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Chapter #26 Civil Rights Era Study Guide
Terms in this set (24)
Who was Earl Warren and what did he believe in that made him different from previous Supreme Court Chief Justices.
He was the Chief Justice and believed in civil disobedience.
Why were some of Earl Warren rulings scrutinized by critics?
He was disrespectful because he altered the constitution.
Describe how African Americans were viewed after the Reconstruction Era directly after the Civil War.
They were viewed as people and they were treated equally.
Define Jim Crow Laws.
enforced separation of races in schools, hospitals, public transportation, theaters, restaurants, and even water fountains.
What does the NAACP stand for and what were some of this organization's major accomplishments?
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) lead the Montgomery Bus Boycott, Brown v Board, and helped the Little Rock Nine integrate into Central High School.
What had to take place in Little Rock, Arkansas for Central High School to finally be integrated?
Eisenhower had to send the screaming Eagles to protect the Little rock Nine.
How long did the Montgomery Bus boycott last?
What are President Kennedy's most lasting accomplishments (foreign and domestic)?
Created the Peace Corps, fought poverty, created NASA, and set the goal to put a man on the moon.
What were President Johnson's reform programs called?
Great Society Programs.
List the reform programs created under Johnson's plan.
Economic Opportunity Act, Head Start, Department of Housing and Urban Development, and Medicare.
How was Martin Luther King Jr. influenced to believe in nonviolence and civil disobedience.
MLK Jr.'s nonviolent protest was rooted in Christian teachings. his father and grandfather were both Baptist ministers.
Identify the purpose of the SCLC.
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) had a goal for full equality for African Americans.
Describe the events of violence in Birmingham, Alabama that got President Kennedy's attention.
In Birmingham, thousands of African Americans marched peacefully but police used dogs, fire hose, and electric cattle prods against the marchers. Finally, Birmingham authorities agreed to desegregate public facilities and they also agreed to hire African American clerks and salespersons.
Define affirmative action.
Affirmative action is when businesses and schools were encouraged to give preference to members of groups that had been discriminated against in the past.
What is the Feminine Mystique and how did it contribute to the Civil Rights Movement?
The Feminine Mystique is a book by a Jewish writer named Betty Friedan. She reignited the women's rights movement. Friedan founded the National Organization for Women which lobbied Congress for a new laws that would give women greater equality.
Why did AIM stage an occupation or protest at Wounded Knee, South Dakota?
Wounded Knee has already been a site of a Massacre of Native Americans in 1890. AIM wanted to remind people of the government's long history of unfair dealings with Native Americans.
What new laws were passed protecting Americans with disabilities? What did these laws protect?
The Education for Handicapped People Act guaranteed free education for handicapped people. The Americans with Disabilities Act outlawed discrimination against people with disabilities to have jobs. It also allowed people with disabilities to be treated equally and to have ramps to get into buildings instead of having to go from the back.
How did Thurgood Marshall contribute to the Civil Rights Movement?
Thurgood Marshall was the head of the NAACP's legal section and was a brilliant lawyer. He used his knowledge of the Constitution to attack to foundations of segregation. his ultimate goal was to end racial segregation and his most important victory was Brown v Board of Education in 1954.
Explain why the case of Brown v Board of Education played a major role in the progression of the Civil Rights Movement.
Brown v Board of Education was when a little girl wasn't allowed to go to an all white school. Thurgood Marshall argued that segregation made equal education impossible and that it damaged African American children by making them feel inferior. When the Court agreed, the justices ruled that "in the field of public education, the doctrine of 'separate but equal' has no place".
What was the Supreme Court's ruling in the case Miranda v Arizona?
In Miranda v Arizona, Ernesto Miranda was convicted on the basis of a confession obtained without access to a lawyer. The Court ruled that this violated the Fifth Amendment. As a result of Miranda v Arizona, the police must now advise arrested persons of their right to remain silent and to have a legal counsel.
Identify the goals of the N.O.W. organization.
NOW demanded that medical schools and law practices train and hire more women. It also campaigned for day-care facilities for the children of mothers who worked outside the home. NOW led a campaign to ratify and Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). The ERA never got enough votes for ratification.
What did the Voting Rights Act of 1975 require?
The Voting Rights Act of 1975 required areas with large numbers of foreign-speaking citizens to hold bilingual elections
List other groups of people (minorities) that fought for civil (equal) rights during the Civil Right Movement time period.
Mexican Americans, African Americans, Indian Americans, and women.
Sequencing: put these in order:
1. Education for the Handicapped Act of 1975 is passed.
2. Lyndon Johnson becomes President after the assassination of JFK.
3. President Truman ends segregation in the military.
4. Rosa Parks is arrested in Montgomery, AL.
5. Supreme Court issues decision in Brown v Board of Education
6. March on Washington led my MLK Jr.
7. Montgomery Bus Boycott begins
8. John F. Kennedy is elected President
9. Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
10. Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated.
11. Plessy v Ferguson ruling established.
1. Plessy v Ferguson ruling established
2. President Truman end segregation in the military
3. Supreme Court issues decision in Brown v Board of Education
4. Rosa Parks is arrested in Montgomery, AL
5. Montgomery Bus Boycott
6. John F. Kennedy is elected President
7. March on Washington led by MLK Jr.
8. Lyndon Johnson becomes President after the assassination of JFK
9. Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1964
10. Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated
11. Education for the Handicapped Act is 1975
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