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Biology Definitions (Leaving Cert)
Terms in this set (283)
Is the study of living things.
The scientific method
is the process of investigation in which problems are identified and their suggested solutions are tested by carrying out experiments.
Is when something is noticed.
Is an educated guess.
Is designed to test a hypothesis.
Consists of the MEASUREMENTS, OBSERVATIONS or INFORMATION GATHERED from experiments.
Is a summary of the results of an experiment.
Is a hypothesis that has been SUPPORTED by many different experiments.
A principle or law
Arises from a theory that has been shown to be VALID when FULLY TESTED over a long period of time.
Is a factor that may change in an experiment.
is used to provide a comparison against which the actual experiment is being tested.
Is a repeat of an experiment, under the same conditions.
Means that both the investigator and the participant are unaware of the nature of the treatment the participant is receiving.
Relates to whether conduct is right or wrong.
Is a living thing.
Is the sum of all chemical reactions in an organism.
Continuity of life
Means that living things arise from other living things of the same type.
Is defined as the possession of these five characteristics: organisation, nutrition, excretion, response, reproduction.
Means that living things are composed of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.
Is the way living things get and use food FOR ENERGY.
Is the removal of waste products of METABOLISM.
is the way living things REACT to changes in their environment.
Is the production of new individuals.
Involves the union of sex cells.
Dose not involve the union of sex cells.
Are the chemicals that are made inside a living thing.
Are fat-like substances in which one of the fatty acids is replaced by a phosphate group or has a phosphate group added to it.
The USE energy to convert smaller molecules into larger molecules.
The RELEASE energy when a complex molecule is broken down to a simpler form.
Is the living material in a cell outside the nucleus.
Transmission Electron Microscope
Shows the internal structure of a specimen.
Scanning Electron Microscope
Shows a surface view of a specimen.
Is the fine detail of a cell as seen with an electron microscope.
Is the name given to chromosomes when they are elongated and not dividing.
Do not have a nucleus or membrane bound organelles. e.g. bacteria cells.
Have a Nucleus and membrane bound organelles. e.g. animal and plant cells.
Are groups of similar cells that have the same structure and function.
Is the growth of new plants from plant cells.
A group of cells.
Is the growth of new cells in or on a sterile nutrient medium outside the organism.
Cancer treatment antibodies.
Outside of the body.
Is a structure composed of a number of different tissues that work together to carry out one or more functions.
Consists of a number of Organs working together to carry out one or more functions.
A group of organ systems working together to allow life.
Is the spreading of gas molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. (Passive Process)
Is the movement of water molecules from a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration across a selectively permeable membrane. (Passive Process)
A selectively permeable membrane
Allows some but not all molecules through.
Water concentration is higher inside than outside the cell.
Water concentration is the same inside and outside the cell.
Water concentration is higher outside the cell than inside the cell.
Is all the living parts of a cell.
Turgor or Turgor pressure
Is the OUTWARD pressure of the cytoplasm and vacuole AGAINST the cell wall of the plant.
Means that cells develop from pre-existing cells.
Are COILED THREADS of DNA and protein.
Is a section of DNA that contains the instructions to make a protein.
A diploid Cell
Has two sets of chromosomes, one from the mother and one from the father. (2n)
A homologous Pair
is two chromosomes of similar size, with the same sequence of genes.
Have one set of chromosomes. (n)
Is the phase in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing.
Is the point where chromosomes attach.
Is a form of nuclear division in which one nucleus divides into two nuclei, each containing identical sets of chromosomes.
Is a group of disorders in which certain cells lose their ability to control both the rate of mitosis and the number of times it happens.
Is the form of nuclear division in which 4 daughter nuclei contain half the number of parent chromosomes.
Are small living things.
Means an organism makes its own food.
Is the production of food using energy released from chemical reactions.
Describes bacteria that make their own food using light energy.
Means an organism takes in food made by other organisms.
Are organisms that take in food from dead organic matter.
Are organisms that take in food from a live host and usually cause harm.
Are bacteria that cause disease.
Are chemicals produced by micro-organisms that stop the growth of, or kill other micro-organisms without damaging human tissue.
Is the cell growth of cells in a sealed container, or bioreactor, over a short period of time under ideal conditions until all the nutrients are used up.
Is a vessel or container in which living cells or their products are used to make a product.
Food processing is the growth of cells in an open container, or bioreactor, where nutrients are added and the end products are removed all the time at a rate that maintains the volume of liquid and the number of cells.
Do not use oxygen
Is a tube or filament in a fungus.
Is a visible mass of hyphae.
Can only take it's food from a live host.
Can get its food from a live or dead host.
Is the process of making spores.
Is a plant tissue capable of mitosis.
do not contain wood (lignin)
contain wood (lignin)
Is the point of a stem at which the leaf is attached
is the region on a stem between two nodes
is a potential growth point which may develop into a shoot, a leaf or flower
is an opening on a stem for gas exchange
is the pattern of veins in a leaf
is a strengthening material found in some plant cell walls
is a seed leaf
Is the liquid part of the blood
Is plasma with the blood clotting proteins removed.
