This began in July 26, 1953 when Fidel Castro attacked an army barracks. In 1958 and 1959 after many guerilla attacks on Batista's forces Castros forces forced Batista to flee Cuba. This also spurned an industrial economic model and concentrated on improving the agricultural sector. This revolution was characterized by a sharp break with the United States, and a close relationship with the Soviet Union., After Cuba won it's independence from Spain, the U.S. remained involved in Cuban affairs under the Platt Amendment, which also provided for U.S. naval bases in Cuba. During the following decades the U.S. invested heavily in Cuban businesses and plantations. From 1939 until 1959 the U.S. supported the Batista Dictatorship in Cuba which continued the policies of the Platt Amendment. In 1956 the Cuban peasants began to revolt under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Castro was successful and Batista fled. But then Castro took control of the government, suspended plans for an election, and established a communist dictatorship. By 1961 he had seized the industries and nationalized them, while executing his rivals. The communistic nature of Castro's government and it's partnership with Russia threatened the U.S. and the U.S. created an economic embargo on Cuba (which is still effective today!). In an attempt to overthrow Castro the U.S. trained and supported a group of Cuban exiles living in the U.S. The U.S. was convinced that a revolution led by the exiles would lead to a popular revolt against Castro, but that didn't happen. In 1961, President Kennedy authorized the Bay of Pigs invasion with this small force of Cuban exiles. The exiles were quickly captured. In response to the Bay of Pigs, Cuba and Russia became even closer. Russia secretly shipped missiles to Cuba that were then targeted at the U.S. for the protection from future invasions. In 1962, secret spy planes located the missiles and President Kennedy immediately created a blockade around Cuba with U.S. naval ships, refusing to allow any more shipments from Russia to Cuba. For three months the world waited to see who would give in. This standoff became known as the Cuban Missile Crisis. Russia eventually gave in and agreed to withdraw the missiles if the U.S. withdrew missiles in Turkey and agreed not to invade Cuba. 28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals.
As commander of the División del Norte (Division of the North), he was the veritable caudillo of the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua which, given its size, mineral wealth, and proximity to the United States of America, provided him with extensive resources. He was also provisional Governor of Chihuahua in 1913 and 1914. Although he was prevented from being accepted into the "panteón" of national heroes until some 20 years after his death, today his memory is honored by Mexicans, U.S. citizens, and many people around the world.
seized hacienda land for distribution to peasants and soldiers. He robbed and commandeered trains, and, like the other revolutionary generals, printed fiat money to pay for his cause.
dominance in northern Mexico was broken in 1915 through a series of defeats he suffered at Celaya and Agua Prieta at the hands of Álvaro Obregón and Plutarco Elías Calles. After his famous raid on Columbus in 1916, U.S. Army General John J. Pershing tried unsuccessfully to capture him in a nine-month pursuit that ended when Pershing was called back as the United States entry into World War I was assured. He retired in 1920 and was given a large estate which he turned into a "military colony" for his former soldiers. In 1923, he decided to re-involve himself in Mexican politics and as a result was assassinated, most likely on the orders of Obregón.