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635 terms

Combo with AH Test 2

STUDY
PLAY
Early in the Sixteenth Century, religious reformers challenged the Church's beliefs and practices, including the sale of indulgences, or the forgiveness of sins in return for a financial contribution. The reformers came to be called ___________.
Protestants
The period of the 1490s to 1527 has been called the _____________ in Italian art.
High Renaissance/Imperial Style/Classical Phase
The three leading artists of the classical phase of the Italian Renaissance were ______, _______, and _______.
Michelangelo, Leonardo, Raphael
Leonardo da Vinci painted the Last Supper on the wall of a monastery in Milan at the request of __________.
Duke Ludovico Sforza
The Last Supper is located in the refectory of the _______________ in Milan.
Monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie
Breaking with tradition, Leonardo painted ________ to the left of Jesus, rather than isolated on the other side of the table in the Last Supper.
Judas
In his drawing Virgin and Saint Anne with the Christ Child and the Young John the Baptist, Leonardo uses the technique called ________ to create the illusion of high relief.
chiaroscuro
In the Mona Lisa, as in all of his paintings, Leonardo considered color to be secondary to _________.
the depiction of sculptural volume
Leonardo unified his compositions by covering them in a thin, lightly-tinted varnish which resulted in a smoky overall haze called ________.
sfumato
Leonardo's Vitruvian Man was based on descriptions from De Architectura by the Roman architect __________.
Vitruvius
The Church of San Bernadino is pictured in the background of the main figures in Raphael's painting titled __________.
The Small Cowper Madonna
While in the service of Pope Julius II, Raphael was commissioned to paint the four branches of knowledge as conceived in the Sixteenth Century. They were _______, __________, _________, and ________.
Poetry, Religion, Philosophy, Law
In the School of Athens, Raphael depicts _________ pointing upward and _______ with the palm of his hand facing downward, indicating the importance of the ideal versus the importance of the material world.
Plato, Socrates
Raphael died at the age of ________.
37
An early work of sculpture by Michelangelo that depicts the Virgin supporting and mourning the dead Jesus. This subject is called a ________.
pietá
In 1503, Michelangelo accepted a commission for a statue of one of the symbols of Florence, the Biblical ________.
David
Although Michelangelo did not consider himself to be a painter, in 1506, Pope Julius II commissioned Michelangelo to begin work on the __________.
Sistine Chapel Ceiling
The Sistine Chapel is built to the same dimensions as the _____________.
Temple of Solomon
The narrative sequence of the Sistine Chapel ceiling begins over the ___________ and ends near the _______________.
altar, chapel entrance
Perhaps the most familiar scene on the ceiling is the ______________.
Creation of Adam
Michelangelo's first Papal sculpture commission was a tomb for Julius II which included the figure of _______ completed in ________.
Moses, 1545
Michelangelo's sculptures in the New Sacristy are notable for their contrasting areas of rough unfinished and polished marble. Specialists call this his _____________ or _________ quality.
nonfinito, unfinished
The Tempietto, designed by Bramante, is a shrine built in Rome on the spot where ______________.
the apostle Peter was believed to have been crucified
Cardinal Alessandro Farnese set Antonio da Sangalla teh Younger the task of rebuilding the _____________ into the largest, finest palace in Rome.
Palazzo Farnese
In reaction to the Counter Reformation emphasis on congregational worship, the nave of St. Peter's Basilica was extened to a length of ________ feet.
636
Correggio's Assumption of the Virgin was painted on the main dome of the _________ in Italy.
Parma Cathedral
In his painting The Tempest, Giorgione makes the ___________ central to the composition, giving nature an importance that is new in Western painting.
landscape
When Giovanni Bellini died in 1516, __________ became the official painter to the Republic of Venice.
Titian
In the Pesaro Madonna, Titian's diagonally based composition looks forward to teh art of the __________ Century.
Seventeenth
Venice's position as a key seaport gave artists unique access to two new art materials: _______ and _________.
glass(?), oil paint(?)
The lower right corner of Michelangelo's Last Judgment shows rejected souls plunged toward _____.
Hell
The late 1600s art movement wedged between the High Renaissance and the Baroque period was called _______.
Mannerism
Jacopo da Pontormo's ___________ uses shallow depth, odd poses and dramatic shifts of scale to create an emotionally charged atmosphere.
Entombment
In Parmagianino's _________________, the artist uses elongation of the figure in keeping with the Mannerist style.
Madonna with the Long Neck
Bronzino's ______________ contains all of teh formal, iconographical, and psychological characteristics of Mannerist art.
Allegory with Venus and Cupid
While still in her twenties, Lavina Fontana painted ___________ which in Italian means __________.
Noli Me Tangere, "Don't Touch Me"
Veronese was brought before a Church Inquisition to explain and defend content included in his painting _____________.
Feast in the House of Levi
Tintoretto's ______________ is viewed from a high vantage point and features a strongly diagonal composition.
Last Supper
Albrecht Durer's Melancholia I shows a dog and a bat, two creatures symbolic of __________, the planet thought to influence artists.
Saturn
The Protestant Reformation began in ___________ when Martin Luther issued his Ninety-Five Theses.
1517
Increased literacy and the widespread use of the ______________ aided reformers in spreading influence throughout Europe.
printing press
Tilman Riemenscheider carved an altarpiece for a German church thought to have a sacred relic. This relic was a _______________.
drop of Jesus' blood
The hospital of the Abbey of Saint Anthony in Isenheim specialized in the treatment of ____________.
skin diseases (plague, leprosy, and St. Anthony's Fire)
The Isenheim Altarpiece was the combined works of two artists. They were __________ and ___________.
Matthias Grünewald, Nikolaus Hagenauer
Matthias Grünewald painted a graphically disturbing portrait of the crucifixion thought to be based on the writing of __________ of Sweden.
Saint Bridget
The brightly colored inner scenes of the Isenheim altarpiece were revealed only on ___________ and ________.
Sundays, Church festivals.
The altarpiece was only fully opened to reveal Hagenauer's carved sculpture on _____________.
the special festivals of Saint Anthony
_______________ is thought to have been the greatest artist of the norther part of the Holy Roman Empire.
Albrecht Durer
Although he was an accomplished painter, Durer made his fame and fortune as a __________.
graphic artist
Durer's interest in Italian art and his theoretical investigations are reflected in his 1504 engraving ______________.
Adam & Eve
In 1526, Durer openly professed his Lutheranism in a pair of inscribed panels titled _______________.
The Four Apostles
The ___________ by Albrecht Altdorfer is one of the earliest examples of ____________.
Danube Landscape, pure landscape painting
A country home in France called ______________ shows the influence of the Italian Renaissance on French architecture.
the Château of Chenonceau
El Escorial, the great monastery and palace built outside Madrid was built by _____________ to comply with his fathers direction to create a "pantheon".
Philip II
The most famous Spanish painter of the Sixteenth century was Domenikos Theotokopoulos, also known as ____________.
El Greco
El Greco shows the influence of ________________ in its rich colors and loose brushwork.
Venetian art (Byzantine art?)
In composing the Burial of Count Orgaz, El Greco used ___________ devices reminiscent of Pontormo.
Mannerist
One of the most fascinating of the Netherlandish painters of the period is _________ who lived from 1450-1516.
Hieronymus Bosch
Challenging and unsettling paintings such as ________________ have led modern critics to label Bosch as both a mystic and social critic.
the Garden of Earthly Delights
The right hand panel of the Garden of Earthly Delights shows the _____________ in which only the damned are portrayed.
Last Judgment
The Banker and His Wife by Marinus van Reymerawaele recalls the earlier St. Eligius in His Shop painted by ____________.
Petrus Christus
Peter Bruegel the Elder's knowledge of classics is shown in his painted depiction of __________ based on the writing of the Roman poet _______.
The Fall of Icarus, Ovid
Bruegel's Return of the Hunters represents the months of ___________ in a cycle of 6 paintings showing seasons of the year.
December to January
The Tudors of England, having split with Rome and the Catholic Church, preferred the work of ________ and _________ artists.
Netherlandish, German
Baroque style is characterized by an _________ rather than _________ response to a work of art.
emotional, intellectual
As part of the __________ program, Roman Catholocism used art to encourage piety among the faithful.
Counter-Reformation
The architect Carlo Maderno enlarged the original plan of _______________ to make it the most important church in the Catholic world.
St. Peter's Basilica
To place emphasis on the altar within the cavernous space on the inside of St. Peter's, Gianlorenzo Bernini was commissioned to design a ________ or canopy for the high altar.
baldachin
A reliquary designed by Bernini for St. Peter's houses the ancient wooden throne thought to have belonged to _________, the first bishop of Rome.
Saint Peter
Bernini's sculpture of _____________ is dramatic and emotional in contrast to the cool, classical depiction of the same subject by Michelangelo.
David
In 1634, the Trinitarian monks awarded Borromini the commission for the chruch of San Carlo Alle Quattro Fontane, which is Italian for ____________.
