Unit 2: Chapter 6- Industrialization (1850-1900): Terms: America Pathways to the Present 2005
Terms in this set (26)
licenses that give the inventor exclusive rights to make, use, sell an invention for a set period of time.
Amount of Goods / Services Created in a Time Period
Railway extending from coast to coast
Process for making steel which was easier / cheaper to remove impurities; Stronger Steel leads to Skyscrapers, Brooklyn Bridge, etc.
Production in great amounts (eg.steel)
concept of human society that said society should interfere with competition as little as possible; opposed govt intervention to protect workers; the fit would survive and become rich
dominated by a few, large profitable firms--cars, cereals, household appliances
complete control of a product or service; can raise prices and do whatever they want
loose association of business that make same product--agree to limit supply so they keep prices high;
when company owns all businesses that make up their product's development (e.g carnegie--owned RR, ships, steel mills, iron, etc)
economies of scale
As production increases, the cost of each item produced is lowered.
brings together many firms of the same business--own lots of different oil refineries to make up one big oil company
group, run by a board of trustees, managed companies as a single unit--but they don't officially merge
Sherman Antitrust Act
Outlawed any combination of companies that restrained interstate trade or commerce.
people paid by how fast they work/produced
shop with long hours, poor conditions
Division of Labor
separate out tasks so taht you are more efficient (but maybe more boring)
economic, political philosophy that favors public instead of private control of wealth--wealth divided equally
organization of skilled workers in a union--devoted to specific craft
when you negotiate as a group with employers--more power than single worker--pay, strikes, hours, etc.
organize all workers in a given industry (e.g. railroad) regardless of craft; attempt to avoid violent strikes and protect wages, rights of employees
worker called in by employer to replace striking laborers; keeps company running
workers who oppose all govt, joined strikers in Haymarket 1886
1886 labor-related violence in Chicago. This was the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square in Chicago.
1892 strike in Pennsylvania against Carnegie Steel. This event pitted one of the most powerful new corporations, Carnegie Steel Company, against the nation's strongest trade union, the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers. An 1889 strike had won the steelworkers a favorable three-year contract; but by 1892 Andrew Carnegie was determined to break the union. His plant manager, Henry Clay Frick, stepped up production demands, and when the union refused to accept the new conditions, Frick began locking the workers out of the plant.
1894 railway workers' strike that spread nationwide. This was a nationwide railroad strike in the United States on May 11, 1894 and a turning point for US labor law. It pitted the American Railway Union (ARU) against the Pullman Company, the main railroads, and the federal government of the United States under President Grover Cleveland.
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