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This began in July 26, 1953 when Fidel Castro attacked an army barracks. In 1958 and 1959 after many guerilla attacks on Batista's forces Castros forces forced Batista to flee Cuba. This also spurned an industrial economic model and concentrated on improving the agricultural sector. This revolution was characterized by a sharp break with the United States, and a close relationship with the Soviet Union., After Cuba won it's independence from Spain, the U.S. remained involved in Cuban affairs under the Platt Amendment, which also provided for U.S. naval bases in Cuba. During the following decades the U.S. invested heavily in Cuban businesses and plantations. From 1939 until 1959 the U.S. supported the Batista Dictatorship in Cuba which continued the policies of the Platt Amendment. In 1956 the Cuban peasants began to revolt under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Castro was successful and Batista fled. But then Castro took control of the government, suspended plans for an election, and established a communist dictatorship. By 1961 he had seized the industries and nationalized them, while executing his rivals. The communistic nature of Castro's government and it's partnership with Russia threatened the U.S. and the U.S. created an economic embargo on Cuba (which is still effective today!). In an attempt to overthrow Castro the U.S. trained and supported a group of Cuban exiles living in the U.S. The U.S. was convinced that a revolution led by the exiles would lead to a popular revolt against Castro, but that didn't happen. In 1961, President Kennedy authorized the Bay of Pigs invasion with this small force of Cuban exiles. The exiles were quickly captured. In response to the Bay of Pigs, Cuba and Russia became even closer. Russia secretly shipped missiles to Cuba that were then targeted at the U.S. for the protection from future invasions. In 1962, secret spy planes located the missiles and President Kennedy immediately created a blockade around Cuba with U.S. naval ships, refusing to allow any more shipments from Russia to Cuba. For three months the world waited to see who would give in. This standoff became known as the Cuban Missile Crisis. Russia eventually gave in and agreed to withdraw the missiles if the U.S. withdrew missiles in Turkey and agreed not to invade Cuba.