Saint Charles at the Four Fountains
Bernini's Fountain of the Four Rivers is located in the __________, once the site of an ancient Roman stadium.
Piazza Navona
Italian Baroque painting follows two distinct paths, one represented by the classical painting of _____________ (family), the other by northern Italian realism as reflected in the work of __________.
Carracci, Caravaggio
Annibale Carraci's fresco for the ceiling of the ____________ shows the illusion of paintings within the painting, and pictorial architecture, which is indistinguishable from the real thing.
Palazzo Farnese Gallery
A new powerful realism was introduced into painting by Carraci's younger contemporary Michelangelo Merisi, better known as _____________.
Caravaggio
Caravaggio's ___________ portrays the god of wine in half length figure behind a bowl of rotting fruit.
Bacchus
Caravaggio's approach has been likened to the preaching of ________________ who focused his missionary efforts on ordinary people for whom he sought to make Christian doctrine meaningful.
Filippo Neri
The Calling of Saint Matthew depicts _____ the tax collector being called to disciple ship by Jesus.
Levi
Piettro Berrettini's great fresco ___________________ became the model for Baroque illusionistic palace ceilings throughout Europe.
The Glorification of the Papacy of Urban VIII
Seventeenth century Spanish painting, profoundly influenced by the art of ________ was characterized by intense realism whose details emerge from the deep shadows of ___________.
Caravaggio, tenebrism
Peter Paul Reubens' first major commission was a large canvas triptych for the main altar of the Church of Saint Walpurga, titled ____________.
The Raising of the Cross
In Catharina Hooft and Her Nurse, ______________ (artist) captured the vitality of a gesture and a fleeting moment of time.
Frans Hals
Rembrandt made use of Caravaggio's tenebrist technique in a group portrait of the surgeon's guild titled ______________.
The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp
Because it was once so dirty, Captain Frans Banning Cocq Mustering His Company was once called ____________.
The Night Watch
In Woman Holding a Balance, Jan Vermeer portrays a woman holding a scale with an image of ______________ on the background wall.
Christ in a large painting of the Last Judgment
One of Caravaggio's most important followers in France was _____________ who lived from 1593 to 1652.
Georges de La Tour
In __________________ (painting), Claude Lorrain uses a favorite framing device in which he uses two large objects in the foreground and a zig-zagging composition through the middle.
Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba
In his ____________________________ Nicolas Poussin created a consistent perspective progression from the picture plane back into the distance through a clearly defined foreground, middle ground and background.
Landscape with Saint John on Patmos
Ages of mankind?
Classical
Medieval
Modern
Johannes Gutenberg
invented printing press
(c.1400-c.1468)
Prints bible w moveable metal type
"devotio moderna"
modern devotion
Desideriu Erasmus of Rotterdam
(1466-1536) "devotia mederna"
Martin Luther
(1483-1546)
in 1517 he posts the "ninety-five Theses" on the church door.
Thomas a Kempis
Imitatio Christi
The church in Rome Papal Authority & Indulgences
sell indulgences
Luther's address to the German Nobility
1520 "every man a priest"
Luther's translation of the Bible into?
The German language
"sola scriptura" scripture alone
John Calvin
Reformation figure. (1509-1564)
"Congregational Governance"
a group of believers would rule themselves
Henry Tudor (Henry VIII)
(1491-1547) Anabaptist. Founder of the church of England (THe Angelican Church)
Music and Reformation, Martin Luther
the chorale- congregational singing
Durer & printmaking
woodcuts and engraving.
"The Fourhorseman of the Apocalypse"
"Knight, Death, and the Devil"
Landscapes "wire drawing mill"
Durer
studied art in Venice
Matthias Grunwald
(1469-1528)
"The Isenheim Altarpiece" (c.1510-15)
Hieronymus Bosch (momento mori) (ars moriendi)
(1460-1516)
(remember death)
(the art of death)
Death and the Miser
(1485-90)
Triptych
"Three-paneled painting"
Pieter Brueghel
"The Triumph of Death"
"The Wedding Dance"
Erasmus
"The Praise of Folly"
Sir Thomas More
"Utopia"
Miguel de Cervantes
"Don Quixote"
Michel de Montaigne
"On Cannibals"
El Greco
"Agony In the Garden"
Caravaggio
"The Supper at Emmaus"
"The Crucifixion of Saint Peter"
sonet
14 lines
Gentileschi
"Judith and Holofernes"
Bernini
"David"
"Fountain of the Four Rivers"
The Cornaro Chapel
"Baldacchino"
Giovannidi Palestrina
"Motet Ave Maria"
a capella
in the style of the chapel
polyphonic
multiple voices, different melodies, simultaneously
Giovanni Gabrieli
"the father of orchestration"
polychoral
many choruses
concertato
contrasting sections
dynamic
different, loud and soft
tonality
one single pitch
Claudio Monteverdi
composer of " l' Orfeo"
Libretto
text, book of opera
Overture
introductory music
Arias
ornate character and emotion
Recitative
simpler song, to tell plot
Nicolas Poussin
"Archadian Shepherds"
Diego Valesquez
"Las Meninas"
scholars say most important painting of all time
Peter Paul Rubens
"Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus"
Francois de la Rochefoucauld
"Maxims"- short witty saying
"everything is reducible to the motive of self interest"
Jean Racine
"Phedre" at London's Royal National
Jean-Baptiste Poquelin
"Moliere"
comedie-ballet "Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme"
"The Tradesman Turned Gentleman"
Suleiman
("The Magnificent")
Shah Abbas I
(1557-1629) The Safavid Dynasty
Bichitr
(fl. 1625) Mogul Court Portraiture
Shah Jahan
Ruled 1627-1666
Shahjahanabad
"The Red Fort" Dehli, India
Taj Mahal
1623-43
Ming and Qaing dynasties
"The Mandate of Heaven"
Xu Yang
"Bird's-eye view of capital.
Emporer Kanxi
The Novel
Jean Bodin
(1530-1596) A French political theorist; called the king "God's image on earth;" wrote "The Six Books of the Commonwealth"
Cardinal Richelieu
(1585-1642) Favorite of the French king Louis XIII
Intendants
Officials appointed by the central government in France to oversee the local administration of the regional aristocracy; a critical component of the centalization of the French state
Ship Money
An impost levied in England to provide money for ships for national defense
The Fronde
A French rebellion that was caused by Mazarin's attempt to increase royal revenue and expand state bureaucracy; caused Louis XIV to distrust the state and turn to absolutism
Cardinal Mazarin
(1602-1661) Italian-born French cardinal who exercised great political influence as the tutor and chief minister to Louis XIV
Petition of Right
Document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land
Puritans
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
William Laud
Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I in England; he tried to force the Scottish to use the English Book of Common Prayer; he was later executed by Parliament during the English Civil War
Long Parliament
This Parliament met for 13 years from 1640-1653 and chose not to implement the taxes that Charles II wanted to defend England against the Scots; this was mostly because they agreed with the Scot's negative opinion of Laud's religious changes and disagreed with the king on many issues; this powerful parliament also executed Charles's chief advisory, the Earl of Strafford
Oliver Cromwell
(1599-1658) English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I; declared himself Lord Protector of England (1653-1658); he ruled as a virtual dictator
Rump Parliament
The Cromwell-controlled Parliament that proclaimed England a republic and abolished the House of Lords and the monarchy
Instrument of Government
Cromwell's constitution; it provided triennial meetings of Parliament and gave them the sole power to tax; Cromwell tore it up when it did not serve his purposes
Divine Right of Kings
The idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God
Glorious Revolution
The revolution against James II; there was little armed resistance to William and Mary in England although battles were fought in Scotland and Ireland (1688-1689)
Declaration of Right
Reasserted the fundamental principal of constitutional monarchy as they had developed over the previous half century
Toleration Act
1689 An act of British Parliament granting some religious freedoms to non-Anglican Protestants
John Locke
(1632-1704) English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property
Absolutism
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Thomas Hobbes
(1588-1679) English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings
Frederick William
(1640-1688) The Great Elector; made permanent standing army supported by wealthy landowners (junkers); practiced tax exemption
Junker
Strongly conservative members of Prussia wealthy landownings class
Peter I
(1682-1725) Tsar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government and military
Jean Baptiste-Colbert
Louis XIV's controller of finances; followed mercantilism; raised tariffs on foreign goods; created a merchant marine to carry French goods
Parlement
Law court staffed by nobles that could register or refuse to register a king's edict.
Versailles
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility
Louis XIV of France
"Sun King," he believed in divine right and was a devout catholic. He feared the nobility and was successful in collaborating with them to enhance both aristocratic prestige and royal power. He made the court of Versailles a fixed institution to use it to preserve royal power and the center of French Absolutism.
Concertante style
the new style of music during this era; means to contrast; many dif types of instuments used
What was the purpose of multi-keyboard organs?
Because you could jump around btwn keyboards you could create contrast of sound
Dueling choirs
these were created to create contrast
"The end of all good music is to affect the soul" Who said it?
