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AP Physics B: First Semester Review - Terms
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Gravity
Terms in this set (130)
Distance
the length of travel (units: meters[m])
Displacement
a change in position (units: meters[m])
Speed
distance over time (scalar) (units: meters per second [m/s])
Velocity
displacement over time (vector = speed + direction) (units: meters per second [m/s])
Average speed
total distance over time (units: meters per second [m/s])
Average velocity
net displacement over time (units: meters per second [m/s])
Instantaneous velocity
the velocity at an instance of time (units: meters per second [m/s])
Average acceleration
rate of change of velocity over time (vector) (units: meters per second squared [m/s²])
Deceleration
object with speed decreasing (velocity and acceleration have opposite signs) (units: meters per second squared [m/s²])
(D vs. T) Forward Motion
(D vs. T) slope: positive
(D vs. T) Backward Motion
(D vs. T) slope: negative
(D vs. T) Standing Still
(D vs. T) slope: zero
(D vs. T) Constant Velocity
(D vs. T) constant slope (no acceleration)
(D vs. T) Speeding Up
(D vs. T) slopes increasing
(D vs. T) Slowing Down
(D vs. T) slopes decreasing
(D vs. T) Instantaneous Velocity
(D vs. T) slope @ specific point
(D vs. T) Average Velocity
(D vs. T) slope of secant line between two points
(V vs. T) Forward Motion
(V vs. T) line is above t-axis
(V vs. T) Backward Motion
(V vs. T) line is below t-axis
(V vs. T) Standing Still
(V vs. T) line is @ t-axis [v=0]
(V vs. T) Constant Velocity
(V vs. T) slope: zero
(V vs. T) Speeding Up
(V vs. T) getting farther away from t-axis
(V vs. T) Slowing Down
(V vs. T) getting closer to t-axis
(V vs. T) Displacement
(V vs. T) area of the graph to the t-axis
Acceleration due to gravity
9.8 m/s²
Free falling objects
move under the influence of gravity alone
Scalar
a number with appropriate units (Ex: time & length)
Vector
a quantity with both a magnitude and a direction (Ex: displacement, velocity, and acceleration)
Projectile motion
the path of an object after it has been launched into the air
Zero launch angle
a projectile launched horizontally from a point at height "h" and initial speed "v"
Inertia
an object's resistance to a change in motion (object's like to keep doing what they're doing)
Newton's First Law (Law of Inertia)
if the net force on an object is zero, it's velocity is constant.
Newton's Second Law
an object with mass "m" has an acceleration "a" given by the net force divided by "m". (F = ma)
Force
a push or pull that causes acceleration (vector: magnitude and direction) (Unit: Newton [N])
Free body diagram
a sketch showing all external forces acting on an object (objects are depicted as uniform boxes)
Friction
forces due to the microscopic roughness of surfaces in contact [opposite to motion, parallel to surface]
Coefficient of Friction
represents the nature of surfaces
Kinetic Friction
friction experienced by surfaces that are in contact and moving relative to one another
Static Friction
friction experienced by surfaces that are in static contact (maximum must be overcome to get an object to slide)
Static Friction
Which is greater, Static or Kinetic Friction?
Inclined Forces
certain forces contain components (rotate coordinate system to parallel surface)
Normal Force
force exerted by surface that is perpendicularto the surface
Weight
gravitational force exerted by the earth on an object
Apparent weight
force felt from contact with the floor or a a scale in an an acceleratin system
Newton's Third Law
For every force that acts on an object, there is a reaction force acting on a different object that is equal in magnitude and acts in opposite direction.
Law of action/reaction
forces always come in pairs - result of contact forces
Uniform Circular Motion
objects moving in a circle with constant speed (acceleration results in a change of direction)
Centripetal Force
the force applied to give an object it's circular motion (acts perpendicular to the motion)
Tension in string & friction btw. tires and the road
What are two examples of centripetal forces?
Inertia's relationship with Centripetal force
Inertia keeps the velocity vector constant, while the centripetal force acts perpendicular to the velocity vector and maintains a change in direction due to acceleration
Vertical loop
a look that is in the vertical plane where the velocity is not necessairly constant
Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation
The force of gravity between two point masses (every mass attracts other masses)
Kepler's Laws
describe the motion of planets (consequence of newton's law of gravitation)
Kepler's First Law
The orbits of the planets are ellipses, with the sun at one focus
Kepler's Second Law
Planets sweep out equal area in equal time
Keper's Third Law
The period of a planet's orbit is propotional to the 3/2 power of its average distance from the sun.
Work
Done whenever a force causes motion or a change in motion (scalar - measurement) (Units: Joules [J])
Work - Energy Theorem
Total work is ewual to the change in energy (mainly kinetic energy)
Energy
the ability to make an object move (scalar - measurement) (Units: Joules [J])
Mechanical Energy
energy dealing with movement - sum of two types: Kinetic and Potential
Potential Energy
stored energy based off of location - can be converted to kinetico or other forms of energy
Conservation of Energy
Energy can be transferred but not created/destroyed
Conservative Forces
conserve the mechanical energy of a system - path doesn't matter
Nonconservative Forces
converts mechanical energy into other forms of energy an vice versa (path does matter - work cannot be stored)
Power
rate at which work is done (Units: Watt [w])
Impulse
change in momentum (vector) (Unit: Kg m/s)
Momentum
inertia in motion (vector)
Conservation of Momentum
In the absence of an outside force, the total momentum will be conserved.
