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Static Stability

provided by the shape of the bones, the ligaments and joint capsule

Dynamic Stability

provided by the muscles


an ability to know the position of your body & to detect movement with your eyes closed

Static Proprioception

knowing where your body is in space

Dynamic Proprioception

able to detect motion (key for injury prevention)

Active Insufficiency

when muscles are not able to generate as much force in a shortened or lengthened position

Passive insufficiency

when the motion of a joint may be limited by the length of a 2 joint muscle because it is unable to stretch across both joints

Muscle fibers parallel to the tendon

Strap, Fusiform, Rhomboidal, Triangular

Muscle fibers oblique to the tendon

Upipennate, Bipennate, Multipennate


Long & narrow ex: sternocleidomastoid


Fat in the middle (bicep)


wide flat muscles


pectoralis major


run oblique to the tendon (feather) (hamstring)




multiple tendons running up (deltoid)


the smallest functional unit of muscle tissue; from Z line to Z line


a series of sarcomeres; several myofibrils are contained within one muscle fiber

Muscle fiber

one single muscle tissue cell


a bundle of muscle fibers - several fascicles in one muscle

Thick Filaments

myocin proteins

Thin Filaments

actin proteins


holds it all together; protein that connects M line to Z line

Function of Titin

maintains the position of the myosin in the center of the sarcomere and prevents the sarcomere from being pulled apart


resting tension

Active tension

tension due to muscle contraction

passive tension

tension due to stretch

Type I muscle fibers

slow twitch, endurance, red, (goose breast-dark)

Type II muscle fibers

fast twitch, can be trained to act like I or IIB, red fibers

Type IIB muscle fibers

fast twitch, power, white fibers, (chicken breast- white)

Fiber type is determined by


Muscle spindles

lie parallel to the muscle fibers

Muscle spindles detect changes in

length and speed of length change

Muscle spindles responsible for

deep tendon reflexes (DTR)

Golgi tendon organs

located in the tendon, both at the muscle origin and insertion

Golgi tendon organs detect change in


Autogenic inhibition

golgi tendon organs initiate a reflex that protects the tendon from tearing by inhibiting the contracting muscle


muscle weakness or partial paralysis


complete loss of muscle function

Example of paresis

stroke patient

Example of paralysis

spinal cord injury or peripheral nerve damage


partial or complete loss of muscle function on one side of the body


paralysis of all or some of the muscles in trunk and lower extremities


paralysis of trunk & lower extremities andsome or all of the upper extremities


loss of muscle mass due to lack of use or loss of innervation (nervous system)

CNS consists of

brain, brain stem and spinal cord

PNS consists of

all nerves in the body

ANS consists of

parts of both the PNS and CNS

2 parts of ANS

sympathetic and parasympathetic

ANS controls what functions

visceral (digestion, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, reproductive function)


one cell of nervous system

Neuron is part of which nervous system?

both CNS & PNS


bundle of axons fro multiple neurons travelling together in the PNS

Afferent neuron

carries sensory information from CNS to PNS

Efferent neuron

carries motor information to muscles or glands


provides a route of communication within CNS

How many cranial nerves are there


Where do the cranial nerves originate?

all except CN1 originate in the brainstem

What are the sensory functions of cranial nerves

proprioception for talking and swallowing, smell, vision, hearing, taste, touch & pain sensation on face

What are the motor functions of cranial nerves?

facial expressions, blinking, eye movement, pupil dilation, tear & saliva production, talking, swallowing, and chewing

How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?


How malny cervical spinal nerves are there?



cutaneous area (skin) that sends sensory info to a specific spinal nerve/spinal cord level


the muscles innervated by a specific spinal nerve/spinal cord level

Why are dermatones/myotomes important to PT?

by evaluating muscle strength and sensation, we can gain information about the health of specific areas of the nervous system

Brachial plexus are formed where?

from the ventral rami of C5-T1 (anterior branch of spinal nerve)

Superior trunk is where?

C5 & C6

Middle trunk is where?


Inferior trunk is where?

C8 & T1

Posterior cord is in what division

all posterior division

Lateral cord is in what division?

anterior divisions of the superior & middle trunks

Medial cord is in what division?

anterior division of the inferior trunk

Name 5 major motor nerves

obturator, femoral, superior gluteal, inferior gluteal, sciatic

Obturator nerve located where?


Femoral nerve located where?


Superior gluteal nerve located where?


Inferior gluteal nerve located where?


Sciatic nerve located where?

L4-S3- splits at the knee into the common peroneal and tibial nerves

Lumbosacral plexus formed where?

from the ventral rami of L1-S3

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