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Abnormal Psychology Chapter 7

Terms in this set (85)

based on the occurrence of at least one Major Depressive Episode(MDE) in the absence of a history mania or hypermania. MDE involves a clinically significant change in functioning involving a range of depressive symptoms, like depressed mood (feeling of sad, hopeless, or "down in the dumps") and/or loss of interest or pleasure in about all activities for a period of two weeks. People w/ this have poor appetite, lose or gain substantial amounts if weight, trouble sleeping or sleep too much, become physical;;y agitated or- at the other extreme-show slowing down in their motor (movement) activity. Only about 50% of Americans receive treatment for depression. Latinos and African Americans don;t receive the proper help they need fro depression b/c they go to their family physicians who can't detect it and refer them to mental health professionals. the most common type of diagnosable mood disorder. lifetime prevalence in 12% of men, 21% of women, and 16.5% overall. 8% of US adults currently suffer from the disorder. usually occurs along w/ other psychological disorders like anxiety disorders.
impairs people's ability to meet the ordinary responsibility of everyday life. B/c of high co-occurrence of depression and anxiety DSM-5 requires clinicians to rate the levels of anxious distress in individuals receiving a depressive or bipolar diagnosis. This is a major public health problem effecting everyday life like going to school or work. 80% of people with moderate to sever depression report impaired work, family or social function. Average worker w/ depression earns about 10% less than a worker unaffected. Costs the average worker 27.2 lost workdays per year. (bipolar disorder= 65 days). People w/ major depression may also suffer disillusion and hallucinations.
People w/ major depression may lose interest in most of their usual activity and pursuits, have difficulty concentrating. Major depressive episodes may resolve in months or last for a year or more. depending on psychiatric and biological position depression attacks can come back.
can begin- during childhood, adolescence, during adulthood. more seen as an "adult's disease" it can begin at any age.
Peter Lewinsohn proposed depression results from an imbalance between behavior and reinforcement.
A lack of reinforcement for one's efforts can sap motorization and induce feelings of depression. Inactivity and social withdrawal reduce opportunities for reinforcement; lack of reinforcement exacerbates withdrawal low rate of activity typical of depressed people may also be a source of secondary reinforcement. Family members and other people may rally around people suffering from depression and release them from their responsibilities sympathy may thus become a source of reinforcement that helps maintain depressed behavior. Reduction in reinforcement levels can occur because a person who is recuperating at home from a serious illness or injury may find little that is reinforcing to do. Social reinforcement may plummet when people close to us, who were suppliers of reinforcement, die or leave us. People who suffer losses are more likely to become depressed when they lack the social skills to form new relationships. EX: first-year college students are homesick and depressed because they lack the skills to form rewarding new relationships. widows may be lost to start new relationships.
Changes in life circumstances may also alter the balance of effort and reinforcement. prolonged layoff from work may reduce financial reinforcement, which may force painful cutbacks in lifestyle. Lewinsohn's model is supported by research findings that connect depression to a low level of positive reinforcement. and by evidence that encouraging depressed patients to participate in rewarding activities and goal-oriented behaviors can help alleviate depression. Encouraging depressed patients to engage in regular physical activity or exercise also helps combat depression, especially in the face of major life stressors.