.
Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram's initial obedience experiment because the
"teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted.
Attribution theory was designed to account for
how people explain others' behavior.
The tendency to eat more food when eating with others illustrates a phenomenon called
social facilitation.
Rapid fear reactions to sensory input in the absence of conscious thought are possible because certain neural pathways bypass the
prefrontal cortex.
Addressing stressors with problem-focused coping would be most characteristic of those with
personal control.
After expending willpower by stifling prejudice during laboratory tasks, research participants were temporarily less
sexually restrained.
Social support helps to promote cardiovascular health by
lowering blood pressure.
Psychologist Jean Twenge refers to today's new generation as Generation Me because it expresses high levels of
narcissism.
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system
increases respiration and decreases salivation.
Maureen is an introvert, who prefers staying in and reading a good book. Her friend Paula is an extrovert, who would much rather spend her time partying. In terms of their ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion and express emotions,
Maureen is better at recognition and Paula is more expressive.
Those who perceive an internal locus of control believe that
individuals can influence their own outcomes in life.
Andrea's physician has suggested that a program of relaxation training would provide the best treatment for her high blood pressure. The physician probably considers Andrea's hypertension to be a(n) ________ illness.
psychophysiological
The World Health Organization identifies obesity as a high
body mass index.
A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of
conscientiousness.
The set point is
the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time.
A person who experiences defensive self-esteem is ________ to demonstrate self-serving bias and is ________ to feel angry when criticized.
likely; likely
The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the social-cognitive perspective is to
Bandura.
As her professor distributed the mathematics test to the class, Blair's heart started to pound and her palms began to sweat. These physiological reactions were activated by her ________ nervous system.
sympathetic
Athletes often attribute their losses to bad officiating. This best illustrates
self-serving bias.
The social-cognitive perspective highlights the interaction of personal traits with our environment, a process that Albert Bandura called
reciprocal determinism.
Aleksis has recently begun to bully and hurt his younger brother. If this behavior continues, it is likely that Aleksis will
develop an increasing dislike for his brother.
Volunteers who participated in an eight-week course of meditation training exhibited increased levels of the ______ activity associated with positive emotions.
left hemisphere
Groupthink is fueled by a desire for
harmony.
People are especially likely to demonstrate an increase in ________ during their twenties.
conscientiousness
Which of the following research findings would be consistent with the James-Lange theory of emotion?
Distinctly different patterns of brain activity are associated with distinctly different emotions.
Social facilitation refers to the tendency to
perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others.
Increases in the hormone insulin lead to
decreasing blood glucose levels.
A diminished sense of self, space, and time is most likely to be associated with
meditative relaxation.
Aging women who had experienced prolonged stress as caregivers for children with serious disorders experienced a premature decrease in the size of their
telomeres.
Whether a health care treatment is mainstream medicine or an alternative medicine depends on whether the treatment has been
scientifically validated as effective.
Stress is most likely to speed the progression from HIV to AIDS by
inhibiting the production of lymphocytes.
The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ________ than does the James-Lange theory.
cognitive activity
A Harvard School of Public Health research team studied 1306 initially healthy men over a 10-year period. They found that ________ were more than twice as likely as ________ to develop heart disease.
pessimists; optimists
People become obsessed with water when thirsty and obsessed with food when hungry. This illustrates that activated motives
dominate consciousness.
In explaining the actions of people we do not know well, we often demonstrate the
fundamental attribution error.
Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and
drive reduction.
In addition to secreting orexin, the ________ monitors levels of the body's other appetite hormones.
hypothalamus
As people experience negative emotions
the right prefrontal cortex becomes more electrically active.
We are NOT likely to make the fundamental attribution error if we observe someone
in a variety of situations.
When "executive" and "subordinate" rats received simultaneous electric shocks, the ________ rat was subsequently more likely to develop ________.
"subordinate"; ulcers
Although she is intelligent and a good athlete, Abigail believes that her low grades in school and losing the quarter-mile race are reflections of her own intellectual and athletic incompetence. Her conclusion best illustrates
a pessimistic attributional style.
Financial satisfaction is more strongly predictive of subjective well-being in poor nations than in wealthy ones. This fact would most clearly be anticipated by
hierarchy of needs theory.
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called
conformity.