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Tk = Tc + 273.15

Conversion between Kelvin and Celsius

U = N(3/2)kT

Internal Energy of a Monatomic ideal Gas (N)

N (therm.)

number of molecules

k (therm.)

Boltzman's constant: 1.38 X 10^-23 J/K

U = n(3/2)RT

Internal Energy of a Monatomic ideal Gas (n)

n (therm.)

number of moles

R (therm.)

Universal Gas constant: 8.31 J/molk Or .0821 Latm/molk

U = (3/2)PV

Internal Energy of a Monatomic ideal Gas (P;V)

ΔL = L₀∝ΔT

Formula for Linear Expansion


Length increase/decrease


Initial Length

Coefficient of linear expansion (used to identify metals)


Change in Temperature

1 mole = 6.022 x 10^23 molecules

Avogodro's Number

P₁V₁/T₁ = P₂V₂/T₂

Combined Gas Law

PV = nRT

Ideal Gas Law (n)

PV = NkT

Ideal Gas Law (N)

(½mv²)av = Kav = 3/2kT

Kinetic Energy and Temperature

vrms = √3kT/m = √3RT/M

Root Mean Square (RMS) speed; "average of average" speed

ΔU = Q + W

1st Law of Thermodymanics

W = -PΔV

P - V Diagram

Qh = W + Qc

Heat Engine

e = W/Qh = 1 - Qc/Qh

Thermal Efficiency

Ec = Th - Tc/Th = 1 - Tc/Th

Carnot Efficiency

Δs = Q/T


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