Monteverdi
What was the new idea about what music could create/evoke?
It could create human emotions
Dissonance=_______, consonance=_______
painful, pleasant
According to baroque thought, what was joy in music?
An ascending major tonality
What was the main purpose for the creation of opera?
It gave the best platform for affections (major theme of Baroque music)
Where did the king sit while watching an opera?
He sat in the center of the audience and all ppl were angled lightly towards him. If he liked it, they knew it was a good opera
Who was the most famous opera composer?
Monteverdi
What was the Coronation of Poppea about and who composed it?
Monteverdi; set during the reign of Nero during Roman emp.Nero decides to dump wife (ottavia) for mistress (Poppea). Nero and Poppea sing one of the 1st love duets created
What did academies emphasize/like in opera?
Roman legend
What kind of singer sang the leading male roles in Baroque operas?
Castrati
Castrati
sang leading male roles in operas; identified as young boys to have beautiful voices, operation performed to keep voice high; rock stars of their day
use of the overture in the Baroque
the entrance of the king; therefore, they took on a regal, processional-like quality
What was the big milestone in instrumental music?
The birth of the concerto (solo instrument vs. orchestra)
concerto
from concertante- it was a solo instrument vs. orchestra. There can be a concerto for any instrument
Vivaldi
a major composer during the Baroque. His most famous piece was The Four Seasons (spring=most famous of that)
The Four Seasons
composed by Vivaldi. He was trying to create the affect of each season. He even wrote a poem about each right in the concerto. He created contrast btwn solo violin and orchestra
Lully
the court composer for Louis XIV/ Versailles. He directed the academy of music for a time, so heoversaw music regulations
Rubens
movement, Rubenesque form, contortion, billowing drapery
putto
baby w/ wings
Rubenesque form
plump, fair-skinned figures- signs of leisure
some Rubens paintings
St. George and the Dragon, Union of Earth and Water
Poussin
statuesque, Ancient Roman figures, stagnant, realistic modeling of drapery, fond of Roman legend
Why did the academies like Poussin?
Because he incorporated Roman legend ito his work. The aristocracy saw themselves as descendants of ancient Romans
Rape of the Sabine Women
Rape= any forceable taking of women ( can be marriage). This was a political event of a forced alliance when the Sabines were invited to Rome and the Romans kidnapped the women.Tradition of carrying wife into home on wedding day came from this
example of Poussin's paintings
Christ and woman taken in Adultery
Claude Lorrain
landscape painter, vivid colors, classical buildings
Keys to a classical building
arches, domes, marble
examples of Lorrain's paintings
Disembarkation of Cleopatra- navy ships=power, Roman building; Departure of Hagar and Ishmael
Lorrain and the Academies
they wouldn't accept a painting w/o ppl, so Lorrain had an assistant paint the people
Rigaud
court painter of Versailles- for aristocracy and Louis XIV. famous for brightness and color
Bernini
reflects aesthetic of aristocracy, flowing drapes, palace sculptures, mvmt- sketched LOuis while playing tennis
examples of Bernini's sculptures
Louis XIV, Apollo and Daphne
What does Baroque mean?
grotesque, overdone
paintery
look at brush stroke and can see paint texture
1500-1830
when did the scientific revolution happen?
the modern age
what did the scientific revolution lead to?
medieval beliefs
earth is flat
earth is the center of the universe
god created this order
Copernicus
questioned old beliefs. believed that medieval ideas were wrong, the earth was round, it revolves around the sun. his ideas were dangerous, so he worked privately and only let his friends publish his works when he was on his deathbed.
Johannes Kepler
built ideas based on copernicus, and blended math with his ideas.proved planets revolve around the sun and that they move in ellipses, not circles. he was protestant, so the church didnt really bother him.
Galileo Galilei
catholic, so there was much conflict between him and the church. built a telescope and observed the moons orbiting jupiter. published a book, which was banned. when put on trial he recants out of fear. continued his work of inertia and physics
pope Urban VIII
banned Galileo's book as heresy because it contradicted that the earth was the center of the universe. demanded galileo stand on trial. galileo recants out of fear
Francis Bacon
developed the scientific method
scientific method
-observation
-hypothesis
-experiment
-repetition
-theory/law
Rene Descartes
believed truth must be achieved through reason. saw math as a clear path to reason. published, "discourse on method". one truth: "I think, therefore I am."
Sir Isaac Newton
was a below average student, but it turns out that he was a genius. read copernicus and galileo and studied complicated mathemathics. discovered gravity when an apple fell on his head. Wrote 'Principia' and developed calculus. mathematical formulas= orderly universe
Vesalius
wrote 'structure of the human body'
Harvey
found that blood circulates pumped by the heart
hooke
discovered the cell, made the first microscope
Rembrandt
painted 'the anatomy lesson'
Boyle
1660s wrote 'the skeptical chemist' and disproved alchemy
priestly
discovered oxygen properties of CO2
Lavoisier (Antoine)
developed theories on combustion
Marie Lavoisier
Antoine's wife. translated, condensed, and illustrated works for and by her husband
Hobbes and Locke
explored ideas about natural law and human rights.
Hobbes
believed Human natural order is violence and chaos and needed absolute rulers. wrote 'Leviathan'. create contract= give up freedom in return for order. no right to rebel.
John Locke
Says people are moral, reasonable. they have natural rights to life, liberty, and property. the government must respect rights or people can revolt. Wrote 'treatises of government', the basis for the declaration of independence.
Hobbes's beliefs
people need absolute governments to prevent chaos and cannot revolt.
locke's beliefs
people enter contracts with the government and may overthrow any government that does not give them natural rights.
who influenced us more: hobbes or locke?
locke, because he set forth the view that government exists to preserve the natural rights of its citizens. when they fail, citizens have the right to rebel
absolutism
period of time when europe's monarchs got stronger
divine right theory
idea that god had chosen the monarch to rule. you question the monarch, you question god.
strengths of absolute monarchies
efficiency: decisions are made by one person
Nationalism: promoted common culture & identity
stability: ruler stays in power until death
wealth: no resistance= large and strong empire
weaknesses of absolute monarchies
undemocratic, individual rights are often violated, and there could be too much stability
monarchs gained power in two ways
raising taxes and waging war
philip II
married to mary tudor. king of spain. fought to expand and protect Catholicism. Made madrid the capital and castille the center, causing some unrest
Acheivements of philip II
persecuted jews, muslims, and protestants. went to war with the netherlands, and sent the spanish armada to england to defeat queen elizabeth. lost
deafeat fo the spanish armada
sent by philip II to destroy england. happened in 1588 AD. ended spain's domination of the sea, and allowed England to become stronger and explore the new world.
Spain's golden century
1600-1700s. gains land in the americas, political structure with king, and Renaissance ideas.
El Greco
spanish artist in the 1600-1700s, painted 'Christ carrying the cross
Miguel de Cervantes
wrote Don Quixote
Velazquez
spanish artist in the 1600-1700s. painted 'Las Maninas'
fall of the spanish empire
severe economic decline because of the cost of managing the colonies. overtaxed the middle class and war cost spain too much money
Charles II
physically and mentally weak, last of the Hapsburg rulers. no children, other nations plotted control
Bourbon dynasty
begins in 1589 with henry IV, and lasts until the 1800s
Henry IV
begins the bourbon dynasty in france, converted to Catholic, tolerant of protestants. wrote the edict of nantes. rebuilds roads and bridges. strengthens army, builds treasury. does this all without permission from the estates general, moving toward absolute power. killed and his 9 year old son takes throne
Edict of Nantes
Henry Iv's declaration of religious tolerance. allowed catholics and Huguenots to live in peace. allows france to focus on becoming stronger with no internal strife
Louis XIII
son of henry IV and becomes king at age nine
Maria de Medici
mother of louis XIII, regent
Cardinal Richelieu
becomes trusted advisor to Louis XIII and his mother. uses his power to strengthen king's position as absolute. moved against Huguenots and Protestants, political and economic restrictions. also weakened nobles and depended on the middle class. used intendants for local gov't
Louis XIV
most powerful Bourbon Monarch. called the sun king, invented the high heel to show off his calf. 72 year reign, longest in history of europe. ruled from the Palace of Versailles as he was afraid of Paris, because of the Fronde uprisings when he was a child. vowed to rule with power. weakened the nobles authority, excluded them from his council and attended them at the palace, didnt have to pay taxes. revoked the edict of nantes, forcing protestants to flee france and most of them went to america. patron of the arts and spents loads of money to prove france's wealth, power, and glory, also on the palace.
Jean Baptiste Colbert
gave tax benefits to companies. believer in merchantilism and self-sufficiency. poot pay most taxes.
The fronde
uprisings in paris when Louis XIV was a child. mobs controlled paris for a period of time.
War of the Spanish Succession
fought over the possible unification of france and spain under one ruler. France and Spain vs. England, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Netherlands. ended with the treaty of Utrecht.
treaty of Utrecht
thrones of spain and france remained separate. england gained a colony and greater access to the atlantic slave trade.
