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79 terms

Kinesiology- Exam II Study Material

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Static Stability
provided by the shape of the bones, the ligaments and joint capsule
Dynamic Stability
provided by the muscles
Proprioception
an ability to know the position of your body & to detect movement with your eyes closed
Static Proprioception
knowing where your body is in space
Dynamic Proprioception
able to detect motion (key for injury prevention)
Active Insufficiency
when muscles are not able to generate as much force in a shortened or lengthened position
Passive insufficiency
when the motion of a joint may be limited by the length of a 2 joint muscle because it is unable to stretch across both joints
Muscle fibers parallel to the tendon
Strap, Fusiform, Rhomboidal, Triangular
Muscle fibers oblique to the tendon
Upipennate, Bipennate, Multipennate
Strap
Long & narrow ex: sternocleidomastoid
Fusiform
Fat in the middle (bicep)
Rhomboidal
wide flat muscles
Triangular
pectoralis major
Unipennate
run oblique to the tendon (feather) (hamstring)
Bipennate
featherlike
Multipennate
multiple tendons running up (deltoid)
Sarcomere
the smallest functional unit of muscle tissue; from Z line to Z line
Myofibril
a series of sarcomeres; several myofibrils are contained within one muscle fiber
Muscle fiber
one single muscle tissue cell
Fascicle
a bundle of muscle fibers - several fascicles in one muscle
Thick Filaments
myocin proteins
Thin Filaments
actin proteins
Titin
holds it all together; protein that connects M line to Z line
Function of Titin
maintains the position of the myosin in the center of the sarcomere and prevents the sarcomere from being pulled apart
Tone
resting tension
Active tension
tension due to muscle contraction
passive tension
tension due to stretch
Type I muscle fibers
slow twitch, endurance, red, (goose breast-dark)
Type II muscle fibers
fast twitch, can be trained to act like I or IIB, red fibers
Type IIB muscle fibers
fast twitch, power, white fibers, (chicken breast- white)
Fiber type is determined by
genetics
Muscle spindles
lie parallel to the muscle fibers
Muscle spindles detect changes in
length and speed of length change
Muscle spindles responsible for
deep tendon reflexes (DTR)
Golgi tendon organs
located in the tendon, both at the muscle origin and insertion
Golgi tendon organs detect change in
tension
Autogenic inhibition
golgi tendon organs initiate a reflex that protects the tendon from tearing by inhibiting the contracting muscle
Paresis
muscle weakness or partial paralysis
Paralysis
complete loss of muscle function
Example of paresis
stroke patient
Example of paralysis
spinal cord injury or peripheral nerve damage
Hemiplegia
partial or complete loss of muscle function on one side of the body
Paraplegia
paralysis of all or some of the muscles in trunk and lower extremities
Tetraplegia/quadriplegia
paralysis of trunk & lower extremities andsome or all of the upper extremities
Atrophy
loss of muscle mass due to lack of use or loss of innervation (nervous system)
CNS consists of
brain, brain stem and spinal cord
PNS consists of
all nerves in the body
ANS consists of
parts of both the PNS and CNS
2 parts of ANS
sympathetic and parasympathetic
ANS controls what functions
visceral (digestion, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, reproductive function)
Neuron
one cell of nervous system
Neuron is part of which nervous system?
both CNS & PNS
Nerve
bundle of axons fro multiple neurons travelling together in the PNS
Afferent neuron
carries sensory information from CNS to PNS
Efferent neuron
carries motor information to muscles or glands
Interneuron
provides a route of communication within CNS
How many cranial nerves are there
12
Where do the cranial nerves originate?
all except CN1 originate in the brainstem
What are the sensory functions of cranial nerves
proprioception for talking and swallowing, smell, vision, hearing, taste, touch & pain sensation on face
What are the motor functions of cranial nerves?
facial expressions, blinking, eye movement, pupil dilation, tear & saliva production, talking, swallowing, and chewing
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?
31
How malny cervical spinal nerves are there?
8
Dermatones
cutaneous area (skin) that sends sensory info to a specific spinal nerve/spinal cord level
Myotome
the muscles innervated by a specific spinal nerve/spinal cord level
Why are dermatones/myotomes important to PT?
by evaluating muscle strength and sensation, we can gain information about the health of specific areas of the nervous system
Brachial plexus are formed where?
from the ventral rami of C5-T1 (anterior branch of spinal nerve)
Superior trunk is where?
C5 & C6
Middle trunk is where?
C7
Inferior trunk is where?
C8 & T1
Posterior cord is in what division
all posterior division
Lateral cord is in what division?
anterior divisions of the superior & middle trunks
Medial cord is in what division?
anterior division of the inferior trunk
Name 5 major motor nerves
obturator, femoral, superior gluteal, inferior gluteal, sciatic
Obturator nerve located where?
L2-4
Femoral nerve located where?
L2-4
Superior gluteal nerve located where?
L4-S1
Inferior gluteal nerve located where?
L5-S2
Sciatic nerve located where?
L4-S3- splits at the knee into the common peroneal and tibial nerves
Lumbosacral plexus formed where?
from the ventral rami of L1-S3