Research and Statistics I Final- 11/26/2012

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Terms in this set (...)

psychobiology
A psychologist from the ______ research area might study brain organization or the chemical messengers used in the nervous system.
cognition
A psychologist from the _____ research area might study how humans process, store, and retrieve information.
human development
A psychologist from the ______ research area might conduct research on prenatal development or gerontology.
psychotherapy
A psychologist studying whether therapy is really effective in helping people is most likely from the ______ research area.
superstition; intuition
A belief that is based on subjective feelings is to knowing via ____ as gaining knowledge without being consciously aware of where the knowledge was gained is to knowing via _____.
rationalism; empiricism
Gaining knowledge through logical reasoning is to knowledge via ______ as gaining knowledge through observation of organisms and events in the real world is to knowledge via ____.
empiricism; rationalism
Gaining knowledge via science involves using ____ and _____.
variable
An event or behavior that has at least two values is a ______.
skeptic
Although Mulder believes in the supernatural, Scully questions the validity of such beliefs because she is a ________.
systematic empiricism, public verification, and solvable problems
The scientific approach involves using:
systematic empiricism
Making observations in a systematic manner to test hypotheses and refute or develop a theory is known as:
prediction
When we identify factors that indicate when an event or events will occur we have used:
explanation
Identifying the causes of WHEN and WHY a behavior occurs involves using:
applied; basic
Research on the treatment of AIDS is to ________ research; as research on the difference between short term and long term memory is to _________ research.
applied
When Stella finishes graduate school, she wants to conduct research that can be used immediately in order to improve the lives of others. Stella is most interested in ________ research.
basic
As a researcher, Ray is simply interested in finding answers to the questions he poses. Ray is most interested in ______ research.
laboratory observational method
Observing the behavior of humans or animals in a contrived and controlled situation involves using the:
survey; case study
Questioning individuals on a topic or topics and then describing their responses is to the ______ method as an in-depth study of one or more individuals is to the ______ method.
positive correlation; negative correlation
Increasing or decreasing together is to _________ as moving in an opposite direction is to __________.
observational, case study, and survey methods
Descriptive methods include:
abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion
Which of the following represents the correct order for the sections in an APA format paper?
introduction; method
A review of previous research is to the _________ section as describing how the study was conducted is to the ________ section.
abstract
The _______ is a very brief description of the entire paper.
results, abstract
A summary of the data collected and the type of statistics used to analyze the data is to the _________ section as a very brief description of the entire paper is to the _________ section.
discussion
In the __________ section, the results are evaluated, interpreted, and related to past research and theories.
deception
If a researcher told participants that her study about visual perception rather than what it is really on; conformity, she would be utilizing:
obtain informed consent
The Tuskegee syphilis study is the most glaring example of failure to:
debriefing
________ refers to explaining the purpose of a study to participants after completion of data collection.
institutional review board
To ensure ethical standards, research proposals are typically reviewed by an:
informed consent form
A form given to individuals before they participate in a study to inform them of the general nature of the study and to obtain their consent to participate is an:
debriefing
Providing information about the true purpose of a study as soon after the completion of data collection as possible is referred to as:
minimal risk
________ research is defined as research involving no more risk than that encountered in daily life or during the performance of routine physical or psychological examinations or tests.
the personnel interacting with the animals are well trained
The APA guidelines address several issues with respect to animal welfare. These include all of the following EXCEPT:
not having eaten for 18 hours
Which of the following represents the best operational definition of hunger?
identity
A property of measurements in which objects that are different receive different scores:
absolute zero
A property of measurement in which assigning a score of zero indicates an absence of the variable being measured:
identity; equal unit size
Political affiliation is to the ______ property of measurement as inches are to the _____ property of measurement
magnitude
Arranging a group of individuals from tallest to shortest represents the ________ property of measurement.
nominal; interval
Number on a football jersey is to the ________ scale of measurement as temperature measured on the Fahrenheit scale is to the ________ scale of measurement.
ratio; nominal
Time is to the _____ scale of measurement as ethnicity is to the _______ scale of measurement.
nominal
A scale of measurement in which objects or individuals are assigned to categories that have no numerical properties is a ______ scale.
ordinal
A scale of measurement in which objects or individuals are categorized and the categories form a rank order along a continuum is a _______scale.
interval
A scale of measurement in which the units of measurements between the numbers on the scale are all equal in size is an _______ interval scale.
operational definition
Which of the following is NOT a type of measure?
physical self-report measure
Which of the following is NOT a type of self-report measure?
physical; behavioral
A blood pressure reading is to a ______ measure as observing how many patrons in a fast food restaurant take advantage of free drink refills is to a _______ measure.
reliability
______ is an indication of the consistency or stability of a measuring instrument
+.10
which of the following correlation coefficients represents the variables with the weakest degree of relationship?
