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ANATOMY MIDTERM EXAM

STUDY
PLAY
angiogenesis
growth of veins
benign
a tumor that does not metastasize
biopsy
the removal of a sample of living tissue for microscopic examination to help diagnose disease
bone marrow
found in hollow bone interior; produces new blood cells; two types red and yellow
carcinogen
chemical agent or radiation that produces cancer
carcinoma
malignant cancer that arises from epithelial cells
cell cycle
growth and division of one cell into two cells
cytoxic
produces a toxic effect in cells
epidemiology
study of the occurrence and transmission of diseases and disorders in human population
etiology
the study of causation/origin
grade
stage or level
hyperplasia
abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in a tissue or organ increasing its size
incidence
occurrence or happening
lesion
any localized abnormal change in body tissue
lifetime risk
the probability of getting a disease in a lifetime
malignant
a tumor that can metastasize
melanoma
a malignant tumor of melanocytes (found on skin)
metastasis
spread of cancer to surrounding tissues or other body sites
mortality
condition of mortality; able to die
mutagen
mutation causing agent
mutation
any change in the sequence of DNA that causes a permanent change
necrosis
pathological type of cell death caused by disease, injury, or lack of blood that results in adjacent cells swelling, bursting, and spilling thier contents causing imflammatory response
oncogene
cancer causing genes
prognosis
a forecast of the probable results of a disorder
proto oncogene
gene responsible for some aspect of normal growth and development
relative risk
compares the risk of developing cancer between people with a common characteristic or exposure
sarcoma
cancer in connective tissue resulting in mesoderm proliferation
tumor
cells divide without restraint and excess tissue becomes...
tumor suppressor gene
gene coding for a protein that normally limits cell division
morbidity
poor health due to any cause
tissue
a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance joined together to perform a specific function
epithelial tissue
the tissue that forms the innermost and outermost surfaces of body structures and forms glands
basement membrane
thin, extracellular layer between epithelium and connective tissue consisting of a basal lamina and reticular lamina
avascular
without blood vessels
connective tissue
most abundant of four basic tissues in body; basic functions of binding and supporting; few cells in a mix of ground substance and fibers
fibroblast
large flat cell that secretes most of teh extracellular matrix of areolar and dense connective tissue, a cell from which connective tissue develops
macrophage
phagocytic cell derived from monocyte
plasma cells
cells that develop from lymphocyte and produce antibodies
mast cells
a cell found in areolar connective tissue that releasese histamine during inflammation
adipocytes
fat cell derived from a fibroblast
loose connective tissue
loosely intertwined fibers between cells; types: areolar, adipose, reticular
dense connective tissue
more numerous and thicker, denser fibers with fewer cells; types: dense regular, dense irregular, elastic
cartilage
connective tissue embedded in dense network of collagen and elastic fibers and extracellular mix of chondroitin sulfate
bone tissue
either compact or spongy; make up bones
blood tissue
connective tissue with extracullular matrix of blood plasma
lymph
extracellular fluid that flows in lymphatic vessels
skeletal muscle
organ specialized for ontraction; made of striated muscle fibers; supported by connective tissue attached to bones or tendons
cardiac muscle
striated muscle fibers that form the wall of the heart
smooth muscle
specialized for contraction; made of smooth muscle fibers; in hollow interior organs
neurons
nerve cell; cell body, dendrite, axon
axon
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
dendrite
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
epidermis
superficial thinner layer of skin; made of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
dermis
layer of dense irregular connective tissue deep to the epidermis
keratinocytes
the most numerous of epidermal cells; produces keratin
melanocyte
pigmented cell located between/beneath cells of the deepest layer of epidermis that synthesizes melanin
langerhans cell
epidermal dendritic cell that functions as an antigen presenting cell during an immune response
Merkel cell
type of cell in the epidermis of hairless skin that makes contact with tactile disc; functions in touch
papillary region
1/5 of total layer of dermis; made of dermal papillae; areolar connective tissue with elastic fibers
dermal papillae
small finger like projections that increase surface area
Meissner corpuscle
