Terms in this set (70)
the mechanism that supply people with the essentials of life
when gasses accumulate in earth's atmosphere and act like the glass roof of a greenhouse, allowing sunlight in but trapping the heat that is generated
what is degradation of the land?
caused by extreme weather conditions, particularly drought. also, human activities that pollute or degrade quality of soils.
Purposely making products to become outdated or wear out quickly
how does our consumption of meat negatively impact our environment?
deforestation, groundwater polluted, factory produced livestock increases health risks for people through chemical, hormones, and antibodies
what is the biggest source of water pollution, and how has this affected our rivers and lakes and our food source?
industries have dumped billions of pounds of heavy metal and toxic chemicals. Mississippi river has serious water pollution
the consequences of contaminated water for less developed countries
1.5 billion people don't have enough safe drinking water, and many die yearly
the expected neg impact the computer revolution will have on our environment
add toxic waste
patterns of development that expose poor people, especially minorities, to environmental hazards
A recognition that access to a clean, healthy environment is a fundamental right of all human beings
The poor, because of dangerous jobs and residential segregation, are more exposed than the more well-to-do to environmental dangers.
major contributors to deforestation of the rain forest and the global consequences
the government encourages poor people to stay in these regions and offer land that must be cleaned for farming. major oil, timber, mining, paper, and agricultural companies.
global consequences: climate change, vanishing species.
US culture beliefs that have contributed to environmental problems in the US.
wastefulness and our acceptance of pollution as a consequence. nature is unlimited resource, faith in technology, we are never satisfied, disregard good items to replace with better material belief in individualism
how does the capitalist economy contributed to environmental problems
goal is to maximize profit at minimal cost. engage in whatever is necessary to increase high levels of consumption.
SUV's impact on the environment
they are cheap to make but have lower MPG
George bush's administration's pro-buisness approach for addressing environmental problems and its inherent flaw.
leave it alone and once it's profitable enough to fix it, someone will offer the service and fix the problem.
social polices that have added to the growing environmental problems
we consider certain behaviors criminal, while other behaviors are permitted
the Egalitarian/Authoritarian approach to address the environmental issues
make pollution a crime, demand vigorous inspections, prosecute violators and fines cannot be passed to consumers
what has contributed to the urban job loss?
"good jobs" are leaving farther away from the growing poverty population
what is disinvestment
deciding not to invest in certain geographic areas
what is relining and how has it hurt inner cites
literally drawing red lines on the map and making loans and providing insurance to the people living outside the redline area but not within it
to reduce the power or control; decentralize; , The redistribution of the population from cities to suburbs and surrounding areas.
job housing mismatch
When there isn't the right amount/type of housing necessary to accommodate the employees
how federal government abandonment has contributed to urban problems?
job training, public works, housing, schools, health and nutrition are cut
racists myths reason cited for inner city decay
lack of pride and other middle class values
cites that are the most segregated and how this neg affects those who live there
isolates the poor from educational and economic opportunities
factors causing urban housing crisis
rental housing increasingly controlled by owners cooperating to keep high rent. private developers and builders, condo conversions, gentrification
how corruption has prevented housing policies from providing affordable housing options for the poor
replaced low rent housing with office towers and luxury apartments
working and middle-class white people move away from racial-minority suburbs or inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs
the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)
Landlords buy properties in poor neighborhoods for rent income. They do not maintain these properties because to do so would lower their profits.
the withdrawing of apartments from the housing market by speculators who hope to sell them at a profit for developers
a suburban city of at least 100,000 that has experienced double-digits growth each decade since it become urban
problems faced by urban schools and their students
little money to operate, poor students, lower test scores, higher drop out rate.
how has fear of crime in the city created a self-fulfilling prophecy
businesses are likely to be dined of loans
what are the neg consequences of urban sprawl?
absorbs farmland, millions of americans commute to work, socially isolating
how has the suburbs created a loss of community and sense of alienation for its residence.
live one place, work another. schools consolidated
1 in 5 households live below poverty line
2 in 5 live 40% fall below poverty line
correlation between poverty and crime
people in poor inner city neighborhoods often turn to this alternative economic exchange activity for survival.
persistent poverty and those most affected by it geographically
having continuous poverty rates of 30% or higher
where is the poorest spot in the united states and what are colonias and how were they created.
cameron park. colonias-shanty town settlements of latino immigrants.
standard of living below minimum needed for the maintenance of adequate health, diet, and shelter
official poverty line
arbitrary line computed by multiplying the cost of a basic nutritionally adequate diet by 3
who calculated the official poverty line and how was it calculated.
social security administration. poor spent 1/3 of their income on food.
US rankings by race among the poor and their geographic locations
the correlation between poverty and age
younger the child, greater probability they'll live in poverty
last 20 year, blue color workers who lost their jobs.
poor of an earlier generation
people who work, but are still poor
feminization of poverty
The increasing concentration of poverty among women, especially unmarried women and their children
individuals or families whose earnings are between 100% and 125% of the poverty line
people whose cash incomes are at half the poverty line or less
myth of refusal to work as related to the poor and reality
poor won't work. reality: 89.7% someone in the household is working, too young or too disabled, many work for cash
personal responsibility and work opportunity conciliation act
shifted welfare programs from federal government to states. had to find work within 2 years, limited to welfare for 5 years
a tax for which the percentage of income paid in taxes decreases as income increases
Revenue losses that result from special exemptions, exclusions, or deductions on federal tax law.
Government subsidies to the nonpoor
governmental provision of economic assistance to persons in need
belief that the place of people in the social stratification system is a function of their ability and effort
structural theories explain poverty
how society is structured and organized that creates poverty and makes certain groups more vulnerable
deficiency theory explain poverty
poor are different because values and lifestyles are so different from mainstream society and cause them to fall
the bell curve and its explanation of poor populations
social and economic status reflects cognitive abilities as measured by IQ
benfield's argument on present time orientation of the poor
difference between poor and non poor is cultural and argues the poor have a present time orientation and the non poor have a future time orientation
Michel Harrington's view on poverty in his book published in the 1960s and its impact on social policy
being poor was a matter of being born to the wrong parents
the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operations of a society
self fulfilling prophecy
an expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true.
culture of poverty
a set of norms, beliefs, values, and attitudes that trap a small number of the urban poor in a permanent cycle of poverty
to succeed what do poor parents require
safe child care, guarantee welfare benefits as wages slowly increase, health insurance