Positive legacy of Louis XIV
france is more powerful, leader in style (art, literature, fashion, furniture) military leader of europe
negative legacy of Louis XIV
deep debt, constant warfare and construction. unfair tax system leads to revolution.
Elizabeth I
not absolute monarch. protestant, 24, loved by people. cultural high point, strengthened navy and power (sea power), tried to strike a 'balance of power' in europe= diplomacy between france and spain. inherited debt (sold off lands, offices, titles) asked parliament for funds and to raise taxes but they refused. does not marry.
James Stuart
elizabeth's cousin becomes king. king james VI of scotland but King James I of england, rules both. strong but not well liked in england as he supported absolute power and divine right. offends the puritan members of parliament and fought over religion and money. creates the king james' bible
King Charles I
fights with Parliament, wanted money but each time they refused he dissolved parliament. martial law, demanded troops be "quartered" and forced "loans" from the wealthy. parliament forced him to sign the 'petition of right' which took power from the king. he did but ignored it. dissolves parliament again.
Charles I and Puritans
hates the puritans because they challenge his authority, so he persecutes them. thousands flee to america (great migration) but many stay and gain majority in parliament.
English civil war
1642-1649. war topples a king. parliament tries to limit the powers of King Charles I but starts a war instead. Royalists(Cavaliers) vs. Puritans (roundheads). Puritans win, try convict, and execute Charles I. never before had a monarch been tried and executed.
Commonwealth
oliver cromwell's rule. a republican government. suspended parliament and used military.
puritan Morality
sought the reform society. abolished sinful activities like sports and theater. religious toleration for all except catholics. crowell ruled until death and then the gov't collapsed
Charles II
restoration. restored the throne of england but its a constitutional monarchy. reformed the legal system. not absolute, ruled WITH parliament. called the merry monarch, ends oppression and patronized the arts. hoped for religious toleration but parliament restated the church of england as official church
James II
inherited the throne from his brother Charles II. offended many because he was catholic. doesnt work well with parliament. parliament was afraid of a long line of catholic kings, so they asked his daughter mary and her husband william to overthrow her father. william invaded and james fled. bloodless revolution known as the glorious revolution.
William and Mary
overthrew her father in the glorious revolution. all they had to do was attend meetings and act royally, but didnt have any actual duties. established a constitutional monarchy
Cabinet system develops
became the link between the king and parliament, advisers to the king. leader of the majority party heads the cabinet (prime minister)
Bill of rights
William and Mary established a constitutional monarchy. Limits on royal power increased. Establishment of the English Bill of Rights
English bill of rights
ruler cannot: suspend parliament, levy taxes without permission, interfere with freedom of speech, penalize a citizen who criticizes the king, or oder excessive bail.
act of settlement
no catholic can ever rule england
act of union
scotland and england are ruled by one monarch. new name is great britain.
heliocentric
sun-centered
geocentric
earth-centered
1626
Francis Bacon uses snow in experiments to refrigerate chickens
1642
Blaise Pascal invents a mechanical calculator capable of addition and subtraction
1645
Otto von Guericke perfects the air pump
1650
Pascal invents the mercury barometer
1656
Christian Huygens develops the first accurate pendulum clock
1660
Anton van Leeuwenhoek discovers microscopic protozoa
1608
Galileo improves the design of Dutch telescopes to obtain three power magnification
1609
Hans Lippershey and Zacharias Janssen invent the compound microscope
1619
William Harvey accurately traces the circulation of the blood
Who first provided mathematical formulas to support the Copernican theory and explain planetary motion?
Johannes Kepler
Name 3 effects of the Enlightenment on European society.
- philosophes created great demand for reading material all over Europe.
- religious books were printed less as the variety of books began to grow
- open criticism of the government began to take place in printed materials
Name 3 significances to the Scientific Revolution.
- development of the scientific method
- revolution in the intellectual thinking of that time
- printing more writings based totally on scientific thought
Name 3 characteristics of the Enlightenment.
- using science and reason to help humanity improve itself.
- applying the scientific method to all areas of life
- thinking about issues in a rational, scientific manner
Who was responsible for the idea that all humans were born with a blank slate?
John Locke
Who wrote Principia defining the 3 laws of motion?
Isaac Newton
Who is considered the "Father of Modern Rationalism"?
Rene Descarte
Who was the French nobleman who found a way to kill harmful bacteria with heat in the 1880s?
Louis Pasteur
Name 3 ideas that John Locke supported.
- natural rights philosophy
- everyone has the right to life, liberty and property
- people are born with a blank slate
The Enlightenment period was rooted in ___________________ and _____________________.
reason and science
List 3 characteristics of the Enlightenment period.
- rationalism
- tolerance
- freedom
What was the primary interest of Enlightenment writers?
changing the relationship between people and their government
What is a similarity of the work of scientists and philosophers during the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment?
they both examined the natural laws governing the universe
Who said the best government was achieved by separation of powers?
Montesquieu
What religion believes in the existence of God but the denial of religion?
Deism
The recognized capital of the Enlightenment was _________________, France.
Paris
What was the attempt by monarchs to integrate Enlightenment ideas into their governing while maintaining their royal powers called?
Enlightened Absolutism
Whose theories brought him into trouble with the Catholic Church and had to go to trial when he was 68 years old?
Galileo
The ________________________ allowed scholars to gain new scientific knowledge.
scientific method
What was the name of Denis Diderot's famous work?
the Encyclopedia
During the Middle Ages (before the Scientific Revolution) the traditional authorities on knowledge were _______________ and _____________.
The Catholic Church and ancient scholars
List the 5 steps of the Scientific Method.
- Identify a problem
- form a hypothesis that can be tested
- perform experiments to test the hypothesis
- record the results of the experiments
- form a conclusion
What was the famous quote from French philosopher Voltaire concerning freedom of speech?
"I disapprove of what you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it"
Who is credited with introducing inductive reasoning?
Rene Descartes
Who said "I think, therefore I am"?
Rene Descartes
Who wrote a law on gas?
Robert Boyle
Who found that there was only one kind of blood circulates through the body continuously?
William Harvey
How many laws of motion did Newton explain?
3
What type of math did Newton come up with in only 18 months?
Calculus
Who believed that people are born with equal natural rights and that the government should protect those rights?
Locke
Locke and Rousseau would probably like to see all countries have a government where the _____________________ choose their leader.
people
Philosophes of the Enlightenment believed that government decisions should be based on __________________and _____________.
laws of nature and reason
Who said that planets have an orbit that is (elliptical) egg-shaped rather than circular?
Kepler
What areas of the world were locations of major conflict during the Seven Year's War?
Europe, India and North America
What similarity can be stated about the work of both Enlightenment Philosophers and thinkers during the Scientific Revolution?
they examined natural laws governing the universe
Who was the ancient thinker that constructed a geocentric model of the universe in the 2nd century?
Ptolemy
Who was the most famous woman astronomer who was denied a job at the Berlin Academy because she was a woman?
Maria Winkelmann
Johann gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
Flanders
became the center of trade for northern Europe (it's now part of Belgium) and was known for its woolen cloth
Albert durer
one of the first Northern artists to be profoundly affected by Renaissance Italy. Became a pioneer in spreading Renaissance ideas to Northern Europe. Nicknamed "Leonardo of the North".
Engraving
a print made from an engraving
Vernacular
the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)
Erasmus
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe
the Anglican church
paved the way for protestant reformation in england
printmaking
artistic design and manufacture of prints as woodcuts or silkscreens
woodcut
engraving consisting of a block of wood with a design cut into it
engraving
making engraved or etched plates and printing designs from them
durer
a leading German painter and engraver of the Renaissance (1471-1528)
devotio moderna
(= "The Modern Devotion"). A late medieval movement of those committed to living a holy life without becoming a monk or nun.
protestant reform
October 1517- Martin Luther a Catholic priest posted his 95 these(list of complaints about the Catholic Church) that led to its division
imitatio
In The Courtier, the doctrine of imitation. You read books for examples to model yourself after - reading becomes a form of self-improvement. We attempt to emulate the heroic deeds we read about. The purpose of education is to perfect our performances.Echoes Cicero's doctrine of living life to get esteem.
everyman
the most famous morality play; contains many allegorical characters encountered by everyman as he seeks a companion for his reckoning with God
grunewald
German painter who ignored classicism and painted expressively and intensely
erasmus:the praise of folly
considered one of the most notable works of the renaissance, In this book it contains greek ideals and writing techniques which features Greco-roman styles of the Renaissance
more's utopia
Communist: w/o private property, all people working
--Different than Marx communism
-Short work period for everyone: 6 hours a day
-Everyone eats together
-Houses are open for everyone: Rude if not to join
-No beer/wine
-Gernalizaed education/virtue
-Pacifist society-defense, no conquest
- taking care of peopl who do not feel incentives
Guttenberg Bible
the publication of this book in 1452 began an era of mass produced written works including pamphlets, pornography, and propaganda.
the Peasant's Revolt
called for an end to serfdom and demanded other changes. However, Luther didn't support the peasants as they'd wished. Luther favored social order and respect for political authority. As the revolt grew Luther sided with the nobles, killing 10,000's of peasants and leaving many homeless.
don quixote
The main character in Miguel de Cervantes' book about the changing times in the early 1600's. He was a man who did not like how the Middle Ages were ending and people were becoming more materialistic, so he set of to become a knight and bring back chivalry to Spain
Giotto
"Father of Renaissance Painting"
• More realistic figures.