Red blood cells
White blood cells that produce antibodies
White blood cells that engulf pathogens.
Open circulatory system
Means that blood leaves the blood vessels and flows around the cells of the animal's body before re-entering blood vessels again.
Closed circulatory system
Means that blood remains in a continuous system of blood vessels.
Is the force the blood exerts against the wall of the blood vessel.
Control the direction of the blood flow.
A portal system
Is a blood pathway that begins and ends in capillaries
Is when the heart chambers relax
Is when the heart chambers contract.
Is the alternate expansion and contraction of the arteries
Are animals that feed mainly on plants.
Are animals that feed mainly on animals.
Are animals that feed on plants and animals.
Is the physical and chemical breakdown of food.
The dental formula for an adult human:
2(I2/2 C1/1 P2/2 M3/3)
Is a wave of muscular action in the walls of the alimentary canal that moves the contents along.
A balanced diet
Contains all the necessary food types in the correct proportions.
Is the ability of an organism to maintain a constant internal environment.
Is the throat
Is the voice box.
Means breathing in.
Means breathing out.
Is a nerve cell
Takes a message from a sense organ to the CNS
Takes a message from the CNS to a muscle of a gland.
Is a group of cell bodies located outside of the CNS
Carries information between sensory and motor neurons.
Is the minimum stimulus needed to cause an impulse to be carried in a neuron
All or Nothing Law
States that if the threshold is reached an impulse is carried, but if the threshold is not reached no impulse is carried.
Is a short time span after a neuron has carried an impulse during which a stimulus has failed to cause a response
Is a region where two neurons come into close contact.
Is the tiny gap between the two neurons at a synapse
Is an automatic, involuntary, unthinking response to a stimulus.
Is the pathway taken by a nerve in a reflex action
Is an organ that produces sex cells in animals
Is a fluid containing sperm and seminal fluid
Is a part of the head of the sperm. It digests the membrane of the egg.
Nucleus of the sperm
Is a part of the head of the sperm and contains 23 chromosomes
Collar of sperm
Is the mid piece. It's contains mitochondria for energy.
Is the beginning of sexual maturity
Secondary sexual characteristics
Are those features that distinguish males from females, apart from the sex organs themselves.
Is the inability to produce offspring
Is the release of the egg from the ovary
Is a series of events that occur every 28 days on average in the female, if fertilisation hasn't taken place
Is when ovulation and menstruation stop happening in the female.
Is the discharge of the endometrium and the unfertilised egg
Is the act of sexual intercourse
Is the physical and emotional sensations experiences at the peak of sexual excitement
Is the release of semen from the penis
Is the release of semen into the vagina, just outside of the cervix
Is the process by which sperm swim towards a chemical released by the egg
Occurs when the nucleus of the sperm fuses with the nucleus of the the egg to form a zygote
Is the embedding of the fertilised egg into the lining of the uterus
In vitro fertilisation
Involves removing eggs from an ovary and fertilising them outside of the body
Is a solid ball of cells formed from a zygote by mitosis
Is a hollow ball of cells formed from a morula
Are basic layers of cells in the blastocyst in which all adult tissue and organs will form
Is the length of time spent in the uterus from fertilisation to birth
Is the secretion of milk by the mammary glands of the female
Is a thick, yellow fluid that comes out before the milk. It is high in proteins, minerals and antibodies.
A hormone that stimulates milk production
Refers to the methods to limit the number of children born
Is the deliberate prevention of fertilisation or pregnancy
It equalises pressure on either side of the eardrum
Release their product from ducts
Is a ductless gland that produces hormones, which are released directly into the bloodstream
A chemical messenger produced by an endocrine gland and carried by the bloodstream to another part of the body, where it has a specific effect
Consists of the skull, spine, ribs and sternum
Is composed of the limbs, the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle
Consists of collarbone and shoulder blade
Is composed of two halves of the hip joined to the sacrum
Is a bone forming cell
Is the area between the epiphysis and the diaphysis in a long bone within which brown growth occurs
Is a bone digesting cell
Is where two or more bones meet
Is produced in moveable joints to lubricate and reduce friction
Strong, fibrous, slightly elastic tissues that connect bone to bone
Strong, flexible, inelastic fibres that connect bone to muscle
Is two muscles that have opposite effects to each other.
