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Early in the Sixteenth Century, religious reformers challenged the Church's beliefs and practices, including the sale of indulgences, or the forgiveness of sins in return for a financial contribution. The reformers came to be called ___________.


The period of the 1490s to 1527 has been called the _____________ in Italian art.

High Renaissance/Imperial Style/Classical Phase

The three leading artists of the classical phase of the Italian Renaissance were ______, _______, and _______.

Michelangelo, Leonardo, Raphael

Leonardo da Vinci painted the Last Supper on the wall of a monastery in Milan at the request of __________.

Duke Ludovico Sforza

The Last Supper is located in the refectory of the _______________ in Milan.

Monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie

Breaking with tradition, Leonardo painted ________ to the left of Jesus, rather than isolated on the other side of the table in the Last Supper.


In his drawing Virgin and Saint Anne with the Christ Child and the Young John the Baptist, Leonardo uses the technique called ________ to create the illusion of high relief.


In the Mona Lisa, as in all of his paintings, Leonardo considered color to be secondary to _________.

the depiction of sculptural volume

Leonardo unified his compositions by covering them in a thin, lightly-tinted varnish which resulted in a smoky overall haze called ________.


Leonardo's Vitruvian Man was based on descriptions from De Architectura by the Roman architect __________.


The Church of San Bernadino is pictured in the background of the main figures in Raphael's painting titled __________.

The Small Cowper Madonna

While in the service of Pope Julius II, Raphael was commissioned to paint the four branches of knowledge as conceived in the Sixteenth Century. They were _______, __________, _________, and ________.

Poetry, Religion, Philosophy, Law

In the School of Athens, Raphael depicts _________ pointing upward and _______ with the palm of his hand facing downward, indicating the importance of the ideal versus the importance of the material world.

Plato, Socrates

Raphael died at the age of ________.


An early work of sculpture by Michelangelo that depicts the Virgin supporting and mourning the dead Jesus. This subject is called a ________.


In 1503, Michelangelo accepted a commission for a statue of one of the symbols of Florence, the Biblical ________.


Although Michelangelo did not consider himself to be a painter, in 1506, Pope Julius II commissioned Michelangelo to begin work on the __________.

Sistine Chapel Ceiling

The Sistine Chapel is built to the same dimensions as the _____________.

Temple of Solomon

The narrative sequence of the Sistine Chapel ceiling begins over the ___________ and ends near the _______________.

altar, chapel entrance

Perhaps the most familiar scene on the ceiling is the ______________.

Creation of Adam

Michelangelo's first Papal sculpture commission was a tomb for Julius II which included the figure of _______ completed in ________.

Moses, 1545

Michelangelo's sculptures in the New Sacristy are notable for their contrasting areas of rough unfinished and polished marble. Specialists call this his _____________ or _________ quality.

nonfinito, unfinished

The Tempietto, designed by Bramante, is a shrine built in Rome on the spot where ______________.

the apostle Peter was believed to have been crucified

Cardinal Alessandro Farnese set Antonio da Sangalla teh Younger the task of rebuilding the _____________ into the largest, finest palace in Rome.

Palazzo Farnese

In reaction to the Counter Reformation emphasis on congregational worship, the nave of St. Peter's Basilica was extened to a length of ________ feet.


Correggio's Assumption of the Virgin was painted on the main dome of the _________ in Italy.

Parma Cathedral

In his painting The Tempest, Giorgione makes the ___________ central to the composition, giving nature an importance that is new in Western painting.


When Giovanni Bellini died in 1516, __________ became the official painter to the Republic of Venice.


In the Pesaro Madonna, Titian's diagonally based composition looks forward to teh art of the __________ Century.


Venice's position as a key seaport gave artists unique access to two new art materials: _______ and _________.

glass(?), oil paint(?)

The lower right corner of Michelangelo's Last Judgment shows rejected souls plunged toward _____.


The late 1600s art movement wedged between the High Renaissance and the Baroque period was called _______.


Jacopo da Pontormo's ___________ uses shallow depth, odd poses and dramatic shifts of scale to create an emotionally charged atmosphere.


In Parmagianino's _________________, the artist uses elongation of the figure in keeping with the Mannerist style.

Madonna with the Long Neck

Bronzino's ______________ contains all of teh formal, iconographical, and psychological characteristics of Mannerist art.

Allegory with Venus and Cupid

While still in her twenties, Lavina Fontana painted ___________ which in Italian means __________.

Noli Me Tangere, "Don't Touch Me"

Veronese was brought before a Church Inquisition to explain and defend content included in his painting _____________.

Feast in the House of Levi

Tintoretto's ______________ is viewed from a high vantage point and features a strongly diagonal composition.

Last Supper

Albrecht Durer's Melancholia I shows a dog and a bat, two creatures symbolic of __________, the planet thought to influence artists.