• Tried to add 3 dimension to paintings
• Frescoes (painting on wet plaster)
• Perspectives (3 dimensions on flat
surface)
Masaccio
• Created sense of life and action depth and feeling.
• Shading—created 3 dimensional look
• This allowed him to display human figures Realistically.
Botticelli
• 15th century
• Adds another piece—Movement
• Flowing hair, wisping garments
• Early paintings very humanistic
• Later he became Savonarola's (monk)
convert and his painting became more
religious and moral.
Leonardo da Vinci
• Sculptor, architect, painter, musician, poet
—studied anatomy, botany, geology,
astronomy, engineering and mathematics!
• True example of a "Renaissance man."
True example of "Renaissance Man."
• High Renaissance Painter
Raphael
• Most famous for Madonna faces—
idealized motherhood
• Sought to express peace and joy rather
than strain and anguish
• "School of Athens" balance, harmony,
perspective
High Renaissance Painter
Michelangelo
• Gifted in sculpting
• Lived with the Medici in Florence.
• Commissioned by Pope to
paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling
• (4 year on his back!)
High Renaissance Painter
Venice, N. Italy
• Leading center of culture
• One of the strongest merchant powers = $
• "Queen of the Adriatic"
• Very materialistic.
• Secular and sensuous city
• Bling, bling reflected in much of the art!
Titian
• Vivid Colours
• Captured vitality and warmth often missing
in southern Italy
• Paintings expressed personality
not just appearance
• One of the few to grow wealthy off his
work
Venetian Painter
Tintoretto
• Last of the venetian painters
• Sought to combine the bright
colors of Titian with the masterful drawing
of Michelangelo
• Excitement, tension and action
Venetian Painters
Durer
• German artist
• "Leonardo of the North"
• Loved classical and religous themes
• Though a celebrated painter, he is know for
his woodcarving and engravings—illustrated
printed books
• 1st artist to sign insignificant drawings
(A strattling a D)
Northern European Artist
Holbein
• German painter
• Known for his portraits
• Became the official court painter of Henery the VIII
• Painted famous N. Renaissance figures— Sir Thomas More and Eradmus
Northern European Artists
Van Eyck
• Flemish school
• Early career: Illustrated manuscripts—
required attention to detail
• One of the first to use Oil Paintings
• This allowed him to achieve greater
realism in his paintings
Northern European Artists
Brueghel
• Took 15th century Flemish realism to the next leavel
to the next level
• "Genre painting"—depicts
scenes from everyday life
• Peasants in daily activities
• Biblical events depicted in Flanders, Ger.
Northern European Artists
Music
• "plainsong" Gregorian chant
• Song during Middle Ages
• Not to appeal to the emotions or senses, but to the spirit
• Renaissance music—more secular
• Played in palaces and middle class homes
• Funded by patrons, not only Catholic Church
• Printed music—rapid spread, ordinary people could play
• More music composed and performed than previous
periods of history!
• Lute—pear shaped guitar—most popular
Josquin Depres
• Flemish composer
• Sacred and secular
• Best known for: masses (music sung duringchurch service), hymns, and 100s of MOTETs
• Motet—unaccompanied Latin songs thatcombined diff. melodies and words w/ aplainsong melody.
• Chansons—light-hearted secular songs
Palestrina
• Italian composer
• Composed more than 900 pieces
• Simplified the complexity of church music (hard
to understand what choir was singing)
• Mastered "polyphonic"—consists of many
melodies
• Composed polyphonic music for choirs to sing
without accompaniment
Positive Consequences
• Developed movable type
printing
n• Education more
n• Stressed importance of
individual—leads to
emphasis on personal responsibility to God and
man
THAT IS NOT ALL LOOK, IN YO' NOTES FOO'
Negative Consequences
• Glory of antiquity
obscured
• Man empowered apart
from God
THAT IS NOT ALL LOOK, IN YO' NOTES FOO'
How did Humanism challenge the medieval paradigm? (4 ways)
Education, Language, Philosophy, Perception of History
Who was the "prince of language?"
Cicero
Medici played an important role during the time of Humanism in the Renaissance by--
being to major proprietor of the movement; he did this because he wanted to remove the pope's power.
____________ wrote concerning character.
Vergio
How did Humanism change the perspective of History?
It removed God from it; got FACTS from both sides.
Who is the "Father of Humanism"?
Patriarch
Erasmus is called the __________ __ _____________.
"Prince of Humanists"
"Christ is my Lord, Cicero is the Prince of Language" is a quote from--
Patriarch
Valla wrote--
"Elegances of Latin Language" ; "Liberal arts are worthy of a free man"
Bruni wrote which two books?
"New Cicero" and "History of the Florentine People"
Bruni is important because--
he rediscovered Greek and original documents.
Who raided monastery libraries?
Patriarch
Valla disproved the _____________ __ ___________, which helped to remove some of the popes credibility.
Donation of Constantine
Neoplatonism was the philosophy that stated--
that you are born with knowledge; spiritual love
Hermeticism was the philosophy that stated--
God is in all things
Mirandola wrote what book on Hermeticism?
"Oration on the Dignity of Man"
"Corpus Hermeticism" was written by--
Ficino
Feltre created the first--
humanist school
"History of Italy" and "History of Florence" were both written by--
Guicciardini
Gucciardini began--
"modern analytical histograph"
"Utopia" was written by--
Thomas Moore
_______ was used to criticize the English government.
"Utopia"
"Praise of Folly" was used to --
make fun of the church
"Praise of Folly" was written by ________ and it began _____ Humanism.
Erasmus; Christian
Rabelias wrote _______________ and __________.
"Gargantua"; "Pantagreul"
"Julius Excluded from Heaven" was written by--
Erasmus
Define Civic Humanism.
Humanists are involved in politics to reform.
Define Christian Humanism.
Humanists believe in the philosophy of God.
A large-scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra, usually set to a narrative biblical text, is called
oratorio
A ________ is a singer with a low range who usually takes comic roles.
basso buffo
A popular keyboard instrument in which sound was produced by means of brass blades striking the strings was the
clavichord
The _______ is a Lutheran congregational hymn tune.
chorale
In Italy, music schools were often connected with
orphanages
Baroque trio sonatas usually involve ________ performers.
four
The main theme of a fugue is called the
subject
An _________ is a play, set to music, sung to orchestral accompaniment, with scenery, costumes, and action.
opera
The _____________ in an oratorio is especially important and serves either to comment on or to participate in the drama.
chorus
A baroque musical composition usually expresses ___________ within the same movement.
one basic mood
Bach's personal musical style was drawn from
all of the above
Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 is unusual in that
it gives a solo role to the harpsichord
The large group of players in a concerto grosso is known as the
tutti
A typical baroque operatic form was the da capo aria in ABA form in which the singer
was expected to embellish the returning melody with ornamental tones
An ___________ is an orchestral composition performed before the curtain rises on a dramatic work.
overture
Some indication of the acclaim and respect given Henry Purcell by his fellow Englishmen can be seen from the fact that he is buried in
Westminster Abbey
Bach was recognized as the most eminent ___________ of his day.
organist
In the baroque period, the ordinary citizen's opportunities for hearing music usually came from the
church
Congregational singing of chorales was an important way for people to
participate directly in the service
The focus of a Handel oratorio is usually the
chorus
A common variation form in the baroque is based on the use of a ground bass, or
basso ostinato
Sets of dance-inspired instrumental movements are called
suites
An operatic song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment is called
aria
A polyphonic composition based on one main theme, a cornerstone of baroque music, is the
fugue
During the middle baroque, the church modes gave way to
major and minor scales
The main keyboard instruments of the baroque period were the organ and the
harpsichord
Vivaldi spent most of his life working at an institution for orphaned and illegitimate girls in
Venice
A sung piece, or choral work with or without vocal soloists, usually with orchestral accompaniment, is the
cantata
A bass part together with numbers (figures) that specify the chords to be played above it, characteristic of the baroque, is called
basso continuo
Very often an independent fugue is introduced by a short piece called a(n)
prelude
In the baroque era, dynamics consisted mainly of sudden alterations between loud and soft called
terraced dynamics
The early and late baroque periods differed in the composers in early baroque
favored homophonic texture
The _________ is the person who beats time, indicates expression, cues in musicians, and controls the balance among instruments and voices.
conductor
Instrumental music became as important as vocal music for the first time in the ___________ period.
late baroque
The Concerto Grosso is based on the baroque's basic principle of the contrast between
loud and soft
A section that sounds fairly complete and independent but is part of a larger composition is called a
movement
The text, or book, of a musical dramatic work is called the
libretto
One of the most revolutionary periods in music history was the
early baroque
Castrati
all of the above
Affections in baroque usage refers to
emotional states or moods of music
__________ refers to a vocal line that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech.
recitative
A collection of compositions that displays all the resources of fugue writing is Johann Sebastian Bach's
Art of the Fugue
Handel's oratorios are usually based on
the Old Testament
Although Handel wrote a great deal of instrumental music, the core of his huge output consists of English oratorios and Italian
operas
The first and last movements of the concerto grosso are often in ________ form.
ritornello
The position of the composer during the baroque period was that of
a high-class servant with few personal rights
Baroque melodies often are
elaborate and ornamental
Presenting the subject of a fugue going from right to left, or beginning with the last and proceeding backward to the first note, is called
retrograde
The sonata in the baroque period was a composition in several movements for
one to eight instruments
One of the most important composers of the early baroque, writing his last opera at the age of 75, was
Claudio Monteverdi
Nuclear Family
Your house family. People like your mother, father, sister and brother.
Capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
Traditional Economy
economy based on farming and bartering
Direct Democracy
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
Oligarchy
form of government in which a few people have the power
The Elements of Culture
social organization, customs and traditions, language, arts and literature, religion, forms of government, economic systems
Aristocracy
a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
Secular
worldly
Machiavelli
Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means."
Leonardo DaVinci
1452-1519, The true Renaissance man, a painter, engineer, scientist, inventor and sculptor. Most famous for the Mona Lisa and his great facial expressions.
Shogun
the supreme military commander of Japan
Sultan
the supreme ruler in a political and military sense
Safavid
16th century rulers whom of which were ardent Shiites. It was founded by Shah Ismail, A dynasty that ruled in Persia (Iran and parts of Iraq) and had a mixed culture of the Persians, Ottomans and Arabs
Mogul
a member of the Muslim dynasty that ruled India until 1857
Age of Enlightenment
Eighteenth-century period of scientific and philosophical innovation in which people investigated human nature and sought to explain reality through rationalism, the notion that truth comes only through rational, logical thinking. This period formed the basis of modern science.
The Age of Reason
also called the Enlightenment-changed history and created the beginnings of the modern world we live in today. It brought revolutions in science, math, and government.
The Age of Absolute Monarchs
The age of rulers whom of which had complete authority over the government and over the lives of the people.
The Reformation
the movement which sought to reform certain corrupt practices of the Catholic Church and which led to Protestantism
Martin Luther
Wrote the 95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
95 Thesis
written by Martin Luther in 1517, they are widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. Luther used these theses to display his displeasure with some of the Church's clergy's abuses, most notably the sale of indulgences; this ultimately gave birth to Protestantism.
Lutheranism
the religious doctrine that Martin Luther developed; it differed from Catholicismin the doctrine of salvation, which Luther believed could be achieved by faith alone, not by good works; Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith
Henry VIII
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Church of England
Also known as the Anglican Church. The church that King Henry VIII of England creates so that he can marry and divorce as he pleases
Anglican Church
church that King Henry VIII of England creates so that he can marry and divorce as he pleases
Philosopher
People that came chiefly from nobility, and the middle class. They were also known as the intellects of the Renaissance.
Social Contract
Agreement among all the people in a society to give up part of their freedom to a government in exchange for protection of natural rights. John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were two European political philosophers who wrote about this concept.
Guttenburg Bible
Bible printed by Johanne Gutenburg
Cosimo de Medici
in 1443 he took control of the city. the Medici family ran the government from behind the scenes. using their wealth and personal influence, cosimo and later his son until the late 1400's when the Savonarola took over.
First Estate of France
Made up of the religious leaders who were in charge of the Church. While these individuals made up only 1% of the total population, they controlled almost 10% of the land in France. This land brought them a great deal of wealth from the products produced on it, and in the form of rent from peasants.
Second Estate of France
Made up of the nobility. These nobles lived on manors which they had inherited. The second estate consisted of about 2% of the total population, and owned about 25% of the total land in France.
Third Estate of France
By far the largest social group in France. Making up nearly 97% of the population. Members of this estate had few rights, and little political power.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
French constitution patterned after the United States Constitution. Rights which include natural rights, religion, speech, property.
Primary Source
text that tells a first-hand account of an event; original works used when researching (letters, journals)
Secondary Source
Text and/or artifacts that are not original, but written from something original.
Ethnocentrism
belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
Cartographer
person who makes maps
Five Themes of Geography
Location, Place, Regions, Movement, Human-Environment Interaction
Socialism
an economic system based on state ownership of capital
Market Economy
an economic system based on free enterprise, in which businesses are privately owned, and production and prices are determined by supply and demand
Republic
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Refugee
person who flees to another country to escape persecution or disaster
Anarchy
absence of governing body; state of disorder
Autocracy
a political system governed by a single individual
Confucianism
the system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
Raphael
student of Michelangelo, made the school of Athens, and the Madonna and child series. Used pudginess to show that people aren't as perfect as they thought.
Michelangelo
an Italian painter, sculptor, and architect of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Among many achievements in a life of nearly ninety years, Michelangelo sculpted the David and several versions of the Pietà, painted the ceiling and rear wall of the Sistine Chapel, and served as one of the architects of Saint Peter's Basilica, designing its famous dome. He is considered one of the greatest artists of all time.
Daimyo
a Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
Mongols
Pastoral people from the region of modern day Mongolia who were organized loosely into clans
Ottoman Empire
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453-1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
Steppe
treeless plains, especially the high, flat expanses of northern Eurasia, which usually have little rain and are covered with coarse grass. They are good lands for nomads and their herds. Good for breeding horses: essential to mongol military. (326)
Magna Carta
this document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights
Thomas Hobbs
this was the philosopher that believed that a strong central government was needed to avoid rebellion and civil war. He also believed that human nature was brutal and corrupt. He wrote the levithion and argued the state of nature. He believed that sovergnity resided with the state and not in the hands of the monarch.
The Middle Passage
the long journey that slaves from Africa had to take to the Americas, when many of them were crammed together, and chained in the bowels of slave ships and supplied with little food and water.
John Calvin
1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.
Calvinism
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
Separation of Powers
the principle by which the powers of government are divided among separate branches
Vernacular
the everyday speech of a particular country or region, often involving nonstandard usage
Jesuits
members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe. (p. 548)
Absolutism
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Culture
refers to the following Ways of Life, including but not limited to language, arts, sciences, thoughts, spirituality, social activity, interaction
Imperialism
the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies
Demographer
one who studies the characteristics of populations and analyzes data such as numbers, births, deaths, diseases, and other vital statistics
Monarchy
rule by a single person
Renaissance
rebirth of antiquity
Sistine Chapel
the church in the Vatican where Michaelangelo painted the ceiling
Peter the Great
became the ruler of Russia and known for westernzing the country in order to be successful. He made Russia come out of their isolation and created the first navy. He soon moved his capital to St. Petersburg, where he expanded the size of Russia.
Buddhism
religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha; taught that the way to find truth was to give up all desires
Tiananmen Square
is the large plaza near the center of Beijing, China, named after the Tiananmen (literally, Gate of Heavenly Peace) which sits to its north, separating it from the Forbidden City. It has great cultural significance as it was the site of several key events in Chinese history.
Golden Age of Muslim
or the Islamic Renaissance, It is traditionally dated from the 8th to 13th centuries A.D.,[2][3] but has been extended to at least the 15th century by recent scholarship.[4] During this period, artists, engineers, scholars, poets, philosophers, geographers and traders in the Islamic world contributed to agriculture, the arts, economics, industry, law, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, sociology, and technology, both by preserving earlier traditions and by adding inventions and innovations of their own.
European Age of Exploration
The term "Age of Exploration" refers to the timeperioid when people from Europe explored the world from the 1400's-1700's
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property. He argued that every person was born with a tubula rasa or blank mind and that people were molded by their experiences
Scientific Revolution
an era between 16th and 18th centuries which gave Europeans a new way to view humankind's place in the universe
Mecca
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
Divine Right of Kings
the belief that the authority of kings comes directly from God
Rationalism
(philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience
Enlightened Absolutism
system in which rulers tried to govern by enlightenment principles while maintaining their full royal powers
Council of Trent
in march, 1545, a group of cardinals, archbishops, bishops, abbots, and theologians met in Trent to create this council which lasted for 18 years of meeting on and off
Mandate of Heaven
belief of Chinese emperors that they ruled because the gods wanted them to rule
The French Estates
Nowhere was the divide between the wealthy and poor greater, than in France. The French Aristocracy were among the wealthiest individuals in all of Europe. They controlled vast tracts of land, huge amounts of money, and had power that was unchecked by a parliament as in Great Britain.
