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81 terms

ANATOMY

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muscles glands and sensory receptors
The nerve fibers scattered throughout the dermis are associated with
dermis
The subcutaneous layer is located beneath the ¬¬¬____
die
As cells are pushed from the deeper portion of the epidermis toward the surface they ___
skin
The ___ functions to retard water loss, excrete waste, and regulate body temperature
dermis and subcutaneous layer
The blood vessels that supply skin cells are found in the ___ and ___ ___
cells
The main function of melanocytes is to protect deeper ____ from sunlight
dermis
Epidermal cells are supplied with nutrients from blood vessles located in the ___
vitamin d
Skin cells play an important role in the production of ¬¬¬¬___ _
epithelial cells
The cells that produce the shaft of a hair are ___ __
conserved
When the smooth muscles in the walls of dermal blood vessels contract body heat is ___
eccrine sweat glands
Respond primarily to elevated body temperature
sebaceous glands
Acne is a disorder involving the ___ ___
basale
The deepest cells of the epidermis make up the stratum___
keratin
As epidermal cells are pushed toward the surface, strands of protein called ¬¬_____ develop in their cytoplasm
Melanin
____ is the pigment produced by melanocytes
adiopose
The ____ tissue of the subcutaneous layer acts as a heat insulator
apocrine
The ____ glands of the skin respond to emotional stress and begin to function at puberty
smooth
The arrector pili muscle is composed of _____ muscle tissue
Sebum
_____ is the oily secretion of the sebaceous gland
True
The skin is one of the larger organs of the body (T/F)
true
In healthy skin, the production of epidermal cells is closely balanced with the loss of skin cells (T/F)
False
The outermost layer of the epidermis is the stratum basale and the innermost layer is the stratum corneum (T/F)
False
The dermis is very flat compared to the epidermis, which has ridges projecting inward and elevations called papillae (T/F)
true
Carcinomas appear most often in the skin of the neck, face, and scalp (T/F)
False
Hair color is determined by the amount of keratin protein produced during keratinization (T/F)
muscles
These tissues make up ___; Skeletal muscle tissue, connective tissue, nervous tissue, and blood
Myosin and actin
Striations in skeletal muscles are caused by the arrangement of what thick and thin filament structures in the muscles?
sternum; clavicle
Explain how a muscle like the sternocleidomastoid gets its name. It covers the area near the ___ and the ___
aponeurosis
A think flat sheet of connective tissue between muscles such as between the external oblique muscles is called (a/an)
fascia
A layer of dense connective tissue that surrounds and separates muscles and is also continuous with tendons is called (a/an)
fascicle
A bundle of muscle fibers is called (a/an)
false
(T/F) A Carbohydrate filaments of actin and myosin make up sarcomeres
a neuromuscular junction
The site where a motor neuron and muscle fiber meet
a motor unit
Controls many muscle fibers that all contract at once
contract
Muscles ____ as myosin cross-bridges attach to and pull on actin filaments
Calcium
Which element is essential for muscle contraction?
myoglobin
This pigment stores oxygen in the muscles and gives muscle tissue a reddish color
lactic acid
During strenuous activity ___________ is produced during anaerobic respiration and can be the cause of sore muscles
a titanic contraction
A contraction without any relaxation is called
true
Mitochondria are abundant at the neuromuscular junction (T/F)
true
Neurotransmitters are stored in the synaptic vesicles of the motor neurons (T/F)
false
Muscles can only have one origin and insertion (T/F)
true
Muscles contract by the shortening of sarcomeres (T/F)
true
Muscle cramps occur when there is not enough ATP to return calcium ions back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (T/F)
false
An increase in the number of motor units activated during a contraction is called summation (T/F)
threshold
A muscle fiber remains unresponsive to stimulation unless the _____reached
twitch
A single short contraction involving only a few motor units is referred to as a ____
latent period
The time delay between when a stimulus is applied and when the muscle contracts are called the _____ _____
sustained
The combination of recruitment and summation results in a _____ contraction
insertion
The immovable attachment point of a muscle is called the origin the movable end of the muscle is called the _____
peristalsis
Rythmicity in smooth muscles of hollow tube like organs, results in actions like swallowing and the movement of feces through the intestine. This wave like motion is called _____
antagonist
A muscle that opposes the action of another muscle is called (a/an)_____
osteoporosis
Low intake of dietary calcium, Lack of physical exercise and Frequent use of beverage alcohol will increase your risk of ____
osteocyte
An ____ is a mature bone cell surrounded by matrix
Lacunae
The microscopic bony chambers that house mature bone cells are called ____
Calcium phosphate
The salts that form tiny crystals in the intercellular matrix of bone tissue consist largely of ___ ___
Intramembranous bone
Bone that develops between sheetlike layers of connective tissue is called ___ ___
Red bone marrow
__ __ ___ functions in the formation of red and white blood cells and platelets
Osteoclasts
The cells responsible for removing excess bone tissue after the fracture repair process are ____
Zygomatic and temporal bones
The zygomatic arch is composed of processes of the ___ and ___ __
Maxillae
A cleft palate results from incomplete development of the ___
Maxillary bone
Which of the following is part of the facial skeleton?
Articular cartilage
The degenerative joint disease osteoarthritis may develop as a result of wearing away or softening of the ___ ___
joints
Arthroscopy is a procedure used to examine the ___
True
Osteoclasts are large cells that cause the breakdown of osseous tissue (T/F)
False
The appendicular skeleton consists of the parts that support and protect the head, neck and trunk (T/F)
True
The importance of fontanels in the infant's skull is to permit some movement of bones, thereby enabling the infant to pass more easily though the birth canal (T/F)
False
The tarsal bones form the wrist (T/F)
True
A meniscus functions to cushion articulating surfaces of bones (T/F)
True
Synovial fluid moistens and lubricates the cartilaginous surfaces within a joint (T/F)
True
The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint (T/F)
periostiem
The tough, fibrous tissue that encloses a long bone is called the ___________
Lever
The basic parts of a(an) __________ include a rod, fulcrum, weight and force
Hemopoisis
__________ is the process of blood cell formation
fontanels
The membranous soft spots of a newborn's skull are called __________
carpus
The bones of the wrist together form the __________
Symphysis pubis
The joint created by the two pubic bones is the __________
osteoclasts
________ are large cells that can cause the breakdown of bone tissue
peristiem
A long bone grows in thickness as bone tissue is deposited beneath its ___________
interveterbral discs
The cartilaginous parts that separate the vertebrae are called __________
abduction
The movement of a limb away from the midline is ______