The Protestant Reformation began in ___________ when Martin Luther issued his Ninety-Five Theses.


Increased literacy and the widespread use of the ______________ aided reformers in spreading influence throughout Europe.

printing press

Tilman Riemenscheider carved an altarpiece for a German church thought to have a sacred relic. This relic was a _______________.

drop of Jesus' blood

The hospital of the Abbey of Saint Anthony in Isenheim specialized in the treatment of ____________.

skin diseases (plague, leprosy, and St. Anthony's Fire)

The Isenheim Altarpiece was the combined works of two artists. They were __________ and ___________.

Matthias Grünewald, Nikolaus Hagenauer

Matthias Grünewald painted a graphically disturbing portrait of the crucifixion thought to be based on the writing of __________ of Sweden.

Saint Bridget

The brightly colored inner scenes of the Isenheim altarpiece were revealed only on ___________ and ________.

Sundays, Church festivals.

The altarpiece was only fully opened to reveal Hagenauer's carved sculpture on _____________.

the special festivals of Saint Anthony

_______________ is thought to have been the greatest artist of the norther part of the Holy Roman Empire.

Albrecht Durer

Although he was an accomplished painter, Durer made his fame and fortune as a __________.

graphic artist

Durer's interest in Italian art and his theoretical investigations are reflected in his 1504 engraving ______________.

Adam & Eve

In 1526, Durer openly professed his Lutheranism in a pair of inscribed panels titled _______________.

The Four Apostles

The ___________ by Albrecht Altdorfer is one of the earliest examples of ____________.

Danube Landscape, pure landscape painting

A country home in France called ______________ shows the influence of the Italian Renaissance on French architecture.

the Château of Chenonceau

El Escorial, the great monastery and palace built outside Madrid was built by _____________ to comply with his fathers direction to create a "pantheon".

Philip II

The most famous Spanish painter of the Sixteenth century was Domenikos Theotokopoulos, also known as ____________.

El Greco

El Greco shows the influence of ________________ in its rich colors and loose brushwork.

Venetian art (Byzantine art?)

In composing the Burial of Count Orgaz, El Greco used ___________ devices reminiscent of Pontormo.


One of the most fascinating of the Netherlandish painters of the period is _________ who lived from 1450-1516.

Hieronymus Bosch

Challenging and unsettling paintings such as ________________ have led modern critics to label Bosch as both a mystic and social critic.

the Garden of Earthly Delights

The right hand panel of the Garden of Earthly Delights shows the _____________ in which only the damned are portrayed.

Last Judgment

The Banker and His Wife by Marinus van Reymerawaele recalls the earlier St. Eligius in His Shop painted by ____________.

Petrus Christus

Peter Bruegel the Elder's knowledge of classics is shown in his painted depiction of __________ based on the writing of the Roman poet _______.

The Fall of Icarus, Ovid

Bruegel's Return of the Hunters represents the months of ___________ in a cycle of 6 paintings showing seasons of the year.

December to January

The Tudors of England, having split with Rome and the Catholic Church, preferred the work of ________ and _________ artists.

Netherlandish, German

Baroque style is characterized by an _________ rather than _________ response to a work of art.

emotional, intellectual

As part of the __________ program, Roman Catholocism used art to encourage piety among the faithful.


The architect Carlo Maderno enlarged the original plan of _______________ to make it the most important church in the Catholic world.

St. Peter's Basilica

To place emphasis on the altar within the cavernous space on the inside of St. Peter's, Gianlorenzo Bernini was commissioned to design a ________ or canopy for the high altar.


A reliquary designed by Bernini for St. Peter's houses the ancient wooden throne thought to have belonged to _________, the first bishop of Rome.

Saint Peter

Bernini's sculpture of _____________ is dramatic and emotional in contrast to the cool, classical depiction of the same subject by Michelangelo.


In 1634, the Trinitarian monks awarded Borromini the commission for the chruch of San Carlo Alle Quattro Fontane, which is Italian for ____________.

Saint Charles at the Four Fountains

Bernini's Fountain of the Four Rivers is located in the __________, once the site of an ancient Roman stadium.

Piazza Navona

Italian Baroque painting follows two distinct paths, one represented by the classical painting of _____________ (family), the other by northern Italian realism as reflected in the work of __________.

Carracci, Caravaggio

Annibale Carraci's fresco for the ceiling of the ____________ shows the illusion of paintings within the painting, and pictorial architecture, which is indistinguishable from the real thing.

Palazzo Farnese Gallery

A new powerful realism was introduced into painting by Carraci's younger contemporary Michelangelo Merisi, better known as _____________.


Caravaggio's ___________ portrays the god of wine in half length figure behind a bowl of rotting fruit.


Caravaggio's approach has been likened to the preaching of ________________ who focused his missionary efforts on ordinary people for whom he sought to make Christian doctrine meaningful.

