25 terms

# AP Physics B: Thermodynamics - Symbols and Formulas

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Tk = Tc + 273.15
Conversion between Kelvin and Celsius
U = N(3/2)kT
Internal Energy of a Monatomic ideal Gas (N)
N (therm.)
number of molecules
k (therm.)
Boltzman's constant: 1.38 X 10^-23 J/K
U = n(3/2)RT
Internal Energy of a Monatomic ideal Gas (n)
n (therm.)
number of moles
R (therm.)
Universal Gas constant: 8.31 J/molk Or .0821 Latm/molk
U = (3/2)PV
Internal Energy of a Monatomic ideal Gas (P;V)
ΔL = L₀∝ΔT
Formula for Linear Expansion
ΔL
Length increase/decrease
L₀
Initial Length
Coefficient of linear expansion (used to identify metals)
ΔT
Change in Temperature
1 mole = 6.022 x 10^23 molecules
Avogodro's Number
P₁V₁/T₁ = P₂V₂/T₂
Combined Gas Law
PV = nRT
Ideal Gas Law (n)
PV = NkT
Ideal Gas Law (N)
(½mv²)av = Kav = 3/2kT
Kinetic Energy and Temperature
vrms = √3kT/m = √3RT/M
Root Mean Square (RMS) speed; "average of average" speed
ΔU = Q + W
1st Law of Thermodymanics
W = -PΔV
P - V Diagram
Qh = W + Qc
Heat Engine
e = W/Qh = 1 - Qc/Qh
Thermal Efficiency
Ec = Th - Tc/Th = 1 - Tc/Th
Carnot Efficiency
Δs = Q/T
Entropy