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27 terms

Psychology Ch.1

History of Psychology
STUDY
PLAY
psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
behavior
any action that people can observe or measure
cognitive activities
private, unmeasurable mental processes such as dreams, perceptions, thoughts, and memories
psychological constructs
theoretical entities, or concepts, that enable one to discuss something that cannot be seen, touched, or measured directly
goals of psychology
observing, describing, explaining behavior, predicting, and controlling
morality
the concept of right or good conduct
theory
a statement that attempts to explain why something is the way it is and happens the way it does
principle
a basic truth or law
psychiatrist
a medical doctor who specializes in the treatment of psychological problems and who can prescribe medication for clients
basic research
research that is conducted for its own sake, that is, that has no immediate application
introspection
an examination of one's own thoughts and feelings
associationism
the theory that our understanding of the world occurs through ideas associated with similar sensory experiences and perceptions
structuralism
the school of psychology, founded by Wilhelm Wundt, that maintains that conscious experience breaks down into objective sensations and subjective feelings
stream of consciousness
thought regarded as a flowing series of images and ideas running through the mind
functionalism
the school of psychology, founded by William James, that emphasizes the purposes of behavior and mental processes and what they accomplish for the individual
psychoanalysis
the school of psychology, founded by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts as determinants of human behavior
psychodynamic thinking
the theory that most of what exists in an individual's mind is unconscious and consists of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes
behaviorism
the school of psychology, founded by John Watson, that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior
gestalt psychology
the school of psychology that emphasizes the tendency to organize perceptions of individual parts into meaningful wholes
biological perspective
the psychological perspective that emphasizes the influence of biology on behavior
evolutionary perspective
the theory that focuses on the evolution of behavior and mental processes
cognitive perspective
the perspective that emphasizes the role of thought processes in determining behavior
humanistic perspective
the psychological view that stresses the human capacity for self-fulfillment and the importance of consciousness, self-awareness,and the freedom to make choices
pschoanalytic perspective
the perspective that stresses the influences of unconscious forces on human behavior
learning perspective
the psychological perspective that emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior
social-learning theory
the theory that suggests that people can change their environments or create new ones
sociocultural perspective
in psychology, the perspective that focuses on the influences of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socio-economic status on behavior and mental processes