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Medical Terminology Chapter 1

STUDY
PLAY
four word parts
1. Word root 2. Suffix 3. Prefix 4. Combining vowel
word root
The word root is the word part that is the core of the word. The word root contains the fundamental meaning of the word. The word root is the core of the word; therefore, each medical term contains one or more word roots. hepat
suffix
The suffix is a word part attached to the end of the word root to modify its meaning. The suffix is used to modify the meaning of a word. Most medical terms have a suffix. itis
prefix
The prefix is a word part attached to the beginning of a word root to modify its meaning. A prefix can be used to modify the meaning of a word. Many medical terms do not have a prefix. sub
combining vowel
The combining vowel is a word part, usually an o, used to ease pronunciation. The combining vowel is placed to connect two word roots. Placed to connect a word root and a suffix. Not placed to connect a prefix and a word root. The combining vowel is used to ease pronunciation; therefore not all medical terms have combining vowels. Medical terms introduced throughout the text hat have combining vowels other than o are highlighted at their introduction. hepat/o
four guidelines for using combining vowels
1. When connecting a word root and a suffix, a combining vowel is used if the suffix does not begin with a vowel. arthr/o/parthy 2. When connecting a word root and a suffix, a combining vowel is usually not used if the suffix begins with a vowel. hepat/ic 3.When connecting two word roots, a combining vowel is usually used even if vowels are present at the junction. oste/o/arthr/itis 4. When connecting a prefix and a word root, a combining vowel is not used. sub/hepat/ic
combining form
A combining form is a word root with a combining vowel attached, separated by a vertical slash. The combining form is not a word part per se; rather it is the word root and the combining vowel. Wood roots are presented as combining forms throughout the text.
defining medical terms
To define medical terms, apply the meaning of each word part contained in the term. 1. Begin by defining the suffix. 2. Then move to the beginning of the term to complete the definition. Most medical terms built from word parts can be defined by beginning with the meaning of the suffix; however, this does not always apply.
osteoarthopathy
osteo/o/arthr/o/pathy disease of the bone and joint
arthr
joint
hepat
liver
ven
vein
oste
bone
-itis
inflammation
-ic
pertaining to
-ous
pertaining to
-pathy
disease
-megaly
enlargement
intra-
within
sub-
under
o
combining vowel
arthritis
arthr/itis inflammation of the joint
hepatitis
hepat/itis inflammation of the liver
subhepatic
sub/hepat/ic pertaining to under the liver
intravenous
intra/ven/ous pertaining to within the vein
arthropathy
arthr/o/pathy disease of the joint
osteitis
oste/itis inflammation of the bone
hepatomegaly
hepat/o/megaly enlargement of the liver
building medical terms
To build medical terms, place word parts together to form words. Keep in mind that the beginning of the definition usually indicates the suffix.
hepatic
hepat/ic pertaining to the liver
osteoarthritis
oste/o/arthr/itis inflammation of the bone and joint
techniques for learning medical terms built from words
analyzing - dividing medical terms into word parts, then labeling each word part and combining form. defining - applying the meaning of each word part contained in the medical term to derive it beginning. building - placing word parts together to form words.
Greek and Latin
Terms built from Greek and Latin word parts such as arthritis.
eponyms
Terms derived from the name of a person, often a physician or scientist who was the first to identify a condition or technique such as Parkinson disease.
acronyms
Terms formed from the first letters of the words in a phrase such as laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation).
modern language
Terms derived from the English language such as nuclear medicine scanner.