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yvccDH inflammation exam 2
Terms in this set (54)
acute and chronic
physiological response to injury, encroachment by external factors, self. A localized physical condition in which part of the body becomes reddened, swollen, hot, and often painful, especially as a reaction to injury or infection.
abrupt onset, short duration, exudate reactions
proliferative response, usually preceded by acute, may be primary, longer duration.
acute/subacute/chronic + type of exudate + organ (affected) + itis
cardinal signs of inflammation
5. loss of function
increased blood flow to area
increased blood to area, warmth
accumulation of fluids-increased vascular permeability
edema exerts pressure on nerve endings (chemical response also)
loss of function
from pain and swelling, can be permanent but not usually
injury yields local change in circulation
infiltration of cells and fluid
process of alteration
1. injury occurs
2. vasoconstriction - 4 to 10 minutes after release of inflame. chemicals
3. vasodilation - histamine
4. increased vascular permeability
5. vascular stasis- slowing blood
fluid and plasma proteins accumulate in tissue as result of increased vascular permeability
leakage of fluid from bloodstream into surrounding tissues
1. Dilutes toxins
2. proteolytic enzymes inactive toxins
3. provides nutrients
4. contains antibodies
usually seen in mild inflammation, few proteins, resembles serum, clear
composed mainly of fibrin and fibrinogen, thicker, prescab
white, pus, consists of plasma, and WBC's, both living and dead
seen in nose and throat, largely mucous, when you are sick
bloody, thick. sanguineous is thinner more watery
components of inflammation
histamine, serotonin, kinin system, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, compliment system, summon cells, *
enhance vascular permeability
leukocyte, first responders to injury site. Function as phagocytes. "packman", white blood cells, hallmark of acute inflammation,predominant cells in pus, accounting for its whitish/yellowish appearance.
are essential in protecting the body against disease and infections by removing and destroying some types of bacteria, wastes, foreign substances, and other cells.
white blood cells, components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates.
white blood cells present with inflammation, contain heparin, usually involved with allergic reactions
B cells, T cells, and NK cells ***
produce plasma cells to secrete antibodies to inactivate foreign proteins by forming antigen/antibody complexes
programmed to respond to specific antigen (have tags on them)
kill tumor cells and virus infected cells without prior sensitization
chronic inflammatory process
1. proliferative response ( may or may not supersede an acute response)
2. Persists more than a few days or weeks
3. Fibroblasts and vascular elements
4. macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells
5. pain minimal or absent
6. lacks cardinal signs
7. great deal of overlap
synthesize extracellular matrix and collagen, common in C.T. fiber-producing cell of the C.T; a flattened irregularly branched cell with large oval nucleus that is responsible in part for the production and remodeling of the extracellular matrix.
white blood cells that engulf and digest cellular debris and foreign substances
1. inadequate drainage
3. necrotic tissue
4. mechanical irritation
5. foreign body
regeneration and repair
local proliferation of cells and new tissue growth.
Resolution and fibrous repair
normal structure and function restored, minimal destruction, parenchymal cells capable of regeneration, highly specialized tissues less able to regenerate
blood clot, granulation tissue, fibrous connective tissue
fibroblasts and new capillaries
fibrous connective tissue
first intention and second intention
margins approximated, exudate debris minimal, efficient repair
considerable tissue loss, extensive granulation, prolonged repair and subsequent scar
is new connective tissue and tiny blood vessels that form on the surfaces of a wound during the healing process
Basically, slowing or stagnation of blood disrupts the normal laminar pattern of flow and cellular elements fall out of the central column to assume positions in contact with the endothelium.
refers to the process by which motile leukocytes escape from the blood vessel lumen into the perivascular tissues (neutrophils, basophils, monocytes and lymphocytes all use the same pathway).
unidirectional migration of leukocytes toward an attractant
process by which a pathogen (virus, fungi or bacteria that causes disease) is marked of ingestion and destruction by a phagocyte, pathogens are coated with a substance called an opsonin, marking the pathogen out for destruction by the immune system.
refers to the engulfment of foreign particulate matter by phagocytic cells, particularly by neutrophils and macrophages. Once particulate matter is engulfed, the phagocytic cells release powerful enzymes which kills or degrades.
stem cells duplicate and reform the same cellular type that was damaged, no scar.
If you have a wound that does not have its margins kept very near (suture needed), the gap in the middle fills with connective tissue. The wound is repaired but you have a connective scar in that area and not epidermal tissue anymore.
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