Impressionist Artists
Monet - Impression, Sunrise
Auguste Renoir - Le Moulin de La Galette
Pissarro - The Red Roofs
Social Realism
Real life - often, the unattractive
Use of earth tones;
Sympathetic to Marxism/socialism
Post-Impressionism
Response by French painters to the trend toward formlessness
Classical Response (Post Impressionism)
form, structure, harmony, balance
EX:Seurat - use basic geometric shapes, emphasize color, pointillism
Ex: Eiffel Tower
Cezanne - optical tricks with color, distortion, geometric form - move toward the abstract.
Ex: Mont St. Victoire
Romantic Response
personal, individual, humanitarian, intense, emotional
EX:Van Gogh: downtrodden, gloomy, poor, emphasis on color and movement
Ex: Starry Night
Gaugin - Primitivism - uses pure color, objects reduced to basic outlines, symbolism and distortions
Ex: Dead Watching
Two types of Post Impressionism
Classical and Romantic
Expressionism
Late 19th and early 20th century
Begins in Northern Europe and moves Southward
Response to:
Scientism
Urbanism
Industrialism
Freudian Psychology
Themes of Expressionism
Hopelessness, isolation, violation, spiritual loneliness, vulnerability. Shows the inner-man
Expressionist Artists
Edvard Munch - Norwegian
Ex: The Scream
Matisse - French. Uses color as the subject
Ex: The Green Line
Germans:
Die Brucke - tried to bridge new & old
Der Blaue Reiter - shows new ideas, intensity, emotions, shocking aspects, nightmarish and Freudian dreams
Ex: Franz Marc - Blue Horses
Ex: Kandinsky - Improvisation
Cubism
Emphasis on geometric shapes
Abstract
Recognizable human disappears
Father of Cubism
Picasso
Key artist in Cubism
Braque
Causes of World War I
Nationalism, Materialism, Imperialism
Two new nations in Pre-WWI
Italy(1861) and Germany (1871)
Germany contributed to the start of the war because
Bismarck helps unify Germany:
Upset balance of power in Europe
War with Austria
War with France
Alsace-Lorraine Taken
3 Emperor's League Alliance (1871)
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia
Dual Alliance vs. Russia (1879-1918)
Germany, Austria-Hungary
Triple Alliance (1882-1914)
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Goal of Alliance Systems
Isolate France (had no ally 1871-1892),to secure Bosnia and Herzogovina for Austria (Bosnian and Serbian resentment lead to assassination,in 1914 Russia moves in to aid Slavic brothers)
Results of Alliances
Competition & Greed - Imperialism
Arms race between Britain & Germany - Militarism
France wants Alsace Lorraine - Revenge
Nations in Competition
Suspicion & Secrecy
Fear
Russia Aware of Secret Alliances - Revenge
Triple Alliance(1882)
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy 1915 (later Turkey)
Triple Entente(1907)
Rival of Triple Alliance; France, Russia, Britain, USA and Italy later
Final events leading up to the war(August 1914)
Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated by Serbian terrorist, Russia moves in to aid Serbia/Bosnia, Germany and Austria face the Triple Entente, World War I begins
Final Outcome of World War I
Treaty of Versailles
Germany punished
Deep resentment by:
France-main battle area
Germany disarmed
Hitler & Rearmament
Rhineland, Austria & Czechoslovakia
Communism in Russia
Appeasement
WORLD WAR II
Outcomes in the Middle East
As a result of Ottoman (Turkish) defeat the whole Middle East was no longer under the Ottoman empire.
The League of Nations divided up the territories among the victors - France and England - so as to prepare the area for democratic self-government.
England was given the mandate to rule Palestine and prepare it for a Jewish homeland - the area which was divided into Israel and Jordan in 1948.
This is the basis for today's crisis in the Middle East.
Early Modernism characteristics(1871-1914)
Tranquility - appears so with no wars
Rampant nationalism
Militarism & Imperialism
Modern life - rejected Greco-Roman and Judeo-Christian legacies
The 3 phases of modernism (100 years)
Phase 1 - 1870-1914, phase 2 - 1914-45 and phase 3 - 1945-1970
How Europe rose to World Leadership
The Second Industrial Revolution, new technologies, and the making of modern life
Great Britain faced competition from Germany & USA
Science provides manufacturing progress & products
New forms of energy - oil & electricity
New technology
Enter a new age of power and speed
Technology of Modernism Period
Wireless and Telephone
National/international postal services
Typewriters, tabulators, presses (newspapers)
Transportation
Refrigeration
Advertising
New recreations - bicycles, resorts, music halls
Urban expansion = growth in slums & welfare
Labor unions and strikes
Secular Public Education
Status of women changes - teachers, nurses, clerks, and training and eventually the vote
Response to industrialism
politics and crisis
Domestic policies in the industrialized West
Germany, France, Great Britain & the USA had domestic problems
Germany & Bismarck & the new nation
France - problems between socialists and conservatives
Britain - Labor and Conservative issues
USA - challenges Britain's industrial supremacy
Large immigrant migrations - provide labor
Domestic policies in central, southern, and eastern Europe
Italy - north becomes industrialized & moves ahead of the south which remains semi-feudal
Austro-Hungary - ethnic unrest while Vienna becomes the "glittering symbol of modernism"
Russia - sluggish agrarian economy and inefficient bureaucracy and violent revolutionaries. Alexander II assassinated in 1881 and Russia loses a war to Japan in 1905 which leads to great dissent and eventually the Russian Revolution under Lenin in 1917.
What was considered the "most preeminent Italian city-state" in the fifteenth century?
Florence
What industries was the Medici family members heavily involved, resulting in their becoming the most powerful family in Florentine affairs form 1418 until 1494?
Bankers industry
What produced the winning design for the dome of Florence Cathedral?
Brunelleshi
How many times does the Apostle Peter appear in Masaccio's The Tribute Money?
3
In exchange for heading the drive to rebuild the Florence's Church of San Lorenzo, what concession did the Medici family receive?
Family crest would appear in the church
Who is credited for having coined the term " Platonic love"?
Ficino
Who served as court painter to Ludovico Gonzaga in Mantua, where he created the camera picta?
Mantegna
Where is Leonardo de Vinci's The last supper?
Dominican Monistary
Which of the following artists did the city of Florence commission to create a freestanding statue of the Biblical hero David using a huge cracked block of marble that all other sculptors had abandoned?
Michael Angelo
The chapter's "Continuity and Change" section mentions that Pope Julian II summoned Michelangelo to Rome to work on a project very dear to the pope. Which projects did Julian II intend for Michelangelo to address?
Creating the tomb for pope Julian II
The chapters"Continuity and Change" section mentions that Pope Leo X (son of Lorenzo de' Medici and successor to Pope Julian II) interrupted work on Pope Julian Medici family. To which city did Pope Leo X send Michelangelo?
Florence
What was considered the "most preeminent Italian city-state" in the fifteenth century?
Florence
What industries was the Medici family members heavily involved, resulting in their becoming the most powerful family in Florentine affairs form 1418 until 1494?
Bankers industry
What produced the winning design for the dome of Florence Cathedral?
Brunelleshi
How many times does the Apostle Peter appear in Masaccio's The Tribute Money?
3
In exchange for heading the drive to rebuild the Florence's Church of San Lorenzo, what concession did the Medici family receive?
Family crest would appear in the church
Who is credited for having coined the term " Platonic love"?
Ficino
Who served as court painter to Ludovico Gonzaga in Mantua, where he created the camera picta?
Mantegna
Where is Leonardo de Vinci's The last supper?
Dominican Monistary
Which of the following artists did the city of Florence commission to create a freestanding statue of the Biblical hero David using a huge cracked block of marble that all other sculptors had abandoned?
Michael Angelo
The chapter's "Continuity and Change" section mentions that Pope Julian II summoned Michelangelo to Rome to work on a project very dear to the pope. Which projects did Julian II intend for Michelangelo to address?
Creating the tomb for pope Julian II
The chapters"Continuity and Change" section mentions that Pope Leo X (son of Lorenzo de' Medici and successor to Pope Julian II) interrupted work on Pope Julian Medici family. To which city did Pope Leo X send Michelangelo?
Florence
Renaissance
A movement that started in Italy caused an explosion of creativity in art, writing, and thought that lasted approximately from 1300-1600. The term means "rebirth"
city-states
a city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit
Medici Family
Florence came under the rule of one powerful banking family. Their bank had branch offices throughout Italy and in the major cities of Europe.
Cosimo Medici
The wealthiest European of his time. In 1434, he won control of Florence's government. He did not seek political office for himself, but influenced members of the ruling council by giving them loans. For 30 years, he was dictator of Florence. He died in 1464.
Lorenzo Medici
Cosimo Medici's grandson that came to power in 1469. He is know as "____ the Magnificent." He ruled as a dictator yet kept up the appearance of having an elected government.