Is the study of interactions between living things and between organism and their environment
Is that part of the planet containing living organisms
Is a group of clearly distinguished organisms that interact with their environment as a unit
Is the place where a plant or animal lives
Is all members of the same species living in an area
Is all different populations in an area
Non living factors
Refers to weather over a long period of time
Relate to soil
Are organisms that carry out photosynthesis
Is all the plants in an ecosystem
Are organisms that take in food from another organism
Is all the animals in an ecosystem
Are organisms that feed on dead organic matter
Are organisms that feed on small pieces of dead organic matter
Is a sequence of organisms in which each one is eaten by the next member in the chain
Is a stage in a food chain
Consists of two or more interlinked food chains
Pyramid of numbers
Represents the number of organisms at each trophic level in a food chain
Of an organism is the functional role it plays in the community
the WAY in which ELEMENTS are EXCHANGED between living and non living COMPONENTS of the environment.
Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria
in the soil convert nitrogen gas, in the air, to nitrates. These are free living bacteria.
two different species living together usually involving benefit
conversion of ammonia compounds to nitrates to nitrites.
conversion of nitrites to nitrogen gas
Any harmful additions to the environment
the harmful addition to the environment
wise management of our environment to maintain biodiversity.
is the addition of nutrients to fresh water. this leads to a lack of oxygen in the water.
occurs when organisms actively struggle for resources that are in short supply.
takes place between members of the same species.
occurs between members of different species.
is when there is an active physical confrontation between two individual organisms and one wins the resource.
is when EACH organism tries to ACQUIRE as MUCH of the resource as possible.
is the catching, killing and eating of another organism.
is an organism that catches, kills and eats another organism.
is an organism that is eaten by the predator
occurs when two organisms live in close association and one organism obtains its food from, and to the disadvantage of, the second organism.
occurs when two organism of different species live in close association and at least one of the benefits.
Records the presence or absence of organisms.
Records the number of organisms that are present.
is any ALTERATION that IMPROVES an organism's CHANCE of SURVIVAL and REPRODUCTION.
IS A MEANS of IDENTIFYING organisms BY ANSWERING a series of questions with ALTERNATIVE answers.
is an ESTIMATE of the amount of GROUND in a QUADRAT covered by a species.
is the CHANCE of finding a NAMED SPECIES with any ONE THROW of a QUADRAT.
The sum of all chemical reactions in an organism
energy from the sun
the energy stored in the bonds of biomolecules.
a substance that speeds up a reaction without its self being used up in the reaction
are proteins(nature of the enzyme) that speed up a reaction without being used up in the reaction - biological catalyst
the substance that an enzyme acts on
The substances that an enzyme forms
The active site
The part of the enzyme that combines with the substrate
has lost its shape and can no longer carry out its function
is the use of enzyme controlled reactions to produce a product
A vessel in which living CELLS or their ENZYMES are used to make a product
are enzymes that can be attached to each other or to inert substances and can be used repeatedly. (to each other, insoluble supports: glass, within a gel: sodium Alginate)
The ability of an organism to resist infection
Micro-organisms that cause disease
Phagocytic white blood cells
the white blood cell engulfs and destroys any pathogens
Proteins activated by infection and then destroy viruses
Proteins that prevent mutiplication
a foreign molecule that stimulates the production of antibodies
is a protein, made by lymphocytes in response to a specific antigen
Specific Defense system
this attacks particular pathogens
is the ability to resist disease caused by specific pathogens by the production of antibodies
involves the production of a person's own antibodies in response to foreign antigens that enter the body
Natural Active Immunity
occurs when a pathogen enters the body in the natural way
Artificial active immunity
occurs when a pathogen is medically introduced into the body
is a non disease causing dose of a pathogen, which triggers the production of antibodies.
occurs when individuals are given antibodies that were formed by another organism
Natural passive Immunity
occurs when a child gets antibodies from its mother
Artificial Passive Immunity
occurs when a person is given an injection containing antibodies made by another organism.
is the administration of a non disease causing does of pathogens to stimulate the production of antibodies.
occurs when we produce or are injected with antibodies
protein coat that surrounds a virus
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Plants make their own food using light energy (Anabolic Reaction)
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phophate
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinuleotide
The addition of ADP and P to make ATP
In the first pathway of the light stage in photosynthesis the electron makes a full cycle back to the original chlorophyll that it left.
The splitting of water using light energy
Non Cyclic photophosphoylation
In the second pathway of the light stage in photosynthesis the electrons do not return back to the original chlorophyll that it left.
is the chemical breakdown of glucose to release energy (Catabolic reaction)
The release of energy from food in the presence of O2
The release of energy from food without requiring the presence of O2
Anaerobic respiration - no oxygen
are haploid cells that are capable of fusion
the fusion of two gametes to form a single cell called a zygote
are different forms of the same gene
of a gene is its position on a chromosome
the alleles that prevent the recessive allele is expressed
the allele is prevented from being expressed by a dominant allele.
the genetic make-up of an organism
the physical make-up of an organism
the offspring produced.
two alleles are identical
two alleles are different
a grid used to show the ratio of the genotypes of the progeny in a genetic cross
neither allele is dominant or recessive with respect to the other. Both alleles are equally expressed in the heterozygous genotype to produce an intermediate offspring.
The law of segragation
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