-1.00; -.69, +.76, +.10
-1.00
Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the variables with the strongest degree of relationship?
-1.00;-.69,+.76,+.10
.67
If observers agree 40 times out of 60, then the interrater reliability is:
test-retest; split half
Stability over time is to ______ reliability as equivalency of items is to _______ reliability.
test/retest reliabilty
_______ is a reliability coefficient determined by assessing the degree of relationship between scores on the same test administered on two different occasions.
alternate forms reliability
_______ is a reliability coefficient determined by assessing the degree of relationship between scores on two equivalent tests.
split-half reliability
_______ is a reliability coefficient determined by correlating scores on one half of a measure with scores on the other half of the measure.
split-half validity
Which of the following is not a type of validity?
validity; reliability
Truthfulness is to ________ as consistency is to ______.
face validity
________ is the extent to which a measuring instrument appears valid on its surface.
criterion validity
________ is the extent to which a measuring instrument accurately predicts behavior or ability in a given area.
construct validity
________ is the degree to which a measuring instrument accurately measures a theoretical construct or trait that it is designed to measure.
naturalistic; ecological validity
Researchers often prefer ________ observation because it increases ________ validity.
ecological validity
The extent to which research can be generalized to real-life situations is known as:
undisguised; participant
Studies in which the participants are aware the the researcher is observing their behavior utilize _________observation and studies in which the researcher does not participate in the situation with the research participants are involved utilize _________.
participant
Studies in which the researcher does not participate in the situation in which the research participants are involved in utilize __________ observation.
nonparticipant
Studies in which the researcher does not participate in the situation the research participants are involved in utilized ____________ observation.
disguised
Studies in which the participants are unaware that the research is observing their utilize ____________ observation.
laboratory; naturalistic
Lack of flexibility is to ____________ observation as lack of control is to _____________ observation
checklist
A tally sheet on which the researcher records attributes if the participates and whether particular behaviors we observed
narrative record
Jill collects data on the participants in her study by writing down a full narrative description of everything they do. Jill is using a:
case studies
As per the text, Jean Piaget began his study of cognitive development by conducting ____________ of his own three children.
archival
The __________ methods involves describing data that existed before the time of the study.
closed-ended
Questions for which participates choose from a limited number of alternatives are __________ questions.
Likert Scale or Rating Scale
A numerical scale on which survey respondents indicate the direction and strength of their response is a _______.
sampling bias
A tendency for one group to be underrepresented in a study known as:
probability
A sampling technique in which each member of the population has an equal likelihood of being chosen.
stratified random sampling
A sampling technique that involves ensuring that the sample is like the population on certain characteristics but uses convenience sampling to obtain the participates.
frequency distribution
A table in which all of the scores are listed along a with the frequency of each occurs
class interval frequency distribution
A table in which the scores are grouped into intervals and listed along with the frequency of scores in each interval
qualitative
A categorical variable for which each value represents a discrete category is a ___________ variable.
bar graph
A graphical representation of a frequency distribution in which vertical bars are centered above each category along the x-axis and are separated from each other by a space is a __________.
histogram
A graphical representation of a frequency distribution in which vertical bars centered above scores on the x-axis touch each other
frequency polygon
A line graph of the frequencies of individual scores
a measure of central tendency
A number that characterizes the "middleness" of an entire distribution.
mean
The arithmetic average of a distribution
median
The middle score in a distribution after the scores have been arranged from highest to lowest or lowest to highest.
mean
measure of central tendency that is affected by extreme scores
mean, mode
Arithmetic average is to _________ as score occuring with the greatest frequency is to ________.
standard deviation
A z-score is most affected by the :
absolute value
The ________ indicates the magnitude of a correlation coefficent
magnitude
an indication of the strength of the relationship between two variables is the ___________.
null, alternative
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