Filippo Neri

The Calling of Saint Matthew depicts _____ the tax collector being called to disciple ship by Jesus.


Piettro Berrettini's great fresco ___________________ became the model for Baroque illusionistic palace ceilings throughout Europe.

The Glorification of the Papacy of Urban VIII

Seventeenth century Spanish painting, profoundly influenced by the art of ________ was characterized by intense realism whose details emerge from the deep shadows of ___________.

Caravaggio, tenebrism

Peter Paul Reubens' first major commission was a large canvas triptych for the main altar of the Church of Saint Walpurga, titled ____________.

The Raising of the Cross

In Catharina Hooft and Her Nurse, ______________ (artist) captured the vitality of a gesture and a fleeting moment of time.

Frans Hals

Rembrandt made use of Caravaggio's tenebrist technique in a group portrait of the surgeon's guild titled ______________.

The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp

Because it was once so dirty, Captain Frans Banning Cocq Mustering His Company was once called ____________.

The Night Watch

In Woman Holding a Balance, Jan Vermeer portrays a woman holding a scale with an image of ______________ on the background wall.

Christ in a large painting of the Last Judgment

One of Caravaggio's most important followers in France was _____________ who lived from 1593 to 1652.

Georges de La Tour

In __________________ (painting), Claude Lorrain uses a favorite framing device in which he uses two large objects in the foreground and a zig-zagging composition through the middle.

Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba

In his ____________________________ Nicolas Poussin created a consistent perspective progression from the picture plane back into the distance through a clearly defined foreground, middle ground and background.

Landscape with Saint John on Patmos

Ages of mankind?


Johannes Gutenberg

invented printing press
Prints bible w moveable metal type

"devotio moderna"

modern devotion

Desideriu Erasmus of Rotterdam

(1466-1536) "devotia mederna"

Martin Luther

in 1517 he posts the "ninety-five Theses" on the church door.

Thomas a Kempis

Imitatio Christi

The church in Rome Papal Authority & Indulgences

sell indulgences

Luther's address to the German Nobility

1520 "every man a priest"

Luther's translation of the Bible into?

The German language
"sola scriptura" scripture alone

John Calvin

Reformation figure. (1509-1564)

"Congregational Governance"

a group of believers would rule themselves

Henry Tudor (Henry VIII)

(1491-1547) Anabaptist. Founder of the church of England (THe Angelican Church)

Music and Reformation, Martin Luther

the chorale- congregational singing

Durer & printmaking

woodcuts and engraving.
"The Fourhorseman of the Apocalypse"
"Knight, Death, and the Devil"
Landscapes "wire drawing mill"


studied art in Venice

Matthias Grunwald

"The Isenheim Altarpiece" (c.1510-15)

Hieronymus Bosch (momento mori) (ars moriendi)

(remember death)
(the art of death)

Death and the Miser



"Three-paneled painting"

Pieter Brueghel

"The Triumph of Death"
"The Wedding Dance"


"The Praise of Folly"

Sir Thomas More


Miguel de Cervantes

"Don Quixote"

Michel de Montaigne

"On Cannibals"

El Greco

"Agony In the Garden"


"The Supper at Emmaus"
"The Crucifixion of Saint Peter"


14 lines


"Judith and Holofernes"


"Fountain of the Four Rivers"
The Cornaro Chapel

Giovannidi Palestrina

"Motet Ave Maria"

a capella

in the style of the chapel


multiple voices, different melodies, simultaneously

Giovanni Gabrieli

"the father of orchestration"


many choruses


contrasting sections


different, loud and soft


one single pitch

Claudio Monteverdi

composer of " l' Orfeo"


text, book of opera


introductory music


ornate character and emotion


simpler song, to tell plot

Nicolas Poussin

"Archadian Shepherds"

Diego Valesquez

"Las Meninas"
scholars say most important painting of all time

Peter Paul Rubens

"Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus"

Francois de la Rochefoucauld

"Maxims"- short witty saying
"everything is reducible to the motive of self interest"

Jean Racine

"Phedre" at London's Royal National

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin

comedie-ballet "Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme"
"The Tradesman Turned Gentleman"


("The Magnificent")

Shah Abbas I

(1557-1629) The Safavid Dynasty


(fl. 1625) Mogul Court Portraiture

Shah Jahan

Ruled 1627-1666


"The Red Fort" Dehli, India

Taj Mahal


Ming and Qaing dynasties

"The Mandate of Heaven"

Xu Yang

"Bird's-eye view of capital.

Emporer Kanxi

The Novel

Jean Bodin

(1530-1596) A French political theorist; called the king "God's image on earth;" wrote "The Six Books of the Commonwealth"

Cardinal Richelieu

(1585-1642) Favorite of the French king Louis XIII


Officials appointed by the central government in France to oversee the local administration of the regional aristocracy; a critical component of the centalization of the French state

Ship Money

An impost levied in England to provide money for ships for national defense

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