Greco-Roman culture
an ancient culture that developed from a blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman culture.
humanism
The study of classical texts led to this, an intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements.They wanted to study art by themselves so they could really learn about the artist. Instead of trying to make classical texts agree with Christian teaching as medieval scholars had, humanists studied them to understand ancient Greek values.
humanities
humanists popularized the study of subject common to classical education, such as history, literature, and philosophy.
secular
worldly rather than spiritual and concerned with the here and now.
patrons
a person who supports artists, especially financially
"universal man"
Renaissance writers introduced the idea that all educated people were expected to create art. In fact, the ideal individual strove to master almost every area of study. A man who excelled in many fields was praised as this. Later ages called such people "Renaissance men."
Isabella d'Este
The daughter of Ferrara. She had some power, ad she brought artists to her court. At 16, she married the ruler of Mantua (city-state), Francesco Gonzaga. She had 3 sons and 3 daughters. When her husband was captured, she became the ruler. She was surrounded by artists and writers when she was younger. She knew a lot about classical art. Leonardo and Castiglion taught her. She was painted by Venicia and Titian.
perspective
Renaissance painters used a technique which shows three dimensions on a flat surface.
frescos
Water based paints on wet plaster
Raphael Sanzio
1483-1520
He was an Italian painter and architect. He was celebrated/praised for the perfection and grace of his paintings and drawings. He ran an unusually large workshop despite his death at age 37. His most famous work is "The School of Athens"
Leonardo da Vinci
1452-1519
An Italian painter sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. He is described as another archetype "Renaissance Man." He was educated by renowned Florentine painter Verrocchio. He worked in Rome, Bologna, and Venice. His most famous paintings- Mona Lisa and the Last Supper. He conceptualized a helicopter, tank, and a calculator. His political contemporary was Lorenzo de Medici
Donatello di Niccolo di Bettto Bardi
1386-1466
He was a famous early in the Renaissance as an artist and sculptor in Florence. He is best known for his work in bas-relief a form of shallow relief sculpture. His major work in Florence happened around 1430 when Cosimo de' Medici commissioned him to create a bronze David for the court of his Palazzo Medici. It was the first major work of Renaissance sculpture.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarrti Simoni
1475- 1564
An Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet, and engineer. He is considered a contender for the archetypal "Renaissance Man." He knew a lot about a lot of things! One of his famous works is the Sistine Chapel inside the Basilica of St. Peter in Vatican City. Another famous artwork is the Madonna and Child sculpture
vernacular
The original (native) language
Francesco Petrarch
He was one of the earliest and most influential humanists. Some have called him the father of Renaissance humanism. He was also a great poet. He wrote both in Italian and in Latin.
Giovanni Boccaccio
An Italian writer that is best known for the "Decameron," a series of realistic, sometimes off-colored stories. The stories are supposedly told by a group of worldly young people waiting in a rural villa to avoid the plague sweeping through Florence. The "Decameron" presents both tragic and comic views of life. The author uses cutting humor to illustrate the human condition. He presents his characters in all of their individuality and all their folly.
Niccolo Machiavelli
He wrote "The Prince," which examines the imperfect conduct of human beings. It does so by taking the form of a political guidebook. He examines how a ruler can gain power and keep it in spite of his enemies. He believes a prince must be strong as a lion and shrewd as a fox. He argued that in the real world of power and politics a prince must sometimes mislead the people and lie to his opponents.
Victtoria Colonna
She was born of a noble family. In 1509, she married the Marquis of Pescara (he spent most of his life away from home on military campaigns). She exchanged sonnets with Michelangelo and helped Castiglione publish "The Courtier." Her own poems express personal emotions.
Fontainebleu
Francis I of France invited Leonardo da Vinci to retire in France, and hired Italian artists and architects to rebuild and decorate his castle named what? The castle became a showcase for Renaissance art.
utopia
Thomas more tried to show a better model of society. IN 1516, he wrote a book. IN Greek, it means "no place."
Christine de Pizan
She was a highly educated woman for the time and was one of the first women to earn a living as a writer. Writing in French, she produced many books, including short stories, biographies, novels, and manuals on military techniques. She frequently wrote about the objections men had to educating women. One book she wrote was "The Book of the City of Ladies." She was one of the first European writers to question different treatment of boys and girls.
Elizabethan Age
The Renaissance spread to England in the mid-1500s. This period was named about Queen Elizabeth.
Johann Gutenberg
Around 1440, a craftsman from Mainz, Germany developed a printing press that incorporated a number of technologies in a new way. The process made it possible to produce books quickly and cheaply. He was able to print a complete Bible.
Europe suffered from both war and plague. Those who survived celebrated life. It caused an explosion of creativity in art, writing, and thought.
Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?
Florence, Milan,
Name the 3 leading cities of the Italian Renaissance.
the artists and scholars of Italy drew inspiration from the ruins of Rome
western scholars studied ancient Latin manuscript
Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manuscripts
Renaissance scholars turned away from the art and culture of the Middle Ages. How were they able to return to the Greco-Roman culture?
wealthy women were patrons of artists
Describe the Renaissance woman.
Wittenberg
Martin Luther, a monk and teacher, went to this University in the German state of Saxony.
John Tetzel
Martin Luther was against the actions of this friar. He was raising money to rebuild St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome. He was selling indulgences. He gave people the impression that by buying indulgences, they could buy their way into heaven.
95 Theses
Formal statements written by Martin Luther, attacking the "pardon-merchants." He posted these statements on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg and invited other scholars to debate him.
Indulgences
A pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin.
simony
The selling or buying of a position in a Christian church.
nepotism
To choose a family member or friend over a more qualified person.
Leo X
In 1520, issued a decree threatening Luther with excommunication unless he took back his statements against the church. Luther did not take back anything; therefore, Luther was excommunicated.
Charles V
A devout Catholic that opposed Luther's teachings. He controlled a vast empire, including German states. He summoned Luther to the town of Worms in 1521 to stand trial. He told Luther to recant (to take back his statements), but Luther refused. This man issued an imperial order, the Edict of Worms.
Edict of Worms
Issued by Emperor Charles V, which declared Luther an outlaw and a heretic. According to this, no one in the empire was to give Luther food or shelter. All his books were to be burned.
Lutherans
A member of a Protestant church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther.
Peasant's Revolt
In 1524, German peasants demanded an end to serfdom. They were raiding monasteries, pillaging, and burning about the countryside. Luther urges German princes to show the peasants no mercy. Feeling betrayed, many peasants rejected Luther's religious leadership.
Protestant
A member of a Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation (protesters)
recant
It means "to take back"
Peace of Augsburg
Charles V went to war against the Protestant princes, and he defeated them in 1547. However, he failed to force them back into the Catholic Church. He ordered all German princes to assemble in the city of Augsburg. There the princes agreed that each ruler would decide the religion of his state.
"defender of the faith"
In recognition of Henry's support, the pope gave him the title of what?
annul
set aside or if proof could be found that it had never been legal in the first place (marriage)
Reformation Parliament
Henry took steps to solve his marriage problem himself. IN 1529, he called Parliament into session and asked it to pass a set of laws that ended the pope's power in England.
Act of Supremacy
In 1534, Henry's break with the pope was completed when Parliament voted to approve the what? This called on people to take an oath recognizing the divorce and accepting Henry, not the pope, as the official head of England's Church.
Church of England (Anglican Church)
In 1559, Parliament followed Elizabeth's wishes [returning her kingdom to Protestantism] and set up the _______________ as its head. This was to be the only legal church in England
Huldrych Zwingli
Religious reform in Switzerland was begun by this man, a Catholic priest in Zurich. He was influenced both by the Christian humanism of Erasmus and by the reforms of Luther. He openly attached abuses in the Catholic Church. He wanted believers to have more control over the Church.
the "elect"
The ones that God had already chosen to be saved.
Calvinism
A body of religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John Calvin.
John Knox
An admiring visitor to Geneva was a Scottish preacher. He put Calvin's ideas to work. Created the group of Presbyterians.
Huguenots
In France, Calvin's followers were called this. There was hatred between this group and the Catholics which frequently led to violence.
Anabaptists
One such group baptized only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian. They said that persons who had been baptized as children should be rebaptized as adults.
Catholic Reformation
Helping Catholics to remain loyal was a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself. Historians once referred to it as the Counter Reformation.
Ignatius Loyola
An important leader in the Catholic Reformation who founded new religious orders. Wrote a book called "Spiritual Exercises" that laid out a day-by-day plan of meditation, prayer, and study. He created the Jesuits. They founded schools throughout Europe. They were well-trained in both classical studies and theology. They were to convert people to Catholicism. They wanted to spread Protestantism.
Jesuits
They founded schools throughout Europe. They were well-trained in both classical studies and theology. They were to convert people to Catholicism. They wanted to spread Protestantism.
Council of Trent
From 1545 to 1563, Catholic bishops and cardinals agreed on several doctrines: The Church's interpretation of the Bible was final; Christians needed faith and good works for salvation; The Bible and Church tradition were equally powerful authorities for guilding Christian life. Indulgences were valid expression of faith.