sensory receptor for sensations of touch; in dermal papillae
reticular region
attached to subcutaneous layer; made of dense irregular with fibroblasts, bundles of collagen, soem coarse elastic fibers
epidermal ridges
fingerprints; on palms, fingers, feet, toes; ridges and grooves pulled in not pushed out
melanin
dark black, brown, yellow pigment found in some parts of the body
carotene
precursor to vitamin a; yellow orange pigment present in stratum cornelum of epidermis
hair follicle
structure composed of epithelium and surrounding the root of hair; where hair develops
papilla of the hair
contains areolar and many blood vessels that nourish hair
inflammatory phase
blood clot forms in the wound and loosely unites the wound
migratory phase
clot becomes scap and epithelial cells migrate along fibrin threads and make scar tissue and blood vessels begin to grow
proliferation phase
extensive growth of epithelial cells beneath scab; blood vessels continue to grow; collagen fibers form
maturation phase
scab falls off when epidermis is at normal thickness
fibrosis
process of scar tissue formation
hypertrophic scar
raised scar that remains within bounds of original wound
keloid scar
scar extends beyond original bounds of wound
suture
an immovable fibrous joint that joins skull bones
paranasal sinuses
mucus lined air cavity in a skull bone that communicates with the nasal cavity
fontanels
mesenchyme filled space where bone formation is not yet complete
nasal septum
a vertical partition composed of bone and cartilage; covered with a mucous membrane separating the nasal cavity into left/right
vertebrae
make up spinal column
intervertebral disc
a pad of fibrocartilage located between bodies of two vertebrae
coccyx
the fused bones at the inferior end of the vertebral column
carpus
collective term for the 8 bones of the wrist
carpals
8 bones of the wrist
metacarpals
term for 5 bones in the palm
phalanx
bone of the finger/toe
tarsus
collective term for 7 bones in ankle
metatarsus
5 bones in the foot between tarsals and phalanges
axial skeleton
head and torso
appendicular skeleton
appendages
coronal suture
frontal bone and both parietal bones
sagittal suture
unites two parietal bones on superior midline of the skull
lambdoid suture
unites two parietal bones to occipital bone
squamous sutures
unite parietal and temporal bones on hte lateral aspects of the skull
foramina
openings for blood vessels nerves or ligaments
hyoid bone
u shaped; axial skeleton; unique because it is suspended by muscles and ligaments from styloid processes
cervical vertebrae
found in neck region
atlas
first cervical vertebrae
axis
second cervical vertebrae
thoracic vertebrae
larger and stronger than cervical vertebrae; long and laterally flattened
lumbar vertebrae
largest strongest in vertebral column; short and thick projections
sacrum
triangular bone formed by the union of 5 sacral vertebrae
pectoral girdles
attach bones of upper limbs to axial skeleton
clavicle
anterior bone superior to first rib
phalanges
bones of digits
intercalated discs
irregular transverse thickening of sarcolemma that contains demosomes which hold cardiac muscle cells together, and gap junctions, aid in action potentials
T tubules
small cylindrical indentations of sarcolemma of striated muscle cells that conduct muscle action potentials towards inside of cell
triad
complex of three units in a muscle fiber made of T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum terminal cisterns on both sides of it
thick filaments
made of myosin; in myofibrils
thin filaments
made of actin; in myofibrils
actin
a contractile protein part of thin filaments
tropomyosin
regulatory protein part of thin filament
troponin
regulatory protein part of thin filament
intermediate filaments
protein filament may provide strutural reinforcement hold organelles in place, gives shape to cells
I bands
lighter, less dense area containing rest of thin but no thick filaments
Z discs
narrow plate shaped regions separate sarcomeres from one another
A bands
middle part of sarcomere; extends entire length of thick filament
M Line
middle of sarcomere
axon terminal
terminal branch of an axon where synaptic vesicles undergo exocytosis to release neurotransmitter molecules
neuromuscular junction
synapse between axon terminals of motor neuron and sarcolemma of muscle cell
synaptic end bulbs
expanded distal end of axon terminal contains synaptit vesicles
synaptic vesicles
membrane enclosed sac in synaptic knob that stores neurotransmitters
synaptic cleft
narrow gap at chemical synapse separates axon terminals, across which neurotransmitter diffuses to affect post synaptic cell
motor end plate
region of sarcolemma of muscle fiber that ends in acetylcholine receptors which bind ACh released by synaptic and bulbs of somatic motor neurons
acetylcoline
neurotransmitter excites n some places and inhibits in others.