Inelastic Collisions
Momntum is conserved but Kinetic Energy is not (usually lost) [majority - STICK]
Elastic Collisions
Momentum and Kinetic Energy are both conserved [minority - DONT STICK]
Rotational Inertia
An object's resistance to a change in rotation; the farther the mass is from the rotation point, the greater RI
Torque
"rotational equivalent of force"; a force applied so as to cause an angular acceleration
Translational Equilibrium
sum of all forces acting on an object is zero
Rotational Equilibrium
sum of all torques acting on an object is zero
Static Equilibrium
object at rest
Center of Mass
an object balances when it is supported at its center of mass
Fluid
any liquid or gas
Density
mass over volume
Specific Gravity
density of an object compared to the density of water
Pressure
the amount of force perpendicular per area
Atmospheric Pressure
the pressue exerted by the atmosphere
Gauge Pressure
the difference between the actual pressure and the atmospheric pressure
Pressure at a depth in fluids
the pressure of a fluid in static equilibrium increases with depth; all points at the same depth have the same pressure
Pascal's Principle
An external pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted unchanged to every point within the field
Buoyant Force
The force a fluid exerts in a net upward direction
Archimedes' Principle
An object completely or partially submerged in a fluid is buoyed upward by a force whose magnitude is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
Fluid Flow
The speed of a fluid changes as the cross - sectional area of the pipe through which it flows changes
Flow rate
volume of fluid that passes a particular point per time
Bernoulli's equation
The net work done on a fluid is equal to the changes in kinetic and potential energy of the fluid in terms of quantities per volume
Bernoulli's principle
Faster moving fluids produce lower pressures
Thermodynamics
The study of physical processes involving the transfer of heat
Heat
The energy transferred between objects because of a temperature difference
Thermal Contact
objects are in thermal contact if heat can flow between them
Thermal Equilibrium
objects that are in thermal contact, but have no heat exchange between them
Temperature
a measure of the concentration of an object's internal energy
Celsius scale
water freezes @ 0 °C; water boils @ 100°C; absolute zero @ 273.15°
Kelvin scale
water freezes @ 273.15K; water boils @ 373.15K; absolute zero @ 0K
Internal Energy
the sum of all individual kinetic energies
Thermal Expansion
most objects expand when heated
Ideal gas
a simplified model of a gas where interactions between molecules are ignored
Kinetic Molecular Theory
matter is made up of atoms which are in continual random motion which is related to temperature
Heat Transfer
always goes from Hot to Cold
Conduction
heat transfer by contact
Convection
heat transfer by a fluid
Radiation
heat transfer by electromagnetic radiation such as infrared rays and light
1st Law of Thermodynamics
A statement of the conservation of energy including heat
Isothermal process
the temperature is the same [T = constant, ΔT = 0; ΔU = 0, Q = -W]
Adiabatic process
heat is equal to zero [ΔU = W]
Isobaric (Isochoric) process
pressure is constant
Isometric (Isovolumetric) process
volume is constant [W = 0, ΔU = Q]
Total Process in P-V Diagram
ΔU = 0, ΔQ = W = +
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Spontaneous(natural) heat transfer always goes from hot to cold
Heat Engine
uses heat to produce work; uses 2nd Law of Thermodynamics to produce work
Thermal Efficiency
ratio of what we get to what we put in
Carnot's Theorem
if an engine operating between two constant - temperature resevoirs is to have maximum efficiency, it must be an engine in which all processes are reversible
Entropy
measure of disorder in a system; in the universe - positive
Carnot Engine
"perfect cycle" - applicable in reversible engine
Friction (charging)
the transfer of a charge by rubbing electrons of one object and putting it on another; occurs between insulators
Conduction
charging a conductor by contact (no rubbing necessary) [complete transfer]
Induction
charging through polarization without contact (seperates charges); neutral objects attract [movement of charges]
Conductors
charges are free to move (form at points)
Insulators
charges restricted as to movement (form evenly)
Coulomb's Law
electric charges exert forces on one another along the line connecting them; like charges repel, opposite charges attract
Charge
the quantity (scalar) of unbalanced electricity in a body (either positive or negative)
Electric Fields
the force per charge at a given location in space; points in the direction of a force experienced by a positive test charge (vector)
Electric Field Lines
point in the direction of the electric field vector (away from positive, and towards negative)
Parallel - Plate Capacitor
field is uniform
Electric Potential Energy
the stored energy a charge has based on it's location in an electric field; work is done whenever an object moves with/against the field
Electric Potential (Voltage)
a measure of the energy/charge
Equipotential Lines
lines that show the same potential; lines are dotted and perpendicular to the electric field lines
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